(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Howell Arabic Grammar 2013 Scan"

A GRAMMAR 



OF THE 



CLASSICAL ARABIC LANGUAGE, 

TRANS ANSLATXD AND COMPILED FROM THE WORKS 

OF THE 
MOST APPROVED NATIVE OR NATURALIZED AUTHORITIES. 



BY MORTIMER SLOPER HOWELL, 

H. M.'S BENGAL CIVIL SERVICE, 
Member of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, and Fellow of the University of Calcutta, and of 

Anjuman-i-Punjab 



UNDER TH AUTHORITY OF THE GOVENMENT, N.-W. PBOVINCES. 
IN AN INTRODUCTION AND FOUR PARTS. 

Part II. -The Verb : and Part III. -The Participle. 
Book 5 




ALLAHABAD: 

PRINTED AT THE NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCES GOVERNMENT PRESS. 

1880. 



NOTICE. 

Thk Introduction and Part I. (of whic-i more than 
tiOO pages are now in print) will be published shortly. 
Part IV. with the Indices will follow. The work will 
make two siout volumes, the 1st containing the Intro- 
duction and Part I., and the 2nd containing Parts II,, 
III., and IV. 

23m October, 1880. M. S. HOWELL. 



P. 108, 1. 3. For " Verily he prosperelk" rend "(Assuredly) he 
doth prosper [575, 600]." 

P. 112, 1. 1. fj> with Kasr of the ; (DM), like "-a^' (Jsli). 

P. 115, I. 8. In VIII. 45. [529] the two promt, are the objt. of 

u;! , and Ki* 3 is a d. s. to the 2nd, not a 3rd <%'., as appears from tho 
K and B on VIII. 46. 

P. 116, I. 2. In this text, aa in the reading f««3S LXXV. 1. J!«- 
suredly (2,) Jstcear [566], i. e. f»*\ U 51 , z and B consider the (J to bo 

the (J of inception, not the J of the oath, becauso they hold that tho 
J of the oath is not prefixed to the aor. except with the corral. ^ ; and 
then they supply an inch., because they hold that the J of inception is 



Corrections. 
Contents, p. xxiii., 1. 15. Head " inelegant." 

Text, p. 573, 1. 13. Head *&" 5 • 

„ j>. 574, J. 10. Head l*=» • 
2>. 585 > *• 6 - Eeai1 " sli 9 hie<i -" 
For other corrections see the NoteB. 

another, of Arkara Ibn 'Ilb<i |Ibu 'Auf (ID)} alYashkuri (.Mi), a 
heathen (10),j." 

,Z\ -1S5, ?. 1. I.iiut! (/>. IOC, col. 1) ha« " //jwk eouwsl" wrongly. 

/'. W(», ?. I. P-y'Amr Jbn (SR) AlHaritli IIhi Mufl^talJurlniir r 
(SB, M L>li, Ur)i lamenting the expulsion of Jtu-huui from Alakku (Slti. 

P. ill), /. J. After "poet" insert " [Mutuinmim lbn Nuwair.i 
l*lb)l." 

1'. 441, /• 11. Because expectation [535] belongs only to what 
will bo originated and generated, not to what lias ended and ceased (D). 

JP. 442, Z. 13. Lane (p. 2121, coJL 1) strangely supposes the gnbj. 
U> be in the pred. instead of the con'ch. printing ^i instead ol £*.' 1 



Abbreviations of References. 



The Barnes of the books used as materials for the present work are 
distinguished by an asterisk. 

Abbreviations with brackets, as "(IH)," denote tho book; and 
without brackets, as " IH," donote the book or author, according to the 
context. 

The personal proper names ordiuarily used arc printed in small 
capitals, and the transliterated Arabic names of books in Italics. 

Variations in spelling, a3 AlAstarabadhi (MI, p. 58) or Allslira- 
badhi (Nw,p. 682, LL, p. 12) for AlAstarSbadJ, and AtTibrlzi (MI,/». 
107, Dh, p. 68, HL,p. 51) for AtTabrizf, are commonly omitted. 

B. means born, c. composed, d. died; and figures represent the 
year of the Muhaminadan era. 

For further details about tho persons and books here mentioned 
sea the Index of Proper Names, and, iu the case of Headers, the note 
upon p. 562, 1. 10. 



*A. The Commentary of NfiradDin 'All Ibn Muhammad alUsh- 
jiOni (d, about 900) upon the IM, cited from extracts printed by Dc 
Saey in the Notes to his Anthologie Gratninatieale. 

*AA. The Commentary of Jamal ad Din Muhammad Ibn 'Abd Al 
Ghanl alArdabili upon the Z, cited from an extract priutcd by Dc 
Saey in his Anthologie Grammatical. 

*AAK. The Commentary of the Shaikh Nur adDrn Abu-Ufcisan 
'Ali Ibn Sultan Muhammad, known as AlKaiu, alMakkl alllarawi 
(d. 1010 or 1016), upon the Hirz alAiaim, lithographed at Peshawar 
with the KM and a Persian Commentary. 

AAsh. Ab& 'Aim Ishak Ibn Mirar a.shSh.ub anx, the Grammarian 
and Loxicologist (d. 206 or 213). 

*AAz. The Glosses («. 729) of 'Abd Al'Aziz Ibn Abi-lOhana'im al- 
Kashi upon the evidentiary verses of the M, cited from a MS. 

AB. ABtr-iBAKA'Abd Allah Ibn Abi 'Abd Allah alHusain al'Ukbari 
alBaghdSdl, the Gramttarian (b, 53S, d. G16). 



( «. ) 

*ABk. The Dtwan of AnNabigha adhDhubyanl with the Commen- 
tary of the Wazlr Anil Baku 'Asim Ibn Ayyflb alBaJalyausl, the Gram- 
marian (d. 194), priuted in the FDw. 

*AP. The Ancient History extracted from the MAB by 'ImSd 
ndDln Abu-lFida Isma'il Ibn 'All alAyyubl (d. 732), edited by 
Fleischer. 

*AGh. The Asad alGhabafi ma'rifat asSahala by IAth, printed in 
Egypt. 

AH. Athlr-ad-Dln AistJ Bayyan Muhammad Ibn Ydsuf alGham&tl 
alAndalusi, the Grammarian (b. G54, d. 745). 

*Ahl. The Biwans of the 6 Ancient Arabic Poets, AnNabigha adh- 
Dhubyanl, 'Antara, Tarafa, Zuhair, 'Alkama, and Imra alKais, edited 
by Ahlwardt 

AHm. ABir Hatim Sahl Ibn Muhammad asSijistanl, the Gramma- 
rian and Lexicologist (d. 248 or 250). 

AE. Abu-lKasim AlFabl Ibn Muhammad alBasrl, the Gramma- 
riau (d. 444). 

Akh. One of 3 Grammarians distinguished in the Index of Proper 
Names, vid. 

(1) Abu-lKhattab 'Abd AlHamld Ibn 'Abd AlMajId, a freed- 
man of the people of Hajar, known as AlAkiifash alAkbar(i 177); 

(2) Abu-lBasan Sa'Id Ibn Mas'ada alMujashi'I by enfran- 
chisement, alBalkhl, known as AlAehfash alAusaJ, one of the GG of 
AlBasra (d. 211 or 215 or 221). 

(3) Abn-lHasan 'AH Ibn Sulaiman alBaghdadi, known as Ar.. 
Akufasd alAsghar (d. 315 or 310). 

•Also the Notes of the 3rd Akh upon the Mb, edited by Wright. 

Am. The Shaikh Abu-lHajjaj Yusuf Ibn Sulaiman ashShantam- 
arl, known as AlA'tam, the Grammarian (6. 410, d. 476). 

As. Abu Sa'ld *Abd AlMalik Ibn Knraib, known as AlAsma'i, al- 
Bahill alBasrl, the Lexicologist and Grammarian (5. 123, d. 210 or 214 
or 215 or 216 or 217). 

ASh. Shihab adDln Abu-lKasiin 'Abd ArRahman Ibn Isma'll.known 
at> Autr SaRiiA, alMukaddasI adDimashkt, the Header and Grammarian 
(b. 509, d. CG5>. 



( iii. ) 

AU. ABil 'Ubaida Ma'tnar Ibn AlMuthanna atTaiml, of the Taim 
of Ifuraish, their freedman, alBasrf, the Lexicologist and Grammarian 
(b. 108 or 109 or 110 or 111 or 114, d. 207 or 209 or 210 or 211- or 
213). 

AW. 'Abd AlWaiutii. 

AZ. Autr Zaid Sa'Id Ibn Aua alAnsarf alBasri, the Grammarian 
and Lexicologist (d. 211 or 215 or 21G). 

Az. Abu Mansur Muhammad Ibn Ahmad AtAziiAni alHarawI,the 
Loxicologist (b. 282, d. 370 or 371). 

*B. The Commentary of the Kadi Nasir adDln Abu Sa'ld 'Abd 
Allah Ibn 'Umar alBaida>vi ashShafi'I (d. 685 or 092) upon the Kur'an, 
edited by Fleischer. 

BB. Ba§rl Grammarians. 

BD. Badr adDist Abit 'Abd Allah Muhammad (d. 686), son of 
IM. 

Bdd. Baghdad! Grammarians. 

*Bk. The Mn l jam ma-sta'jam by Abu 'Ubaid 'Abd Allah Ibn 'Abd 
Al'Azlz alBakei alAndalusI, the Wazlr (<?. 4S7), edited by Wusten- 
feld. 

*BS. The Commentary (c. 756) of IHsh upon the poem of Ka'b 

Ibn Zuhair commencing ^\ ^'-**r vz~>U , edited by Guidi. 

Bz. Abu-lljasan Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn 'Abd Allah Ibu 
AlKasim Ibu Nan' Ibn Abi Bazza alMakkl, known as AlBazzi (d. 250 
or 270), the Reporter of Ibn Kathlr one of the Seven Readers. 

*C. The Commentary of BD upon the IM, cited from extracts 
printed by De Sacy in- the Notes to his Anthologio Grammatical and 
collated with the MS of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

•CD. The Commentary of Shihab adDin Ahmad alKhafAji alMisrl 
(</. 1069) upon the D, cited from extracts given in the Notes to the 
latter work. 

*D. The Durra alGhamvas by H, edited by Thorbecke. 

*DH. The Dncan of the Hudhalls with the Commentary of Abu 
Sa'Id Al^asan Ibn AlIJTusain asSukka3I (<f.275), transmitted from him 
by Rtn upon the authority of Abu Bakr Ahmad llui Muhammad 
HAMtwAxi, edited by Kosegarten. 



( iv- ) 

*D!i. The Muslitalih fl Asmd arBijal by Shams aJDin Abu 'Abd 
Allah Muhammad Ibn Ahmad aduDhaiiabi (b. G73, <l 748), edited by 
De JoDg. 

•DM. The Gloss (c. 1233) of tho Shaikh Mustafa Muhammad 'Urfa 
adDasujci upon the ML. 

*Dm. Tho Commentary of the Shaikh Badr ad Din, or SbamS ad 
Din, Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr alMakhzuml adDamSmini, the Philolo- 
gist (d. 828), upon the ML, cited from extracts quoted in the DM. 

*Dw. The Dhoan of Imra alKais, edited by De Slane ; of AlFaraz- 
dak, edited by Boucher ; of AuNabigha adhDhubjani, edited by Deren- 
bourg. 

*EM, The Exposition of the Mu'allahM edited by Arnold. 

F. Ab6 'Ali Alljasan Ibn Ahmad Ibn 'Abd AlGhaffar a&Farisi, 
also called Ai.Fasawi, the Grammarian (b. 288, d. 376 or 377). 

*FA. The Fatva'id alKala'id Jl Muk/ttasar Shark ashShawahid by 
Badr adDin Abu Muhammad Mahinud Ibn Ahmad asSarujl ai/Aini 
{d. S55), cited from a MS. 

*FDw. The Fire Diwans, printed in Egypt, comprising the Dlwan 
of AnSabigha adhDhubyani with the Commentary of ABk ; the Diicdn 
of 'Urwa Ibn AlWard a''Absl with the Commentary of ISk ; tho 
Dlwan of Iptim of Tayyi, transmitted by Abu-lMundiiih Hisham Ibn 
Abi-nNnsr Muhammad alKalbl allvufs, the Genealogist, known as Ibn 
Ai,Kai/bi (d. 204 or 20G) ; tho Dhvan of 'Alkama; and tho Dhvan of 
AlFarazdak. 

Fr. Abu Zakarlja Yahya Ibn Ziyad alAslamf, known as alFabra 
adDailaml, alKflfl, the frcedman of the Banu Asad or Banu Minkar, the 
Lexicologist and Grammarian (6. 1-11, d. 207). 

G G. Grammarians. 

*H. The Makamat of Abu Muhammad AlKasim Ibn 'All AiJjlABiBi 
alBasrl alljaraml (J. 446, d. 515 or 510) with a selected Comment-""™ 
edited by De Sacy. ^ 

*HKh. The Bibliographical Lexicon of Mustafa Ibn 'Abd Allab, 
known as IJfcJJi Khalifa, (d. 1068), edited by Fluegel. 

*H M. The Midhat all'rab by H with a Commentary by the Author, 
cited from an extract printed by De Sacy in his Anthologie Gram- 
maticale. 



( v. ) 

Hr. Abu 'Ubaid Ahmad Ibn Muhammad al'Abdl alHaeawi 
alFashanl, the Philologist (<f. 401). 

Hsh. Abu 'Abd Allah Hisuam Ibn Mu'awiya alKaft, the Gram- 
marian (d. 209). 

*I. The I'rab 'an Kawa'id all'rab by IHsh, edited by De Sacy in his 
Autbologie Gramraatieale. 

*IA. The Commentary of Baha adDln Abu Muhammad 'Abd Allah 
Ibn 'Abd ArRahman alMiarl alHashhnl al'Aklll, known as Ibn 'Ak!h 
(d. 769), upon the IM, edited by Dieterici. 

o 

IA1. ABtt 'Ame Ibn Al'AiX Ibn 'Ammar atTamlml alMazinl 
alBasri, one of the Seven Readers and a Grammarian (b. 65 or 68 or 
70, d. 154 or 150 or 157 or 159). 

IAmb. Abu fiakr Muhammad Ibn Abi Muhammad AlKasim, 
known as Ibn AjA.mbAei, the Grammarian (5. 271, d. 327 or 328). 

IAR. Abu-lJIusain 'Ubaid Allah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Abi-eRabi' al- 
'TTthmanl allshblll alUmawI (d. G88), author of a Commentary on tlio 
Book of S. 

*IAth. The Kamil atTawarlkh by the Shaikh 'Izz adDln Abu- 
lljasan 'AH Ibn Muhammad ashShaibaut, known as Ibn AlAthib 
alJazari (6. 555, d. 630), edited by Tornberg. 

IB. Abu-lpsim 'Abd AlWahid Ibn 'All Ibn Barhan alAsadl, the 
Grammarian (d. 456). 

IBdh. Abu-15asan Tahir Ibn Ahmad Ibn Babshadh alMisri, the 
Grammarian (d. 469). 

IBr. Abu Muhammad 'Abd Allah Ibn Babei alMukaddasf alMiarl, 
the Grammarian and Lexicologist {b. 499, d. 582). 

•ID. The Kitab allshti^ak by Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Al^asan 
Ibn Dtoah> alAzdl alBasri (J. 223, d. 321), edited by Wttstenfeld. 

IDh. Abu Muhammad 'Abd Allah Ibn Ja'far Ibn Dttebstawaib: 
alFarial alFasawI, the Grammarian (b. 258, d. 347); 

IDn. Abu Muhammad Sa'Id Ibn AlMubarak alAusarl alBaghdadl, 
known as Ibn AdDabhan, the Grammarian (d. 566 or 569). 

*IH. The ttjiya fi-nNa^w by Jamal adDln Abu 'Amr 'Uthman Ibn 
'TJmar, known as Ibn AxIJSjib, the Grammarian (5. 570. d, 646), 
lithographed at Cawnpore. 



( vi. ) 

*IHb. The Mtiklitalif allyahaHl iva MiC talijbil by Abu Ja'far 
MunAMMAii Ibn Habiu alllashiml, the freedmau of the Banu Hashim, 
i.l Baghdad!, llio Genealogist and Grammarian (<?. 215), edited by 
Wiintonfeld. 

HJlCli. Muhammad Ibu Yal.iyA, known as Ibn Hisiiam akKuad 
rawi {d. 010), author of a Commentary on the hldh of F. 

ML. Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Ahmad asSabti, known aa 
Ibn Htsham ai.Lakhmi, the Urammarian (</. 570). 

IHab. Jnmul adDin Abu Muhammad 'Abd Allah Ibn Tueuf, known 
as Ibn IIisuam alAn'sabi, the Grammarian (I. 708, d. 761 or 7G2). 

IITJ. Abu 'Amr 'Is\ Ibn 'Umak athThakafl alBasrF, the Gramma- 
rian and Reader (d. 149), said to have been the frecdinan of Khalid Ibn 
AlWalfd alKurashi alMakhzuml, the Sword of God (</. 21). 

IJ. Abu-l^ath 'Uthman Ibn Jinni alMausilf, the Grammarian 
(d. 892 or 393). 

*IJr. The Travels of Abu-lJJusain Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn 
Jubatr allvinaul alAudalusI alBalansI (b. 539 or 540, d. 614) edited by 
Wright. 

*IK. Tho Talk'il alKawafi by Abu-l]Jasan Muhammad Ibn Ahmad, 
known as Ibn Kaisan, the Grammarian and Lexicologist {d, 299 or 
320), edited by Wright in his Opuscula Arabica. 

*IKb. Tho Kilab Alila'drif by Abu Muhammad 'Abd Allah Ibn 
Muslim adDluawari, known as Ibn Kotaiba, and also called AlKci- 
tabi and less correctly AlKutaiiii, the Grammarian, Lexicologist, and 
Historian (b. 213, d. 270 or 271 or 27G or 290), edited by Wtiateu- 
feld. 

1Kb. Abu-IJTasnn 'All Ibn Muhammad alljadrami alAudalusI 
allshbflt, known as Ibn Khabuf, tho Grammarian (rf. 609 or 610), 
author of a Commentary on tho Book of S. 

IKhl. Abu 'Abd Allah AlHusain Ibn Ahmad, known as Ibn Kit Ala- 
waih, the Grammarian and Lexicologist, originally from Hamadhan 
{d. 370). 

*IKhn. The Wafayat alA'yan rfc, a Biographical Dictionary, by the 
Kid* Shams adDlu Abu-l'Abbas Ahmad Ibn Muhammad, known as Ibn 
Khaxlikan, alBarmakl allrbili (d. 6S1), cited from the Editions of 
"Wustenfold and De Slane and from a MS. 



( vii. ) 

IEbz. Shams adDln Ahmad Ibn AlHusaio allrbill, known as Ibn 
AxKhabbAz (d. 637), author of a Commentary ou the Alfiya of IMt. 

•IKn. The Itkan ft 'ttlum alKur'an by Syt, printed at Calcutta, 
and lithographed at Lahore and elsewhere. 

*IM. The Khulasa, commonly called the Alfiya,fi-nNalyw by Jamal 
adDln Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn 'Abd Allah atTa'I a) JayyanI, 
known as Ibn Malik, the Grammarian (b. 600 or 601, d. 672), edited by 
De Sacy, and, with the Commentary of IA, by Dieterici. 

IMd. Muhammad Ibn Mas'ud alGhazzI, called AzZakl or Ibn 
AzZakI in different MSS (according to the DM) and Editions of the 
ML, author of the Bad? Jl-nNafyto a work much quoted by AH. 

IMt. Zain adDln Abu-lHusain Yahyil Ibn 'Abd AlMu'tf azZawawf, 
the Grammarian (6. 564, d. 628), author of the Affiya of Ibn Mu'ti. 

IS. Shams adDln Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn AsSarl, known as Ibn 
AbSabbaj, the Grammarian (d. 315 or 316). 

•Is. The Isaba ft tamyxx asSaftaba by Shihab adDln Abu-lFadl 
Ahmad Ibn 'All, known as Ibn Hajab al'Askalani (<f. 852), printed 
at Calcutta. 

ISB. Abu Muhammad 'Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad, known as Ibn 
AsSid alBatalyattsi, the Grammarian <J>. 444, d. 521). 

*lSb. The great Tabakat ashShaji'iya by the Itadi Taj adDln 'Abd 
AlWahhab Ibn 'AH, known as Ibn AsSubki, ashShafi'r (d. 771), cited 
from a MS. 

ISd. Abu-lHasan 'AH Ibn Isma'fl alMursI, known as Ibn Sida, the 
Lexicologist and Grammarian (d. 448 or 458). 

ISf. Abu Muliammad Yflsuf Ibn Abi Sa'ld AlHasan, known as Ibn 
AsSibapi (son of Sf), the Grammarian and Lexicologist (b. 330, d. 385). 

ISh. The Sharif Abu-sSa'adSt Hibat Allah Ibn 'All al'AlawS 
alHasanl, known as Ibn AshShajaei, alBaghdadl, the Grammarian of 
Al'Irak (b. 450, d. 542). 

*ISk. The Diwdn of 'Urwa Ibn AlWard al'AbsI with the Commen- 
tary of Abu YQsuf Ya'kfib Ibn Ishak, known as Ibn AbSikkit, alKhuzi 
of Daurak, the Lexicologist and Grammarian (d. 243 or 244 or 245 or 
246), edited by Noldeke and printed in the FDw. 

IT. Abu-lHusain Sulaiman Ibn Muhammad Ibn 'Abd Allah al- 
Andalusl alMilakl, known as Ibn AtTabawa, the Grammarian (d. S28). 



( viii. ) 

*ITB. The Annals called AnNujum azZakira ft Muluk Mist' wa 
.IRdhira by the Amir Jamal adDln Abu -IMahasin Yusuf Ibn Taghbi 
Babdi alAtabakS alKahirl (d. 874), edited by Juynboll and Matthes. 

ITr. Ibn Tahib. 

10. Abu-HJasan 'All lb" Mu'min al^Iadraml allshblll, known as 
Ibn 'UfFOn, the Grammarian (d. 669). 

•IT. The Commentary of Muwaffak adDln Abu-lBaka Ta'Ish Ibn 
'All alAsadl alMausill alUalabl, known as Ibn Ta'Ish, the Grammarian 
(6. 553, d. 643), upon the M, edited by Jahn. 

*J. The Commentary (c. 1271) of the Shaikh 'Abd AlMun'im al- 
Jarjawi upon the evidentiary verses of the I A, printed in Egypt. 

31i. Abu Near Isma'll Ibn IJammad alJauhabi a(FarabI, the Lexi- 
cologist (d. 393). 

Jj. Abu Bakr 'Abd AlKXhib Ibn 'Abd ArRahman alJdbjani, the 
Grammarian (d. 471 or 474). 

•Jk. The Mu'atrab of Abu MansOr Mauhub Ibn Ahmad alJawI- 
liki, the Lexicologist (b. 465 or 46G, d. 539 or 540), edited by Sachau. 

*Jm. The Commentary (c. 897) of Maulana Nar adDln 'Abd 
ArRahman Ibn Ahmad alJami (<f, 898) upon the IH, printed at Calcutta 
and lithographed at Lucknow. 

Jr. Abu 'Umar Salih Ibn Ishak alJarmi, the Grammarian (d. 225). 
*Jsh. The Jaws' asJiShawahid by Mullii Muhammad Bafeir, litho- 
graphed at Teheran in 1275 and 1293. 

Jz. Abu Musi 'Isa Ibn 'Abd Al'Aziz alJuzOli alTazdaktanl, the 
Grammarian (d. GOG or 607 or 610). 

*K. The Kaslahaf 'an Haka'ik atTanzil by 55, edited by Lees. 

*KA. The Kitab alAghani by Auq-LiPabaj 'All Ibn Alljusain al- 
tfurasbl alUmawI alIsbaiiakI (b. 281, d. 356 or 357), edited by Kose- 
garten. 

*KF. The Kimis of Majd adDm Muhammad Ibn Ta'kub alFlrO- 
zabidi ashShlrazI (d. 817), lithographcil at Lucknow. 

Khf. AtKttAFFAF. 

Khl. Abu 'Abd ArRahman Ar.KnAi.iT. Ibn Ahmad alFarahldl, or 
alFurhad'.alAzdlalTahmadt alBasrl, the Grammarian (J. 100, d. 160 op 
163 or 170 or 174 or 175). 



( «. ) 

KK. Kaff Grammarians. 

*KM. The Kanz alMa'an\,& Commentary by Kamal adDin Abu 'Abd 
Allah Muhammad Ibn Ahmad alMausill, known aa Shu'ia (d. 656), upon 
the Ode called the Hire atAmanlby Abu Muhammad alR^Bim Ibn Firm 
arRu'ainl ashShatibi (J. 538, d. 590), lithographed at Peshawar with 
the AAK and a Persian Commentary. 

*KN. The Ka(r anNada too Ball asSada by IHsb, with a Commen- 
tary by the Author, the Text cited from the Edition lithographed at 
Lucknow, and the Commentary from extracts given in the Marginal 
Annotations to that Edition and in the Notes to the Epistola Crifcica 
edited by Mehren. 

Kn. Abu Masa 'lea Ibn Mlna alMadanl, known as Kaiajn (d. 205 
or 220), the Reporter of Nan' one of the Seven Readers. 
Kur, The Ijiur'dn. 

Ks. Abu-l^asan 'All Ibn IJamza alAsadl by enfranchisement, al- 
Kaft, known as AlKiba'i, one of the Seven Readers and a Grammarian 
and Lexicologist (d. 182 or 183 or 189). 

Ktb. Abu All Muhammad Ibn AlMustanlr alBasrl, known as 
KbTbtjb, the Grammarian and Lexicologist (d. 206). 

*L. The Commentary of BD on the Lamiyat alAfal by IM, edited 
by Volck. 

Lh. Abu-lQasan 'All Ibn AlMubErak alLihtaki, the Grammarian, 
contemporary with Ks and ISk. 

*LL. The Lubb alLubabfl tafrrir alAnsab (c. 873) by Syt, edited 
by Veth. 

*LM. The Life of Muhammad extracted from the MAB by AF, 
edited by Des Vergers. 

*M. The Mufassalji-nNalfa (c. 514) by Z, edited by Broch. 

*MA. The Marginal Annotation npon the Persian Edition of the 
ML. 

*MAB. The Mukhtasar fi AMbar alBashar by AF, printed at 
Constantinople. 

*MAlt. The Marginal Annotation upon the Lucknow Edition of lb~> 
Commentary by R upon the IH. 

* II ASH. The Marginal Anuotntiou upon the SH 



( X. ) 

s M b. Th'o fcamil by Abu-1'Abbas Muhammad Ibn Tazld athTliumali 
hIAaiIi nlltasrl, known as AlMubahiud, the Grammarian (A. 20C or 207 
or 210, (I. 285 or 28G), edited by Wright. 

*Md The Najma' alAmthxl by Abu-lFadl Ahmad Ibn Muhammad 
anNaisabOri, known as AlMaidIki, tho Philologist (d. 518), printed at 
Wills'*. 

*MDh. The Mitruj adhDhahab tea Ma'adin alJauhar by Abu-lljasan 
'All Ibu AlHusaiu alMas'iSdi (d. 345 or 346), edited by De Meynard. 

*MT. Tho Marasid all({ila' 'ala Asmd alAmkina tea-lBi&a.', probably 
by Abu Eada'il Safi ad Din 'Abd AlMu'min Ibn 'Abd Alljakk alBaghdadl 
(£, 630, d. 739), edited by Juynboll. 

•Mk. The Muslttarik by Shihab adDln Abu 'Abd Allah Yakut Ibn 
'Abd Allah arBaml al?amawt alBaghdadl (b. 574 or 575, d. 626), edited 
by WUstenfeld. 

Mkk. The Shaikh Abu Muhammad Makki Ibn Abi Talib IJummaah 
alKaisi alKnrtubl, tho Reader, Commentajfcr, and Grammarian (b. 35* 
or 355, d. 437). 

•ML. The Mughni-lLaUb (c. 756) by IHsh, printed at Bfilik, and 
lithographed at Teheran. 

Mlk. Abu Bakr Ibn Yahy& alJudbaml AlMalaiji (d. 657), author 
of a Commentary on the Book of S. 

•MM. The MisbabfinNafyw by Abu-lFath Nas> Ibn 'Abd AsSayyid 
AlMutasbizi, the Grammarian (b. 538, d. 610), cited from an extract 
printed by De Sacy in his Anthologie Grammatical. 

MS. Manuscript. 

*MSh. The Mu'jam ashShu'ard by Aba 'Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn 
'Imran alMarzubahi (d, 384), cited from an extract given in the Notes 
to the 10,^.153. 

MSS. Manuscripts. 

Mz. Abu 'Uthman Bakr Ibn Muhammad alMazini alBagrt, the 
Grammarian (<?. 236 or 247 or 248 or 249). ■ 

*N. Tho Commontary of Muhibb adDln Effendl upon the eviden- 
tiary verses of the K, edited by Abu-lWaf& Nase alHurtni, and printed 
at Balak in 1281. 

Nr. Abu-lIJasan AsNabr Ibk Shuhail alMazini alBnsrl, the Gram- 
marian and Lexicologist (6. 122 or 123, d. 203 or 204). 



( xi. ) 

*NS. The Commentary of Nw upon tho ISaliih of tho Imam Abu- 
UJusain Muslim Ibn AlJJajjaj alKusbairl anNaiBabarf, tho Traditionisl 
(4. 206, d. 261), lithographed at Delhi. 

Ns. Abu Ja'far Ahmad Ibn Muhammad alMuradi alMisrl, kuown 
as AnNahhXs, the Grammarian (£337 or 338). 

*Nw. The Tahdtob alAsmd by Muhyi-dDln Abu Zukarlyu Yahya 
Ibn Sliaraf al^izaml allJauranl anNawawi adDimashki (5, 631, d. 67(J), 
edited by WuBtenfold. 

*P. Arabum Proverbia, edited by Freytag. 

*\i. The Commentary (c. 683 or 686) of Badt adDln Muhammad 
Ibn Alflasan aiAstaraMdl, known as AbRadi, the Grammarian (d: 680), 
upon the IH, lithographed at Lucknow and Delhi : 

*Also the Commentary of the same Author upon the SH, lithographud 
at Delhi. 

Rb. Abu-lJJasan 'All Ibn 'Isa abRaba'i alBoghdadl by abode, ash- 
ShlrazI by origin, the Grammarian (5. 328, d. 420). 

Rm. Abu-igasan 'All Ibn 'Isa abRummani, the Commentator and 
Grammarian (b. 296, d. 382 or 384). 

*S, Tho Book of Abu Bishr 'Amr Ibn 'UthmSn alBasri, known as 
Sibawaih, originally a Persian, the freedman of the Banu-lHaritb. Ibn 
Ka'b, or of the family of ArRabl' Ibn Ziyad alBarithl, the Grammarian 
{d. 161 or 177 or 180 or 188 or 194), cited from an extract printed by 
De Sacy in his Anthologie Grammaticale. 

♦SB. The §abty of the Imam Abii 'Abd Allah Mul.ianunad Ibn 
Isma'll alJu'fl by enfranchisement, alBukhahi, the Traditionist (4. 194, 
d. 256), edited by Krehl. 

Sf. Tho Kadi Abu Sa'ldAl^asan Ibn »Abd Allah asSIeAki.IIio 
Grammarian (d. 368), author of a Cotomontary on tho Book of S. 

*SH. The ShafiyaJUtTan-yhj III, lithographed at Cuwnpore. 

•Sb. The Shudhur adhDhafiab by IHsh, with n Commentary 
by tho Author, printed at Bulak. 

Shi. ABtl 'Aw 'Uinar Ibn Muhammad alAzdf, known as AsiiSiiAi-.ur- 
bxhi or AshSualaobin, alAndalusl allshblll, the Grammarian (b. 562., 
d. 645). 

Shm. Tak! adDln Abu-1' Abbas Ahmad Ibn Muhammad ashShujiokri 
(J. 872), author of a Commentary on the ML. 



( xii. ) 

*SM. The Commentary of Syt upon tho evidentiary verses of tho 
ML, cited from extracts copied from the MS of tho Bodleian Library. 

Sra. AbSaimam. 

*SIt. The S irat Basil Allah, commonly called Sirat lbn Hisham, 
by Abu Muhammad 'Abd AlMalik Ibn HisnXii alHimyarl alMa'afirl al- 
Misrl, the Grammarian and Genealogist (d. 213 or 218), edited by 
Wustonfeld. 

Sr. Abu-lFadl Kaaim Ibn 'Ali alBatalyausI, known as AsSapfIb 
(d. G30), author of a Commentary on the Book of S. 

Suh. Abu-lKasim, and Abu Zaid, 'Abd ArRahmau Ibn 'Abd Allah 
alKhath'am! alAndalusl alMalakl asSbhaili, the Grammarian and Lexi- 
cologist (6. 508, d. 581). 

Syt. Jalal adDln Abu-lFadl 'Abd ArRahman Ibn Kamal ad Din Abi 
T?akr Muhammad asSuybti or aiUsyutj, the Grammarian, Lexicolo- 
gist, Commentator, and Historian (6. 849, d. 911). 

*T. The Commentary of Abu Zakarly£ Yahya Ibn 'All ashShaibanl, 
known as Ai,Kii.vfiu atTabrizi, the Lexicologist (i. 421, d. 502), on tho 
IJhmasa of Aflfc Tamham JJablb Ibn Aus a|Ta'l (6. 172 or 188 or 190 or 
192, d. 22S or 229 or 231 or 232), edited by Freytag. 

*TH. The Tabakat alHuJfai} by Dh, with additions by Syt, edited 
by Wilstenfold. 

•Tli. The Fasllj, of Abu-1'Abbas Ahmad Ibn Yahya ashShaibanl by 
enfranchisement, alKufl, the Grammarian, known as Tua'lab (b. 200 
or 201 or 204, d. 291), edited by Barth. 

Thi. Abu tshak Ahmad Ibn Mul.iammad auNaisabarl atiiTiia'ladi, 
ilic Commentator (d. 427 or 437). 

*TM. Tho Tabakat alMufassirin by Syt, edited by Meursinge. 

*Tr. Tho 5th Part of the Tarikh alHtduk etc. by Abu Ja'far 
Muhammad Ibn Jarir vtTababi (b. 224 or 225, d. 310), edited by 
Kosegarten. 

*W. Tho Commentary of Abu-UJasan 'All Ibn Ahmad ALWSninf 
nnNaiaabQrl (d. 408) upon the Dlican of Abu-tTaitib Ahmad Ibn Ai- 
TJusain nlJu'fl alKiudi alKufr, known as AlMotanabbi, the poet (b. 
aOS, d. 354), edited by Diotcrici. 

T. Aim 'Aliil ArP.iiliman Yunus Ibn Hablb, tho frecdman of tho 
I'-anu Babba, or of tho Banu Laith Jbu 'Abd Manat lbn Kiuana, or of 



( xiii. ) 

Hilal Ibn Harm! of the Banu Pubai'a Ibn Bajfila, the Grammarian 
(b. 80 or 90, d. 182 or 183 or 184 or 185). 

*Z. The Anmudhaj Ji-nNdfyw by Jin Allah Abu-lKasim Mahmud 
Ibn 'Umnr azZamakusuabi alKhuwarazmt, the Grammarian, Lexicolo- 
gist, Commentator, and Geographer (b. 467, d. 538), cited from an 
extract printed by De Sacy in his Anthologie Grammaticale. 

*Z 3. The Kitab alJilal wa4AmMna wa-lMiyah by Z, edited by 
Juynboll. 

Zj. Abu Ishak Ibrahim Ibn Muhammad Ibn AsSarl alBasrl, known 
as AzZajjaj, the Grammarian (d 310 or 311 or 31C). 

Zji. Abu-lKasim 'Abd ArRahman Ibn Ishak, known as AzZajjAji 
from being the companion of Zj, alBaghdadl by abode, anNahawandl 
by origin, the Grammarian (d. 337 or 339 or 340). 



Abbreviations of Technical Terms. 



As tins work increased in size the use of abbreviations was gradually 
extended for the sake of economy in space. Hence some words printed 
at full length in the earlier pages are afterwards abbreviated. 

The plural is indicated by " s," as d&. s. denotatives of stale, and 
dial. vars. dialectic variants. 



Ace, Accusative. 


Difj., Disjunctive. 


Act., Active. 


O. »., Denotative ol Slate. 


Adv., Adverb. 


Du.. Dual. 


Ag., Agent. 


Ej , Ejaculation. 


Aff., Affirmative. 


Enunc, Kniinciiiiive. 


All., Alliterative. 


Ep., Kpitliet. 


AH. neq., Alliterative Sequent. 


Ex., Kxample. 


Aul., Antecedent. 


Etc., lCxccption. 


Aor. t Aorist. 


Expl., Explicative. 


Apuc., Apocopate. 


Expos., Expository. 


Apod., Apodosis. 


Fern., Feminine. 


App., Appropinquatiim. 


Got,, Genitive. 


Appns., Appositive. 


G. t., General term. 
Hysl.-proi., Iljstcron-prolcron, 


Art., Article. 


Alt., Attributive. 


Id., Ideal. 


Aug., Augmentative. 


I. c, Id est, Thai is. 


Bit., Biliteral. 


Imp., Impcrjitivc. 


Cat, Category. 


Inch., Inchoative. 


Comp., Compound. 


Intl., Indicative. 


Con., Conjunction. 


Indccl., Indeclinable. 


Cond., Conditional. 


Iiidct., Indeterminate. 


Conj., Conjunctive. 


Inf., Infinitive. 


Conjug., Conjugation. 


Inft., Inflected. 


Cop., Copula. 


Inop., Inoperative. 


CottcI., Correlative. 


Intcrrug., Interrogative. 


Corrob,, Corroborative. 


Intrans., Intransitive. 


Curt., Curtailed (diminutive). 


I. q., Idem quod, The same as, of ten used 


Dec/., Declinable. 


as moaning In Iht sense of. 


J)em., Demonstrative. 


Lit., Literal. 


Deriv., Derivative. 


Muse, Masculine. 


Vet., Determinate. 


Mel., Mctonyni. 


Dial., Dialect. 


A 7 ., Nonu. 


Vial, var., Dialed ic variant. 


Key., Negative. 


Dim., Diminutive. 


Nam., Nominative. 



( xvi. ) 



Non-atl., Non-attributive. 
Non-deriv., Non-dcrivativc. 
Non-repi, Non-replicativc. 
Non-voe* Non-vocative. 
Num., Numeral. 
Obj., Object. 
O./., Original form. 
Op., Operative. 
Opp., Opposite. 
Opt, Optative. 
Orig., Originally. 
P., Particle. 
Par., Parcntbews, 
Part., Participle. 
Pas*., Passive. 
•Ptrf., Perfect (plural). 
''jPem, Person. 
j>l. r Plu>5ttl., 
Post., Fostflxed 
Postpos., Postpositive. 
Pre* Prefixed. 
Pred., Predicate. 
Prep., Preposition. 
Prepoa., Prepositive. 
Pret, Preterite. 
Prim., Primitive. 
fro-ng., Pro-agent.' 
Prohib., Prohibitive. 
/Von., Pronoun. 
Prop., Proposition. 



/'rot, Protasis. 
I'ruv., Proverb. 
Quail., Quadrititcral. 
Qnul., Quulificative. 
Quasi-gre,, Qmisl-prefixcii. 
Quin., Quinquclitcral. 
Barf., Radical. 
Bed., Redundant. 
Reg., Kcgimcn. 
IttL, Relative. 
Bepl, Ucplicative. 
$eq., Sequent. 
Sex., Sexilitcr.il. 
Sing., Singular. 
Sp., Speciticntivc. 
S.s , Subject of Slate. 
Sub., Subject. 

Subj., Subjunctive. 

Subst., Substitute. 

Syn., Synonym. 

Syn. with, Synonyroons with. 

Syud^ Syndetic. 

Trans., Transitive. 

Tril., Triliterai. 

Unit., Uniliteral. 

Uninfl., Uninflccted. 

V., Verb. 

Var., Variant. 

Vid., Videlicet, namely. 

Vac., Vocative. 



Glossary of Technical Terms- 
Transliterated terms, like Taowin and Mlml, are omitted. 



A. 

i SKf 

Abbreviated, )?*** • 

Abbreviation, r*> and 'foi\ and 
* V. * 

/ 

Abridgment, »l-a*iM and i~ « j»as». 
Abstract noun or substantive, 

M/ *A 

« // «„ 

Accident, ^ja and jjij* . 

i A, 

Accusative (case), c-— ai . 

„ (noun in the), *■■>?*** • 
Active participle, J*** *-t . 

„ (verb),J*W>^or JZ 

Uj Jjj Ja . 
• "/ 

Address, »-*iaa. • 
Adjuration, Jlj- f»* • 
Admirative, ly?*"** 
Adverb, <-»^ • 

£ As 

Adverbial, «_$»;&• 



5 9S * 

Adverbial object, **> , Jy*** . 

Affinity, *>*»U-« . 

«/» $ , 

Affirmation, oluf and t-^ssuf . 
£ ' 5 

Affixes, jH^ . 

Affixion, jjjks'J! and jjj^ 1 * • 

Afterthought (substitute of), *!■*; . 

is , 
Agency, *4W» • 

i , 
Agent, J^». 

«. A/ 

Alleviation, i~***siJ . 

*,A 

Alliteration, fW • 

«/A 

Alliterative sequent, #W . 
AllocutioD, v->Uai. . 
Allusion, ^J . 
Amplification, jj"**" 

Anacoluthon, £k» • 
Analogy, u »«4» . 



( xviii. ) 



Anarthrous, f ^ta* *f?* • 
Annuller, ^i • 
Anomalous, &£ . 

4 9 9 

Anomaly, <Syi*" • 

Antecedent, ty** and &>* and 

9ii *tt i » Ay 

J,) and «tk iJ^Im* and 

J>A $ yAJ> 

y 

* '.* 

Aorist, £>ka«* • 

t* * » *»* 

Aoriatic letter, "^ ^^ • 

Aplastic, *"l^ • 
Aplasticity, Oj-a. . 

Apocopate (mood), f)^ • 

i ;«/ 
„ (verb in the), |»>>?»* • 

Apodosis, *\"fi" 

Apportion, £i* and *s*V • 

• • V 
Appoaitire, £* u . 

Apprehension, .^oS , 
Appropinquation, *?;' £ * • 

*/A# 

Aprothetic, <*£" . 



Article (the), ^t , uJi J| and ^1 

and *-A»^«y| f' . 
Assimilate (epithet), %*• and 

§y A* 



« a. 
Assumption, ylUSS . 

iS, £ 
„ (of a pronoun), J*** 
$ , « 
andJUaJ. 
w y y 

9 i» 
Attached (pronoun), J***" . 

J/U i^y 

Attribute, «**""• and ^ • 

$ f A 

Attribution, oU*1 • 
i 

2 SA 

Attributive, ^M • 

y Ay $ 6/* 

„ compound, v*^/ V^" 

yA ' 

oU*»f . 
„ (verb or adverb), f y • 

Augment, *Wij • 

« -/. 

Augmentative, «*j') • 

J s *» 
Axioms, 'zAipy* • 



Biform (proposition), uHW^J «**$ ■ 



"( xk. ) 



Stmt 9 

Biliteral, ,«S W .* 

Blander (substitute of), W* . 

Bound (rhyme), «mS* . 

Broken (ploral), >«£• • 

C. 

i'' a 
Call for help, <<i*I>l . 

U 
Case, «^j • 

„ (pronoun of), j^*« 

S * * 
Catachresis (abuse), i_Jls»a.! . 

9 a* 
Causation, jjftk* • 

a a# 
Causative, ,_A^. 

ft 4 »*/ 
„ object, *J J** 4 * • 

„ particle, JfcW «-J^ , 

9 . a. 

Cautioning, jt*a» . 

*. *' 

Chronom'etricaL u*4V • 

if i - 
Circumstance, «J>* . 

Circumstantial, ^^^ • 
Citation (quotation), Jylfcx . 
Classical language, &J. 



Codex, 



$ / »* 



Cognomen, v 2 * • 
Coined, J==V • 

Commensurability, *»}ly« . 

i ,* 
Commensurable, ^ly . 

fas $ a* 

Commentary, £/* and ;£*•&?.' 

Common (name). £*£ . 

A 5 A, 

Comparatival (^y*), U W* J • 

Comparative, ^ai ; ^ . 

9 "a. 
Comparison (assimilation), ***»?. 

„ (proportion), &»£&• . 

Compensation, jj^j* • 

Complement, *W» • 

« A; 

Complete declension, yj*^* 5 . 

9 <•-' 

Composition, v**/ • 

Compound, v*/* • 
Concomitate object, *•*» Jy* 4 " 4 • 

«A, 

Concord, J**- . 

Concrete noun or substantive, 

A, #A s* A if 

l A!fi «-' and.«=»M (*»l and w» 
and **> and j*;> • 



( xx. ) 



««/ 


*V 


Condition, bj& . 


Constitution, £-») . 


Si As iifts 


$ A/ S A, 


Conditional, ^J°y~ and^/'j^ and 


Construction, J*« and «-»***/ • 


t»ss A i s 




Ayaii a3\, . 


Constructively, I;** 3 * • 


■ *. s 'i 


$•»•* 


Conjugability, uJ^aJ . 


Contest, gp* . 


5 # <»• 

Conjugation (process), ^-hy^ • 


is * 

Context, &if • 
> 


is 
„ (class), i-sW • 


« s / * i * 
Contracted, >-**»* and i-^a. . 


Conjunct, ^y°y* • 


Conventional term or language, 

is a 


As S> A ' 

Conjunction, «-* !a * <-»/*■ and 


* 


S A0t* 

Conventionally, ^HfcwJt ti ». 


Conjuneti?e (of a conjunct noon 


* ,A 

Coordination, ■j' 3 ^) • 


or particle), *l* . 


i's s 


$ s> 


Copula, *M). 


„ (exception), tU&" • 


J S AsA 


s 

At i At 


Copulative, t-«We and ciWf . 


(fD.j-1.. 


« •• 


» i ** , 


Correlative, V^ • 


A/ *sAs 




„ llamza, J^j *)*» • 


Ass i sAP 

„ ofanoath,**tc|t«-5«. 


„ (affix to a final short 


' 


4 a/ is 


Correspondence (Tanwln of^ 


vowel), (J^j or *k». 




Conjunctneas, *^>^j* ■ 


Corroborative, &&f and <M^ • 


5 •• 
Connected, (jM- • 




i t *** § JHs 

Coupled, <-»jb*>« and &»*"• 


isAP §Sss 


9 As 


Connective, &«j and Jkj** 


Coupling, <-&**. 


• * *• 


2 •*# 


„ particle,*^ <-»/*•• 


Covert (pronoun), ^fi*** • 



zi ( *»• ) 



is, 

Crude-form, $&* . 

* .Ax 

Curtailment;, fb^f • 

D. 

U, 
Decimal number, «»** . 

*. *C 
Declension (process), >>~*ty*' and 

§»«xA ' 

i 

Declinability, ll ^ • 

Declinable, «*£•** • 
t 

Deduction («-» of), ^i/* . 

$ .»Ax 

Defective, j?* 5 *-* • 

Denominate, ,_$*»"• . 

*x 
Denotative of state, J^ • 

SmttB 

Dependent, t 3^* • 

in,* 

Deprecation, >*«. 

t /»< 
Derivative, iJ*^** • 

$ **» 

Detached (pronoun), J-**** . 

i. Ax $3x.P 

Determinate, *>;** and <-»>*• . 

$ AX 

Determination, ^hf^ . 

i?** AS 

Determinative, <-»;**• and «-a»j«sU , 



i_tp 
Dialect, **J 

i" 
Dialectic variant, **) • 

i XA 

Digression (substitute of), oj v-H . 

«" 

Dimension, t^U* , 

X 

$S x* $3 /J 

Diminutive, j*-** and *3aa*» . 

. xAj> **x $#Ax 

Diptote, «-»^^» pi an d «yw» 

X ** 

ASx» X 

x' W X 

i »k, 

Direct object, *; tjf**' • 

2 xA 

Disapprobatory, ^WJ . 

«xA 

Disapproval, ;&! . 
2 

T\- • • , f *** 

Disjunctive (exception), jJaSi* . 

X 

A? 4 xA# 

» \fh elf*" • 

Ax *xA x 

» Hamza, f*k5 5}** . 

. . * X 
Distinctive ( J ), Jiili . 

_. . Ax * , 

Distinctive pronoun, ■>*** »*** . 

«.Ax 

Diversion ( 5 of), «~»y* . 

i ,** 
Dotted,****. 

« X 

Donble, J4*» . 

Sx* 

Dual, ,_$&•. 



( xxii. ) 



E. 

U, 
Ejaculation, *&?* . 

4 Ax 

Elision, UJa. . 

4 xA 
Ellipse, lel*"l . 

4 X A 

Enallage, «^U! . 

4 x/ 5 / A 

Enunciation, f£* and ,***■! • 

Eaunciatire, >**• ■ 

it 1 1 S x a 

EnuHciatory, ^jf^- and ,j;k^' • 

4 AX 4 X 4, Ay 

Epithet, s^-« and &-» and *-^°j • 

$ * Ax 

Epithetic, *e «-»y"y* • 
// 

a 4 /* 

Equivalent ( (\ ), J<^*- • 

4 A/ 

Etymology, «-«i^" • 

& A, 

Etymological, ^fj-f" ■ 

* '-*t 
Examination, i^s*-*' • 

4~xa_a 
Exception, *****"•'• 

4 Ax 

Excitation, u**-^ • 

/ 4x ax 
Exemption, (' of), «^* 

4 ax 4a/ 
Exercise, <-*ij>> ? and i^* • 



4iSx/ 

Expectation, £»}* • 

4 XX 4 A/ 

Explanation, yjlfi* and t£4M* • 

Explicit (noun, opposed to pro- 
4 x 
noun), j*lk . 

4 A; 
Exposition, f*»& . 

lm,* I Ax 

Expository, y&* and ^j*** 7 . 

Ax J> Ax 

„ particle, j**"** >-»^ • 

4 Ax 

Expression (utterance), &*J . 
„ (opposite of suppres- 

4 XA 

sion), «»VI • 

45 x 4 xw 

Extension, ^-j 5 and ^^1 and 

!" 

5 xaS 
Extraneous, uJ **M ■ 

4 x 
Extraordinary, /&*• 



Fact (pronoun of), S-aS . 

V _* 
Ax #A 

Factitive verb, #&*> J^ ■ 
Faint (tetter), ^f=>- . 

4Sx* 

Feminine, vi-jj* . 



( xxiii. ) 



Figuratively, Hijv. 

i m I r f 

Final (letter), f*\ and <-»;!» . 
Follower (successor of the Com- 

panions), £p and ^f^ • 
Forgetfulnesa (substitute of), 

**' 
Form (opposed to sense), ^ « 

2 A* 

Formal, ,Mi . 
Formation, » K> . 
Future, J****** . 



General term, *»*» ,_j***«^« . 

Genitive (case), ft- and \j*i± • 
„ (noun in the), ;j^*»and 

4 « 

Generic, »y^ • 

A #A 

„ noun,,j«**,^l. 

« A 

Genus, ur*** 
Gloss, *6~k- . 
Grammar, foi . 



Grammarian, ^yjaw. 
Guttural letter, jl^ «-»;». . 

H. 
Hearsay (as a substantive), £+" • 

a tt 

„ (as an adjective), ,J&~» . 

!*. * '* 

Hemistich, >-**" and tfr*~ . 

ft *>t As A 

Heteromorphous, \3 iaii ^c ^* . 

Hiatus, JBa.1 . 

Historical (denotative of state), 

& A, 

Hollow, <-»j*.f. 

$ <VA .» 

Homonym, iSy&* . 
Homonymy, i_fy*£> . 
Hyperbole, **$*• • 
Hyperbolic, £(W. 
Hypercataleetic, Jl* . 

Hysteron-proteron, jft^j fW*** 



Ideal, ^j*** • 



3>o 



( xxiv. ) 



** " 
Illative, C 5**«"' • 

Imagination, f*? • 

I" 
Imitation, *>&».. 

s 
4aS 
Imperative, /•!• 

»ht 4 i>//; 
Imperfectly declinable, yif- y^*-* 
/ /aS 

4>; 
Impletion, fl*^l. 

4 ,_A 

Implication (substitute of), J 1 **^ • 
Import, »•>& • 

a s «As 

Improper, y^ i* • 

Inception, *1^t and ^JImUJ and 

f/«», 

% 4/ A* timfk 

Inceptive, uiiU— and ujlw • 

$»/ A 

Inclioation, '!•»*£• 
Inchoatival, c^''^' 

I //A* **/ 4' »# 

Inchoative, U**- a 113 «*• ;**** • 

4,» 4<* 
Incorporation, fl«j or f*» • 

Indeclinable, ^^ )& • 

Indeterminate, */*• 



5 * he 

Infinitival, ^jy*"** • 

if n* 

Infinitive noun, y**** . 

iS t A* 

Infinitivity, £»ji-x« . 

$ /A 

Inflection, <-^>*' • 
* 

t /A 

Inflectional, .j*!**' • 
' * 

4/a# W 
Inoperative, \J*V and j*J . 

4/./A 

Instigation, ' lj*l • 

Instrument (noun or particle), *M , 
erroneously stated by Laue (p. 
38, cot 1) not to include the 
adverbial noun (see IA, pp. 
300-301). 

_■"'» ' * 

Intensive paradigm, *«Hf* J 1 *-* . 

Intermiztnre, (J^la* • 

4 /A 

Interpolation, f^** 3 ! . 

4 xA_A 

Interrogation, f W"^"1 • 

«,,•* #A/ 4 •. 

Intransitive, a**" ^ and fj* and 

4 • * ' 

Intuitive, ,ce*j • 

• r 

Invocation, *^ft» . 

• .PA, 

Irrational, J 5 ** ^ • 



( XXV. ) 



MasciJino, f&* . 

Jurative (used in swearing), ^ . j^^ ^^ f^ 

Juratory (confirmed by an oath), 

& ** Meaning, 



Labial, ^j** • 

Lamentation, &>V • 

Land-measure, no 1 5 1 i;V* £xIm** . 
7 ' 

Latent (pronoun), >**»«<• . 



9 s ti 

Latitude, £ M - 

4«, 
Letter, ^-»^- 



4 Ax 

„ (opposed to meaning) f !i£j . 
„ of prolongation, "*• and 



* ' i 

Si /» 

Lexicologist, ^^ • 

§** 
Lexicology, ***• 

it a. 

License (poetic), g ;jy* 

i K, 

Literal, ^ • 

Logical, ijS?*" ' 
M. 

if**. 
Manuscript, &»<*'' . 



* at 



i_S 

Measure, ^35 • 

**' 
Medial, j«s* • 

i' ' 
Medium, *Ja»)j . 

«A 

Mention (pronoun), £>* . 

s 

Metaphor, S;Uju4 . 
Metonym, *^ • 

Metonymy, *>& . 

4a, 
Metre, ^j • 

Mobile, i_5 jsa*- 
* 

4 A/ 

Mobilization, i-^jao' , 

3 A. 

Modal, (jV • 

«A, 

Mode, £f • 

4 J/ 
Modification, £>>*>- 

4 A , 4, 

Mood, *^-5 and **i* • 

Multitude (plural of), 5 j*> 

N. 

Nasal,- ^ • 



( xxvi. ) 



Natural order, *Hj • 

4 ** 4 A A 

Negation, ^ii and \~A~ . 
Neutralization, > UJ I . 
Nickname, )f» . 

S A 

Nominal, ■<*— I . 
Nominative (case), £>; • 

$ *A* 

„ (noun in the), £?f* • 

Non-attributive (verb or adverb), 

4 , 
, waili . 

u , 

H,tHA> A./ 

Non-copulative, v-itud | ^**J . 

tut A £ 0h* 

Non -derivative, t $&<* jip . 

Non-diminutive, /£*•• 

-' Ja/ 
Non-epithetic, **•* jiA . 

U, 
Non-essential (adverb), j*i . See 
Predicative. 

Non-replicativo, u$fr ji* . 

~, ah, 
Nonrvocative, 't«v v&c . 

S-J" *A/ 

Nonrvoid, &* ;fc= • 

Notifying ( J )> i^f*' 

4a 
Noun, f»*i • 



O. 

4~ 
Oath, |H»» . 

$ *Ax 

Object, J}"** • 

& *»/; <s .Mr 4 x 

Objective, tj'j*"** and ^j**-* £j|j . 

$S *A/ 

Objectivity, *aV«-* . 

Operative, jj^l* and Jj***" • 

4 .< 
Opposite, 4jajSi . 

Optative, ,V**^ . 

a ft 
Oral, ^UU . 

Origin, J^I and ^j. 

4 a* 
Original form, J-et . % 

i 

a •».> a 

Originative, .yl&ii . 

4~, A 
„ sentence, ' l&il » 

a x 4" 

Orthography, k^ and &&&. 

4a, 

Otiose, j*J . 

4 • a • 
Outlet (of a letter), ^fa,* • 

P. 

Paradigm, Jli* • 

4 *, 
Parapliraae, (Jij^ • 

*''„* 

Parenthesis, ( y''}* c ' • 



( xxvii. ) 



>- 

Part (of speech), f* ■ 


S Ay 

Personal (proper name), ^ya&i . 


„ (of a proposition), *')$■ • 


Philologist, v^ol . . 


Particle, ^f" 


Philology, t-«l • 


Partitive ( &• ), ,Al*? • 


1" 
Phrase, *;^*. 


SKf Pit 

Passive participle, J?* 4 " f i • 


Si * * 

Place (in inflection), \J^* and 


*A/A iltit 

(verb), lj k* i * u J** and 




t 9 * f ft 


Plastic, i->yt£* . 


* 

Past, tjs^ . 


i S,, 
Plasticity. <-Jy*£ . 


Paucity (plural of), **> • 


4a , 
Plural, £-»■ . 


»A/ 

PauBe, «-") • 


9 a/ $a 
Poetry, fk» and j*£ • 


Penultimate, y^S| J*5 U . 


S A/ 

Position (in inflection), £^y* • 


4 • 
Perfect, ^ • 


$3,>.P $ / A * 

Post-classieal, ^j" and *•£•><*»* . 


«a ,aS • 
„ declinability, *4*^*1 <• 


Ay % * » 
Postfixed, *i>! cJU- . 


Perfectly declinable, ^*\ ^^* • 


$3/ .» 
Postpositive, ^-J" • 


Permissive, fr*** . 


Prayer, * ^<s . 


\< « * J 
Person, «w> and (j 2 *- • 


Precatory, ^y 1 *^ . 


lat „ f^ • 


$AJ 

Predicament, (£^ • 

4 . 


S • /* 

2nd „ LjJslsv* . 


9/ / 

Predicate, **i. . 


5 ,»• 

3rd „ u-Jli. 
* * 


$ 'A . 

Predication, ^-\ . 



( xxviii. ) 



Z,,nr 
Predicative (adverb), ;&"•"• . Tho 



/*"• adverb is tho one whose 
operative is general being, which 
is necessarily suppressed be- 
cause it is gcnor.il; and this 

lit"* s 

adverb is named f^^* because 
the pronoun resides in it after 
the suppression of the opera- 
tive; or, as some say, because tiie 
meaning of the general opera- 
live resides in it, so as to bo 
intuitively understood when tho 

adverb is heard: while the j*J 
adverb is tho one whose opera- 
tive is particular, which is neces- 
sarily expressed except because 
ofsouic indication, in whichcaso 
it may, and somotimes must, bo 
suppressed ; and this adverb is 

called j" because it is disquali- 
fied from assuming tho pronoun 
in consequence of the mention 
of the operative, which itself 
assumes the pronoun (DM, II. 
12G, 130). Of. what is said in 
§ 177 about the attributivo ad- 
verb. Thus the y^-** is often 
used iu the sense of the attri- 
butive adverb; and is therefore 
treated as the opposite of the 
iiou-attributive, ns in R,I. 23G. 

$ , j> 
Prefixed, i-JUi* . 

Pre lis ion, Jj^ and *-*^' • 



Premonition, *&£ • 
Preparatory ( U ) , ^a* . 
Preposition, *&*l i_i^a. and t-»^ 

■f¥ and \J>^- «-»y^ and fo 

and ij^- . 

Prepositive, f*&* • 

4 • 4 , 

Present (time), J^ and y*^ - 

Presumptive (denotative of stole). 

Preterite, \J&* • 
o 

9 ' 
Preventive, /«&• • 

„ (denotative of prevent ha), 

i , A 



Primitive, <&&*■ and it*^"* »4* • 

3-agent 
J*. 



Pro-agent, jj £ ^* w«5U or ^ i-^-JU 



Prohibition, ^j**- 



Prolongation, &• • 



letter of, <*" <-»f> 



and *-v« . 



( xxix. ) 



Prominent (pronoun), 




$S A, 

Qualificatory, ^i^j. 


if it A t 

Pronoun, ■£*<> nn( j j*«i« . 
Proper, *4*^ • 


Quality, *"-° an ^ the termination 

$5 ' $S aj> 

*i — , as *«/*■ quality of part. 


fan 
Proposition, *A»^ . 

**< $'£ 
Prose, )*> and |J> . 




• it / * 
Quasi-active, ^j^ 3 " . 

lit SS 

Quasi-condition, J»<-i **^ . 


Prnsodian, ^-"j;* • 




t t Sk 

Quasi-corrolative, *->]&■ **£ • 


Prosody, ^P);* • 




* As Sh 

Quasi-dual noun, %ȣ> *-! . 
ft > * 


*A, 

Protasis, **)" • 




t A t Sh 

Quasi-infinitive noun, ;J-a<« *~l • 


Protection ( ^ of), «^j . 

«// 
Prothesis, &^l . 

Prothetic, *-a*/>o*» and i-sti. anc j 
■ i , 

i StS 

Prothetic compound, <~-^y* 


A/ JA 

Quasi-negation, t^-" <t ^ • 


Quasi-passive, f;^*> 
Quasi-plural noun, £*^ <►"! - 

t SA*0 § s 

Quasi-prefixed, t -<l*i J U 4*j^ . 
' t t 






Quasi-proposition, ^«i> <t*-t . 


Proverb, J*" • 




Quasi-redundant, tiS'JO <ux£ . 
" ' t 


Q- 

Quadriliteral, cS*W; . 




Zf° f A t t 

Quasi-sound, ^s^a)\ ^f?** jla. 
and (J 1 '** . 


Qualifiability, i-JUil . 

i, 
Qualificative, *«-« and 


$ A, 


Quasi- saying, J;-* <— m!v ■ 

$£,t 
Quavering, |*y . 





( XXX. ) 


«3 x 
Quiddity, &*»U . 




'■* A 5 ,/ /> 

Rcplicative, v'*?^ and .wW « 


§ St 

Quiescence, ^j^- • 




Reporter, jl. and JSU . 


6 

Quinquclitora), jy**^ 




Request, (j*/ 6 • 


R. 




*•• 
Requisition, >-*&>■. 


Radicr.l (as a substantive), (J-*! • 

5 A« 

„ (as an adjective), ,_jM • 


if 
Restringent, <— Jf . 

Retrenched, <«k*X« . 


4 • 
Bational, J»«* . 

.4 




Rliapsodist (reciter of poetry), 

I' ' 
and «ijlj . 



Real, ,«*4*^. 
■f * 

$,A 

Recitation, «aLiJJ . 
Redundant, ivlj and j*J . 
Reduplicated, v-wl**- . 

$ *A.» &1IA/.P 

Regimen, Jy*** and Jf***" • 

£ / « _, 

Regular, it-^i? and (j-*** • 

& • A 

Relative, cSr/£*J • 

$~, * * 
„ (pronouu), «ift* and £^>J; . 



Rhetoric, ^ti* . 
Rhetorician, ^J^V. 
Rhyme, &£® . 



4 * hi 
School, j-jba-aj . 

4 A 

Scion, <^H . 



„ location, *&* • 


«*A/ 

Sense, (_/*" • 


5 *Ax ?A 

„ noun, LjJw-i-* (.-1 aud 


Sentence, ^ • 


!'\ 


4 2 A/ <f • ./ 


f 


Serial, (3r*^* and (3**^ • 



Self-praise, r- J-3 '' 

A./ ai/^j 

Self-transitive, **«*« J>**<« . 



( xxxi. ) 



_.»** _s ** 


Subject (correlative of predicate), 


Sexiliteral, <-»^i «**» ^J* and 


5a 


4 * " ' 


r J. 


* 


„ (correlative of attribute), 


«A, 


t>* k**s a** it so 


Silence, «-£»» . 


s*JI jam»« and *»* <4»v* . 


Simple (opposed to compound), 


■0 • 


$ X ijhS 


„ of a meaning, i— «^^o 


iaKuti and >M" • 




' 


,_$**** 


„ substantive (opposed to 


y a , 


$A 


„ of state, J 1 *- k_-^L-» . 


infinitive noun), |M»I . 


i *, 
Subjunctivo (mood), v-a» . 


Single (opposed to double), L_i*«i. . 


„ term (opposed to proposi- 


„ (verb in the), \->y*ai<* , 


§,** 


£ 


tion), &f" . 


Subsidiary, ^y . 


» word (opposed to prefixed), 


Substantive (opposed to epithet), 


oyu. 


§A _• SK, $A 


4 ' $/Ai> 


p»\ and ***° jt£ t~\ . 


Singular, li^lj and Oj*»» . 


4„ «/ 


$ a* 


Substitute, ,J&i and \J>^ and 


SiBter (cordinate), tJ-i.1 . 


*****%n*' § lit 


* '* 


|js fZ* «5G an( \ ^JU 


Slurring, L ^*a.| • 


'' ' 


is,* 


!.i£ \-Jj-* . 


Softened, iJft""* • 
Solecism, i2 ^s) . 


i ,, 
„ (appositivc), ,J*V . 


i*mr / 

Suddenness of occurrence, 8>(aa> . 


§ / 


9t*i § /If 


Sound, ^4»-o . 


Superiority ( J*»l of), Ji-^. 


k/; 


§«•.* 


Sounded true, (J**-* . 


Supplied, y&* . 


$ A, 


5 ^ 


Specificative, )44* J . 


Support, <iUr . 


''*. 


f ; / 5/ * 


Subaudition, /**! . 


Supprcssiou, <-»<*»• and ;^I . 



( xxxii. ) 



Surname, *A*£ • 

Suspension, J**** 5 • 

,h/>~^> ts $a , 
Syllepsis, u***'! ,jk J^- • 

sA/A,*> r* 4 * A • 

Sylloptic, ^/^Jl^ J>*="- 

Srf» $ UK, 

Synarthrous, ^W £)};*" • 

% Ax 

Syndesis, <-&»* • 

Syndetic explicative, ^^W v-ala« . 
& 

„ aerial, J-^ uala*. 

A^> <u.»A«o */ K * 

Synecdoche, p*" 1 * J^ 1 ^i** 3 

A/A^> 

4^ ft 4_ X'* 

Synonym, ^ : '^» and"— w!/-* and 

4 /* 4 '* 

t^«U-» meaning i_^~U* 

Syntax, j 3 ** • 

/A/ 4 2/.P 

Synthetic compound, v^ / V"V* 

A t i */ f A/ 

c >- and^^i,^/- 
T. 

*/Ax 

Tautology, ;!/* • 
4 / 
Technical, J^ ■ 

Technical language, <-»/ • 



Term (of a proposition), >?*• • 

a it 
Terminations of vorsicles, i Mj* • 

4 a , 
Tradition, v^i^^- . 

Traditionisfc, &&*>>*> . 

4 9A / 

Transferred, Jj*^* • 

m"* $ /■ 

Transitive, <***•* and ,**!> and 
$ ^ * 

'y 

A x *A_ 

Transmutativo verb, (Jij^" (_}** • 
Transport (malting transitive), 

«A, 



Triliteral, ,_/»» . 

4_ » */ 4 i At 

Triptoto, <-Jj^a-» and uJy^- . 



„ declension, t-ij"» . 

4 // 
Trope, jk»*. 

Trying to remember, f<i» . 

U. 

Unaugmcnlcd, ii ^** or ^y <^as.« 

4xA 

Unbinding, JjiM . 
Uuconjugability, «>j«^. • 



( xxxiii. ) 



It) // .PAS 

Unconnected, l ^" j*= . 
Uneontracted, il*** and oa^» and 

5 sit* 
Undottod (letter), J*fi". 

*' * / 
Uniform (proposition), *»•} «A> . 

UniliteraJ, <**•!) <-»>»» .> . 

* ' Si 

Uninflectcd, ,_/*»• . 
Uninflectional, ,_J&! and >*c 

Unit, L-*& • 
y 

$ /A* 4 ,» A/ 

Unrestricted object, £P°* iji*** • 

Si /*» 

Unsound, ^l**<* • 
Utterance, ^ . 



Vague, f«V* • 

■*. " 
Variations, w-«J,UaS 

«A 

Verb, J* . 



Verbal, j£* • 

i „ 
„ (oral), ^l*" . 

Version, *dl;j • 

Vicinity, }f> and S;} 1 ^*. 

Vituperative, f^uk • 

Vocation, >!<** • 

Vocative, ^^ • 

„ w .PA/ 

particle, >1<w <-»/*>. 

Void (exception), £♦»" • 

$'" 

Vowel, #;*■ ■ 



W. 



4, 



Westerns, *//*♦ • 
Wish, ^ . 

Wonder, v^ • 

$,• U, «'*/ 

Word, **!> and ^ and ^ and 
/ 

«A/ 



COTMTEl^TS. 



PART II.-Tho Verb. 



§ 402. 



CHAPTER I.— THE VERB IN GENERAL. 
Definition— signs— divisions— inflection ... 



CHAPTER II— THE PRETERITE. 



§ 403. Definition — signs — ic*** , iy£ ■ 



and 



fT 



-pronuncia- 



tion of the final— ^-Jb > y^^a. and c ^ i A_ Ui J5 and 
lt-ju — !jv*-ii an " IjCii — j*x and l&c. 



§ 401. 



§ 405. 



8 100. 



§ 407. 



CHAPTER III.— THE AORIST. 
Its timo — resembles the «. — is infi. — when nsed as a 
present, future, past, or historic presont— sign — forma- 
tion—initial letter— vowel of initial in the act. voice— 
vowel of penultimate in the act. voice of vs. exceed- 

, K f Sh, 

ing three lottera in the pret. — moods — ^/^sy , ;}*d , 

The live paradigms— ^^af] — ^jwy on the mea- 

sure of ^**i or \$£**l ' 
The aor. that the lv » of the ./cm. pi. or of corroboration 

is contiguous to — ^j^ and ^j**^' 

Distinction between the moods and cases — and between 
the requirer of inflection and the op. of the mood. 



THE ISDtCATITE. 

The aor. governed in the ind. — its op,—&i3 for ,>&jj 



§ 408. 

§ 409. O.f. of the pred. of Jf, J^I , and Jsfa 



Ovi' 



for ^jJif. 



PAOE. 

1.3 



4-7 



8-14 



15-16*. 



16a.-16J. 



16S. 



17-18 



18-19 



.CONTENTS^' 



The Subjunctive. 
§ 410. TLo aor. governed in the subj. — its op*. . A, S , ,$ » 

§ 411. Qoveruinonfc of the subj. by ..! understood after Jo., 
the J , ^ , ? | , the i_> , the ? , and J . 

- A 

§ 412. The senses of ti-. j-^s tjuju t. 

A? 

§413. Expressibility of . | after those ps. 

§ 414 Varieties of mood after theso ?>s. — after I _ s * a ' 

§ 415. After 5 I 

§ 41G. After the , 

§ 417. After the <_5 when not preceded by negation or requisi- 
tion — when preceded by U prefixed to a verbal prop., 
J J , U prefixed to a nominal prop., l» , J) f J , 
(^saJ , the imp. J , tlie causative J. 

§ 418. After J , fcho cJ » or the . when preceded by a v. in 
the subj. 

§418./l. Government of the subj. by .| allowably suppressed 

mJ> hi 

after the ,, the tJ , J , and .| coupling to a pure «. 
— by .| anomalously suppressed— the ind. after sup- 

A? 

pressibn of y)! '« 

THE APOCOPATE. 

§ 419. The <w, governed in the apoc.—ita ops.— they are pa. or 
»*. —the condition or prot. — must be a verbal prop.—~ 
the correl. or apod. — is a verbal or nominal prop.— 
tenses of the vs. — mood of the aor. in the apod, — predi- 
caments inadmissible in the v. of the condition — the 
eorrel. when conjoined with the ^J or $ — suppression 
of the t_J — inieetional place of the prop, occurring 



CHONTteWft 



420. 



§421. 

§ 122. 
§ 423. 
§ 424. 

§ 125. 

§ 420. 
§ 127. 



CHAPTER IV.— THE IMPERATIVE. 
§ 42S. Formation — time — termination — vowel of eonj. Hamza— 

tfi / / i tti . y * * i 

imp. of x*\> <*y > aud Jfl — sign— iolfc and JUJ— 
distinction between the imp. v. and imp. verbal ». 

§ 429. Imp. past. — or act., but not 2nd pert. 

§ -130. Rare form of imp. 2nd pert. act.. 

§ 431. TJuinflectedness of the imp. ... 



CHAPTER V.— THE TRANSITIVE and INTRANSITIVE. 

§ 432. The». is trans, or intrant. — definitions — government com- 
mon to nil tw. — sign of the trans, and intrant. — the 
trans, v, governs its direct ohj. in the ace. — sometimes 



after the i_i.br 1,3 as correl. of an apocopative condi- 

$ 
tion — suppression of the apod., and of the v. of the 

condition — suppression of the correl. disallowed, allow- 
able, or necessary. 

Suppression of the instrument and ». of tho condition — 
apoc. in correl. of requisition when the t_J is dropped 
and apod, intended — condition neeosssary for such sup- 
pression — op. of tho correl. — suppreseion of the cond. 
prop, regular or frequent. 

Apoc. in correl. of com maud or prohibition indicated by 
verbal «. or enuueiatory form. 

Condition ol'llie apoc. in the correl. of prohibition 

Construction of the ind. when apod, is not intended ... 

Mood of tho aor. iutcrposed without a con. between the 

prot. anil npod. 

a j> 
Mood of the aor. after tho i_j , the . , or .1 , preceded 

by the condition aud npod. — or between the condition 

aud apod. 

Apoc. in aor. coupled after an uuapocopated correl. of 

requisition — what it is coupled to. 
Suppression of one correl. when a condition is combined 

with an oath — or with another condition. 



70-72 



72-73 

73-74 

74-75- 
75-76. 

76-7» 

70-82' 
82-87/ 

88-94 



04-95 
95 



96-107: 



CQNTEHTB. 



in the nam. — classification of intrant, and trans. vs.-r-_ 
relative precedence of the two objs. of vs. like ^^^l 
and u£- 

§ 433. Causes occasioning transitiveness 

§ '131. The trebly trans, v. 

§435. Aces, governed by both trans, and intrans. vs. 



436. 



CHAPTER VI.— THE PASSIVE. 

Definition— pro-ag. — how to parse <H) LJy* —formation 
of the pass. — vowel of the initial and penultimate — pre- 
dicaments of the pro-ag. — vowel of the i_j in the pret. 
of the tril. v. unsound in the s and of the redupli- 
cated v. — vowel of the 2nd letter of the pret. when the 
initial is an aug. i^, — of the 3rd when the initial is a 

eonj. Hamza — of the antepenultimate of AaH] and .UAjI 

unsound in the £ — of their Hamza — which objs. may 
be pro-ags. 

§ 437. Case of the remaining objs. 

§ 438. Which olj. may be pro-ag. when the direct obj. is pre- 
sent — and when it is absent — proviso as to the unres- 
tricted and advorbial objs. — ess. of these two objs. as 
pro-ags. 

§ 439. Which obj. may be pro-ag. in the eats, of { J as \ > ^ y 

and^t- 

CHAPTER VIL— THE MENTAL and TRANSMUTAT1VE 
oa FACTITIVE VERBS. 

§ 440. Jfe , etc— annul inehoation>— are mental or trans muta- 
tive — the mental vs. — indicate certainty or probability — 
their government — exs. — are plastic and aplastic — the 
transmutative vs. — their government— exs. 

\ 441. «i-j ; 1 i. q. u^iik — Jj« i. q.- ^S -the prop, after 

JI5 j(j when treated like "Jfc* 



107-113 
113-118 
118-119 

120-125 



125-126 
126-131 



131-132 



133-146 



146-149 



CONTENTS. 



§ 442. The mental-?* when trans, to one ohj.— ^> *•«<!• ,*>! — 
fb i. q. xjtji. — Jl } trom ^ ,£,$,, or b$ ; _ U»». 
l q. a*i5 — da*, 1. q. ljUJ _ ^^,.\ l. q. ua-oj or 

•»A|U.» , * *-• , * fit 

uJjb — and JjSJ i. q. Sj*J. 
§ 443. Peculiarities of the mental tw. — suppression of one or 
both objs. — • <-i1i cs-vUls — 4* l£*m& . 

§ 444. Neutralization — Neutralization and suspension peculiar 
to the plastic mental vs. — neutralization allowable, 
preferable, or disallowed — never necessary, unlike sus- 
pension. 

§ 445. Suspension — necessary before the 10 suspensories— in- 
flectional position of the prop, that the op. is suspended 
from — ». coupled to it in the ace. — reason of the term 
" suspension" — suspension occurs in none but mental 
vs. — but is not confined to mental vs. of the cat. of 

. Js — position of the jjrop^-that the v. is suspended 
from governing. 
§ 446. Reflexive objective pron. — J&*j* and jJuij — reflexive 
obj. in other vs. 



CHAPTER VI1L— THE NON-ATTRIBUTIVE VERBS. 
§ 447. '.X , otc — government — conditions of government — plas- 
ticity and aplasticity — go/ernment of the aor., imp., 
act. part., and inf. n. of the plastic — .(£ has an inf. ». — 

jj , ^jj , and JU and its sisters, have no imp. or inf. 
n. — meaning of " att." and " non-att," — the tton-att. vs. 
indicate accident — used attributively, except pi } x\- 

and ,j*«4J" 
§ 448. How mentioned by S — vs. coordinated with them 



PAGE. 

149-152 



152-155 



155^57 



157-166 



166 



167-171 



171 



CONTENTS. 



§ 449. The sub. bow known from the pred. — the pred, a single 
term or prop.— the prop, necessarily enunciatory — the 
red. - when prefixed to the prop. — the sub, sometimes a 
pron. relating to the pred.— the sub. and v. made fern, 
because the pred. is /em, — difference of gender in the 
sub. and pred. — multiplicity oipreds. 

§ 450. Usages of .JS — ambiguous constructions — meanings of 
the non-ail. .£ — elision of the . e f J& in thfl apoc* 

§ 451. Meaning and usages of $* 

t /A$ tht f tit 

§ 452. Meaning3 and usageB of ^*A , ty**l y and ,j-&$ 
§ 453. Meanings of u& and «y|^ 

§ 454. Meanings of J|: U , etc. — used only in denial — ty' 
etc, why preceded by a neg,— not followed by a void 
exc. as their pred. — suppression, of the neg., regularly 
and anomalously. 

§ 455. Meaning of f& — moaning and usage of M U 

/A* 

§ 456. Meaning of Q^i} — how proved to be a ».— its o. f. — 
when made inop. 

§ 457. Precedence of the pred. — the pred. may precede the 
sub. — such precedence necessary, disallowed, or allow- 

able — its allowability in the pred. of ij***'' an d (•!& — 
the pred. of A& may not precede the U., but may pre- 
cede *\> — the pred: may not precede the neg. U., but 
may precede any other neg., or the ». alone when the 

neg. is C — dispute as to whether the pred. of ^Lj 

/«.• 
may precede it — the reg. of the pred. may precede ij*^ 

— and other sisters of ^ • 

§ 458. Precedence of the reg; of the pred: — when not an adv: 
or prep, and gen., it may not precede both sub. and 
pred., but may precede the sub. alone — when an adv. 
or prep, and gen., it may precede bothauS. and jpraf.— 



PAGK. 

171-179 



179-184 

184 

185-186 
186-187 

187-190. 

190' 
190-191 

191-194 



195-197 



CONTENTS. 



distinction made by S — explanation of instances where 
the reg.', not being an adv. or prep, and gen,, precedes 
both sub. and pred. 

CHAPTER IX.— THE VERBS OF APPROPINQUATION. 
§ 459. J£ , etc — are a division of the annulling vs. — ...c and 

ij^- are vs. — classification of these vs. — why named vs. 
of app. — govern like ,& — why classed separately — their 
government — their pred. — its nom. — these vs. aplastic, 
except & and i_Xij| — ^yus- , jflybLi , and t-£i } 1 

$A/ / JV A? * t 

used attributively— analysis of <*ij fjk Ji ^j-^ - tIie 

jwed. of ^^ an< * J^j^ necessarily, and of ^y-* 

aS •• 

generally, conjoined with ^1 — usages of ^-f • 

% 46u Thei>«J. of^_ genera ii y denuded of ^1 —some- 
times suppressed. 

a£ , r* • • 

§ 46L j' wh y omitted afte ' >» , and inserted after ^j**- —the 

converse construction. 

<* * 
§ 462. ,j»»* conjugated — vowel of the \jp — it may contain a 

pron. relating to a precediog inch., or be denuded of 

the pron. — the other vs. of this cat. must contain the 

pron. 

§ 463. o£ conjugated ... ... ... 

§ 464. Distinction in the app. denoted by ,_?* * and <& — 

meanings of („$*** • 

§ 465. Theory that Jf when denied, affirms the pred., and, 
when affirmed, denies it — AlMa'arri's riddle upon 
JJ — refutation of that theory. 

/./AS 

§ 466. Meaning and usages of <-xi>l — its pred. generally con- 
joined with y)l • 



198-206 



206-207 
207-208 
208-210 

210 
210-211 

211-214 
214-215 



Viii. 



CONTENTS. 



467. ^S 'like cX — its pred. generally denuded of .| — the 

pred. of the vs. of com mi 
hi 
A — the least and moat ki 

of ^iSe —usages of J*a. 



pred. of the vs. of commencement, not conjoined with 
\ — the least and most known of these vs. — dial. vars. 



CHAPTER X.— THE VERBS OP PRAISE AND BLAME. 

SA sA 

§ 468. m and ^JL> — vs., not ns. — aplastic — denote general 
superlative praise and blame — have 4 dial. vars. — »[*,— 

tSt 

U» made to imply the sense of wonder — peculiari- 
ties of its ag. — Sm ^a>, . 

/A th /*./ 

§ 469. The ag. of ^J, ,»Ju, and>L, either an explicit »., syn- 
' / / 

arthrous or pre. to the synarthrous, or a pron. follow- 
ed by a sp, or by U — not an anarthrous explicit n., 
nor particular— the particularized — its sign — seldom 

/A /A 

precedes m and L jjj • 

§ 470. Combination of the explicit ag. and the sp. — the sp. of 
the explicit ag. may follow, but that of the pron. must 
precede, the particularized. 

§ 471. L*i and U*Jj —dispute abont this U ••■ 

§ 472. Construction of the particularized, postpos. or prepos. — 
the cop. when the particularized is an inch, whose 
enune. is the prepos. or postpos. prop. 

§ 473. The particularized is suppressed — but not the sp. 

§ 474. The v. made /em., and the ag. and particularized made 
du. or p&, when the ag. is an explicit «.— the pronomi- 
nal ag. always swy., and, according to R, masc. 

§ 475. The particularized must be homogeneous with the ag. — 
and particular. 



§ 4^6. Jj^Sk. and ]± iA . y —meaning and o. f. of 



-pro- 



nunciations of 



-and of every J«s meaning praise 
• a / 

or vxmder— case of the ». other than la after v*" — 

analysis of ^ Jj^ — J^ and (£ may not be 

separated — (j^ is uniform in gender and number — 

the particularized may be preceded or followed by a 

sp. or d.B.— the ace, after Jj^al — posteriority of the sp. 

to the particularized, and its omission, why not allow* 



able with 



ft 



and allowable with 



W*s^ . 



CHAPTER XL— THE TWO VERBS OF WONDER. 

tthi A A* 

§ 477. L j«*l and ,J*M-— how proved to be vs. — aplastic — formed 
from what tw.— «iy f U , etc, in what sense right— &% , 

h at ... , 

&X&) , etc, used as connectives — this usage when im- 
possible — rare formations — suppression of the won- 
dered at — the ag. why thus suppressible. 

Ax X'A? 0A/ //"AS * ••<»£ * 

§ 478. Analysis of hi) J*! in Wj J«M U— sense of rJ J| U 
jsa/ a hi 

l«\»j — analysis of *J J*»l • 

§ 479. Opinions as to U ••• 

§ 480. The v. of wonder is not preceded by its reg. — nor sepa- 
rated from it by an extraneous word — but is separated 
from it, allowably or necessarily, by another reg. when 
the latter is an adv. or pi$p. and gen. 

§ 48L The v. of wonder in past time ... 



CHAPTER XII.— THE TRILATERAL VERB. 
§ 482. The v. is unaugmented or augmented — the unaugmented 
v. is tril. or quad.— formations of the unaugmented tril. 
in the pret. act. and pass.— occasional quiescence of the 



PAGE. 

229-m 



234-23S 



238-241 

241-242 
242-24 J 

244 
245-257" 



CONTENTS. 



medial — vowel of the £ in the aor. act. — the augmented 
tril, is quad., guilt., or sex. — the augment — formations 
of the augmented tril. 

% '183; The formations of the augmented tril. are commensur- 
able and coordinate with the quad. — commensurable, | 
but not coordinate with it — and incommensurable with 

it— $*A ■ 
§ 484. Meanings of (*j — the conjug. of contending for superi- 
ority — J^» hero is only trans. — this conjug. is not regu- 

lar — (J"* ib oftener intrans. — its usual meanings — it 

' '■*/ 

sometimes shares thorn with ,J*» — it is intrans. in 

''! 

all of them — apparent exceptions— meanings of J** — 

it is intrans. — apparent exceptions. 

• •*•• 

§ 485. Meanings of JJUaJ 

§ 486. Meanings of U«5 

§ 487. Meanings of J*UJ — it may have a single ag., and be 
trans. 

§ 488. Meanings of U3| 
§ 489. Meanings of J*j 
§ 490. Meanings of \\i 

//./» 

§ 49t. Meanings of j*Aj| 
§ 49?. Meanings of J*yj 
§493. Meanings of J*Ai*,| 

„ „ \ S'A . £ /* 

§493.Jt. Meanings of J«j|andJU»l 



257-258 



258-261 



261 
261-264 
264-265 

265-269 
269-271 
271-273 
273-274 

274-276 

276.278 

278 



CONTENTS. 



§ 494. (c je| is intensive ana corrdb., and is sometimes irons. — 
iy»j) is a coined formation, irons, and inirans. — 

'*'* . . "A/A £/A 

liUjI is coined — and so sometimes are .Uyof U*| 



PAGE. 

278-279 



and 



JW. 



§ 4944. All these conjugs are iron*, and inirans. , except u£j) 

ks| and (Ui| —and sometimes denote mraniugs 
not reducible to rule. 



CHAPTER Xtll— THE QUAORILITERAL VERB. 
§ 495. Formation of the unaugmented quad, in the pret. act. and 
pass., and in the imp. — the augmonted quad, is quia. 
or sex. — formations of the augmented quad. — they are 
intrant. 

//A// y/A/ 

§ 495. A. ,11**? is quasi-pass, of the trans. 11*9 

§ 496. Um#| and ,U*5| are inirans. — and so are vs. coordinated 

//As A * s S ** 

with fsip.laad ^y^ . 

§ 4idG.A. The meanings above mentioned are not peculiar to the 
pret. 



Part III. -The Particle- 



CHAPTER I.— THE PARTICLE IN GENERAL. 
§ 497- . Definition — must be accompanied by a n. or v. — needs a 
single term or prop. — sign — prefixed to ns. and vs., or 
to ns. or vs. alone — uninjl. — classification — the conjunct 
pa. — they are replaceable by the inf. n. — exceptions 
this rule— must be followed by a eonj. — the ^ — the 

'* i 

* — j» , etc— the > —the i —the ,_? : 



279 



28$ 



281 
281 



282 



283.291 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER II.-THB PREPOSITIONS. 
498. Definition — the ace. coupled to their gen. — classifica- 
tion — are peculiar to ns., and govern the gen. — govern 
what sorts of «. — the adv. and prep, and gen. depend 
upon a v., etc, expressed or supplied — their dependence 
upon the non-alt. v., aplastic v., and p. — what preps, 
do not depend — the adv. and prep, and gen. after deis. 
and indets. — the nam. after the adv. and prep, and gen. — 
their op. when necessarily suppressed — the necessarily 
suppressed op. when a v., and when a qual. — how to 
be supplied — where to be supplied — latitude allowed 
in the adv. and prep, and gen.— preps, sometimes act 
as substitutes for others. 



§•499. ^ 
,§ 600. J\ 



§ 501. 


J&- or ^ 




§ 502. 


^ 




§ 508. 


The4> 


... 


§ 504. 


The J 
s » 


... 


§ 505. 


V) 


... 


§ 506. 


The j and «t» 


of the oath 


§ 507. 


£ 


... 


§ 508. 




... 


§ 509. 


TheuJ 

A* JA* 


... 


§ 510. 


o«* and &<* 


... 


§ 511. 


* * 
lib. 


... ... 


§ 512. 


\±s. and fla. 


... 


§ 513. 


A / 3^' 

J f J«J, and 
prep. 


1a — J J sometime 



CONTENTS. 



614. Suppression of the prep. — regular in the case of all preps, 
ai hi 
with jjjl and ^ and their eonjs. — provided there be 

Si A$ 

no ambiguity— place of ^jt and ^j' and their eonjs. upon 
suppression of the prep. — regular also in the case of 

Ay 

the causative J with the infinitival ^f and its eon). — 
confined to hearsay with other gens. 

515. Subaudition of the prep. — in the case of <-»> , regularly 
after the , the i_J , and Ai , aid anomalously with- 
out these eons. — what governs the gen. — in the case 
of other preps., regularly and otherwise. 



CHAPTER III.— THE PARTICLES ASSIMILATED TO 
THE VERB. 

§ 516. Form a division of the pa. annulling inchoation — consist 
of 6 ps., i-ji , etc — resemble the att., plastic, trans., 

v. — their government — their position — their pred. when 
not requisitive — their government how affected by the 

aflmon of U — sense of Li J . 
# 

§ 517. Meaning of ^t and yjl — • -Ji sometimes followed by two 

aces.— or by an inch, in the nom. — does not alter the 

at 
prop. — ^1 with its prop, virtually a single term — a 

conjunct, p. — how renderable — its position. 

£ 3* 

§ 518. In what cases J, is necessary— and in what J[ ^ 

§ 519. In what cases either ^J or Ji is allowable 

a si s / * 

§ 520. u)t °r u>' after v/*" ' etc 

* s 

§ 521. Prefixion of the J of inception with ^1 — what it is 

prefixed to— its position— cii«J — prefixion of the J 

s i if '" 

with ^P and ^1 . 



CONTENTS. 



§ 524. 
§ 525. 



§ 526. 

§ 527. 
§ 528. 

§ 529. 
§ 530. 



Pronunciation of ^jl after the mental v., whether followed 
by the J or not. 

SS tit wi I 

Case of the coupled n. after the sub. of ^J , ^jt , or ^ — 
explanation of the nom. when the pred. precedes it — 

allowability of the nom. after the sub. of ,jl and ^ — 
case of the other appose. — the nom. not allowable when 
the pred. follows it literally and constructively — or 
rather when the jprat must belong to both subs. — 

explanation of the nom. when the pred. follows it 
it s 

■jl as a sub., subst., aud eorrob. — ^jj as a pred. 

5 a? a i £zt, 
Contraction of A , A , ^ aa & .jK — ™e contracted 

a i * 

^J prefixed to what props. — inop. or op. — prefixed to 

what sort of v. — when followed b7 the distinctive J — 

subaudition of pron. of the case after it when inop. — 

tit 
the contracted ,^1 — preceded by what sort of v. — inop. 
or op. — its sub. — prefixed to what sort of prop. — when 
followed by a separative — its pred. 

. st aS 

Sense of the v. prefixed to A , the contracted A , and 
A? ""* 

the subjunctival A — mood of the v. following the 

At 

contracted or subjunctival ^ 

3 A ft Ay/ 5 t 2f ■ 2 * 

Jl syn, with J^i or fi — A syn. with^Jv- — ^* ... 

a i 
■^ simple or comp. — its meaning — interposed between 

two sentences differing in negation and affirmation. 

The difference lit. or. id. — the two sentences not neces- 
sarily contradictory, but merely repugnantr— suppres- 
sion of the sub. — the J not prefixed to the pred. 
a • 

The contracted ^P inop. or op. — the j allowable with 

* s I a t ' A I 

^ and u)# — elision of the ^ of ^ — -its occurrence 



PAGE. 

406 



407-415 



415-416 
41G-424 



424-425 



425 
425.426 

426-423 



§ 531. (^o said to be compounded of the i_> and ^jl — place 

of the <-£ — and of ^1 with its sub. and pred. — the <*-$ 

a p. or n. — ^ better held to be simple— reasons for 
the Fath of its Hamza — its meanings — sometimes 
followed by both terms in the ace. 

a, 
§ 532. The contracted $ inop. or op. — subaudition of pron. of 

Kit 

the case after it when literally inop.-r-tixQ inop. ^j™ pre- 

fixed to what prop*. — ^ really op. — its sub. and pred. — 
case of the «. after it — when followed by a separative. 

§ 533. Meaning of i^^J — sometimes followed by both terms 
in the ace. — as also the other five ps. — suppression of 
its sub. 

* a/ as 

§ 531 "H^ prefixed to ^ 

S// 

§ 535. Meanings of jj*' — sometimes followed by both term's 
in the ace. 

n„ si . nf 

§ 536. Jpi prefixed to ^jl — its pred. conjoined with ^ or the 
p. of amplification — its pred. sometimes a pret. v. 

§ 537. Dial. vars. of J*) — the o. f.—pred. of (c conjoined with 

A? S" 3 s 

jj)1 — sense and government of jj** and ^ — mood of 
their correC— suppression of the sub. 



§ 538. 



CHAPTER IT.— THE CONJUNCTIONS. 
Coupling of single term to single term, and prop, to 
prop.v-fco two" regs. of two ops. — to two or more regs. 
of one op. — to the regs. of more than two ops. — ot its. 
and vs. — •of-pret. to ctor., and the converse — of aor. in 
the future to aor. in the past, and the converse — of 
enunciatory to originative prop., and the converse — of 
nominal to verbal prop n and the converse — of single 
term to prop., and the converse — of- v. to ».; and the 



PAGK. 

429-432 



432-436 



436.438 



440-441 
441-443 



444-463 



1*1. 



converse — to tbe letter, place, and imagination or 
sense — the coupled in the predicament of the ant. — 
difference in inflection — predicaments unpardonable in 
the nnt. pardonable in the coupled — the ant. preceded 
by the coupled — concord of the pron. relating to the ant. 
and coupled — suppression of the ant., eon., or coupled 
and con. — number and classification of the eons. — 



§ 539. 
§ 540. 



meaning common to the } , the 
The j 



J, and 



vj^- 



and J — the i_J — 



§ 541. 
5 542. 

§ 543. 
.§ 544. 

§ 645. 



Meaning common to the •— > , (? , and L J^ — distinction 
between them-r-and between the 
j or j — the t_j and J both denote gradation in 

climax^- mood of the aor. conjoined with f between or 
after the condition and apod., and after requisition — 
redundance of the , , the i>J , and J — js>. — dis- 

tinction between it and f — and between it and the 
j — rare as a con. 

At. m Ki 

Meaning common W 4% *••! , and (•' — distinction between 

them. 

A? Ki at 

Distinction between jl and (•! — reply to the conj- |»l , 

the disj- (J , and jl 

aS S -a$ a Kb 

Meanings common to jl and W -r- >l —r- W — ^1 

hi s $ s £ s 

Distinction between .j and U| — UJ not a con. — the U| 
a / $ 2 S 

compounded of y)' and *• • 

t. A/ A \ ■* Ay. A I 

Meaning common to ^ , J* , and ^ — ? — J* — ^ ... 



CHAPTER V.— THE NEGATIVE PARTICLES. 

546. u , etc— &*' 

547. 1 



CONTENTS. 



xifVu 



§ 6*8. ff — U —the eomp. U 
§ 649. $ - 
§ 660. ^J ... 



CHAPTER VI.— THE PREMONITORY PARTICLES. 
t * 

651. I* , etc — why Darned " premonitory" — 4 — their posi- 
/i ,t /t ,t it ■ 3 * &,f 
tion— *I and M — fl| — t^ — U| i. q, Ua. r M . 

552. l» ... ... ... ... 

558. ZKaZ. vara, of U| ... 



CHAPTER VII.— THE VOCATIVE PARTICLES. 

ft * m 

554. h , etc. — !j why included — kinds of voe. — ^ — 1 — 

I) — ,_yi or ^1 —- M or li* — the Hamza. 
556. I* the most general of them ... 

CHAPTER VIII.— THE PARTICLE* wrA.8SENT and 
AFFIRMATION. 

h*f h** *t A/y yy 

556. f* , etc — (i** — ,_^ — distinction between f** , t-J L t 

and ' — wha't ifiterroga. are replied to with the ps. of 
affirmation — replies to the interrog. ns. — to the Hamza 

** *S- A y 

with |»i "—to the Hamza alone or with jJ , or to (J* — 

A yS> A •• A/« Ay C, A 

J*1 — J**— Jl* — ,». — j| — J, 

657. D«rf. tww. of (•*» ... 

558. Pronunciation- of the ^ in ^i^yl 



PABB«* 

587-539 
539-541 

542-546 

546-548 
549 

550.552 
552 

558-662 



CHAPTER IX.— THE EXCEPTIVE PARTICLES. 

559. 'f , etc — **> — position of the-roy. of an op cjonjoined 
with an exceptive p. 



563-563 
563 

664 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER X.— THE PARTICLES OF ALLOCUTION. 
§ 560. The i-/ and e> — the <-J — the «y 
§ 561. The signs of gender and number are affixed to them 
§ 562. The g and in 8 (Ij and 'b| ... „. 



CHAPTER XI.— THE CONNECTIVE ob REDUNDANT 
PARTICLES. 

A 

§ 563. (•)' eU>— named red., connective, or eorrob. — op. or mop. — 

*A 

J- 
A« * 

§ 564. ^1 

§ 565. U 

§ 566. * 

§ 567. ^ ... 

§ 568. The ^ , the J , and the ^ 



CHAPTER XII.— THE EXPOSITORY PARTICLES. 

A* «S 

§ 569. ^yl and ^1 — difference between them — single term after 

^ — prop, imitative of a quasi-saying accompanied by 
the expos, p. — or unaccompanied by it. 

§ 570: ^j' — mood of the aor. accompanied by " after yjl 

CHAPTER Xni.-=THE INFINITIVAL PARTICLES. 
ft t 

5 571. ^* , etc — U — ita conj. — ^* not temporal or temporal— 
at * 

^ not temporal — •** conjoined with aplastic p. — aup- 

* hi 
pression of *•* : — (jjlr*ifcs. conj. — other meanings of 

A* &' _ Ki 

^1 i ^H\ and 'the infinitival ^1 interchangeable — 

S f . *-1 A< A' 

^jl —the contracted*^! — ,_/ — jJ — authenticity 



CONTENTS. 



XIX. 



of the infinitival y — its eonj. — mood* of the ». con- 
joined with the i^J after it. 

§ 572. Apoc. governed by ^1 — ind. after it ... ... 592-594 

CHAPTERXIV.— THE EXCITATIVE PARTICLES. 

§ 573. V t e fc— their meaning— position— inseparable from the 595-596 
t>. — followed by the nominal prop, in poetry. 

'A/ /A/ /A/ 

§ 574. Another meaning of V and <"^ — V*— the ihierrog. 596-601 

**? t\/ A/ A/ thf ml .£!> 

and tug. ty — V i. q. ^ J — Uy — J| — S| com . 
pounded of ^ and * — Si — M — composition of 
51 and W — j» . 

CHAPTER XV.— THE PAETICLE of APPROXIMATION. 

§ 575. &> — peculiar to a certain kind of v. — meanings ... 602-607 

§ 576. Inseparable meaning — additional ones ... ... 607 

A' 

§ 577. Separation of <& from thee. — subaudition of the v. — 608-60.9 
subaudition of <w . 

CHASTER XVI.— THE PARTICLES of FUTURITY. 
§ 578. The y_y , etc— why named pi. of futurity— the p. of 610-613 

amplification — why so named — the yjr — v-»j*» — how 

A* 

distinguished from the (j*. — ^1 . 
§ 579. 4jj' with its v. is equivalent to ^ with its rega.- ... 613 

As S/ A S Si f A t 

§580. &* and ^ for jl and ^1 — 8, and ^ ... 613-614 

CHAPTER Xyil.— THE lNTERKOfQ-AiPlVE PARTICLES. 

§ 581. The Hamza and J* —prefixed to what propt^— the 615-624 
Hamza — its peculiarities — prefixeS" to the j , the «-J , 



X*. 



CONTENTS. 





and |»' — followed by the single term— other meanings 


PAOB. 




of the Hamza — ^ —its peculiarities. 




§ 582. 


A * h* 

Theory that J* is i, q. <& 


624-625. 


§ 583. 


Suppression of the Hamza 


625-626 


§ 584. 


Position of the inlerrog. ... 


626 


CHAPTER XVIIL— THE CONDITIONAL PARTICLES. 




§ 585. 


A A A/ A^ A 

Ji , etc— cj1 — }. — ^ i. q. ^ 


627.635 


§ 586. 


A 

Tenses of the vs. in the eat. of ^jf — mood of the aor. in 
i 
the prot. and apod. 


635-636 


§ 587. 


The »_j when necessary in apod.— sometimes suppressed 
or replaced by j^j . 


636 


§ 588. 


A * 
yji when used 


036-637 


§ 589. 


The red. ^ affixed to ^1 


637 


§ 590. 


Position of the eond. p. — suppression of the apod. .., 


637 


§ 591. 


^j' and" j* necessarily followed by the v. — explanation of 
* *' as . 
instances to the contrary — y followed by j! —pred. 

S? A, 

of yjl after ^ — tense of the v. in the pred. — tense of 

the v. in the prot. of p —mood of the aor. in the 
prot. — the eorrel. 


638-646 


§ 592. 
§ 593. 


A h* 
Other meanings of ,j! and J 


646-648 
649-656 


5 594. 


A ' .*?. 

^orM 


656-661 


CHAPTER XIX.-THE CAUSATIVE PARTICLE. 




§ 595. 


A i A^yy 

if ■— analysis of **S> —ease of the l*» 


663 



CONTENTS, 



Xtl. 



§ 596. Op. of the aubj. after ,_$> — ij 5 ' when infinitival, and 
a * 
when causative— reg. of ^ . 

§ 597. Expression of .( after < — orthography of U*? and 



PAGE. 

662-661 



CHAPTER XX.— THE PARTICLE op REPREHENSION. 
§ 59S. % — comp. or simple — meanings 



CHAPTER XXL— THE Js. 
§ 599. Enumeration — pronunciation — government — the inop. 

*' 
jj — the determinative jjl — ita meanings — its expres- 

A/ 

sion or suppression when necessary — its dial, var, j»l — 
the red. J' — Ji used as a substitute for the post. 

tfi h* 

pron. or explicit «. — Jl i. q. Jp> . 
§ l 600. The ,J of the correl. of the oath.— position of the reg. 
of au op. conjoined with it — its suppression. 

A 

§ 001. The subsidiary J — its prefixion to «i) — its suppres- 
sion — the (J when not subsidiary, but red. 

fly /«/ 

§ 602. The J of the correZ. of jf and ty — its suppression — 
suppression of the entire correl. 

§ 603. The requisitive J — its pronunciation — its government 
and meanings— the J when dispensed with, and when 
necessary — rarity of its prefixion in the 1st pen. and 
in the 2nd pers. act. — its subaudition — perpetually in 
the Snipers, act. 

§ 604. The (J of inception — where prefixed — its priority — posi- 
tion of the reg. of an op. conjoined with it — the J 
when not the J of inception, but the J of the correl. 
of the oath. 



665.668 



669-680 



680-681 
681-685 

686 
686-690 

690-694 



CONTENTS. 



§ 605. 


The A distinguishing the contracted from the neg. ^J 

s £ 
held by the KK to be i. q. SJ 


PAOB. 

694-696 


§ 606. 


The f governing the^ew. 


696 


CHAPTER XXII.— THE QUIESCENT «y op FEMINI- 

NIZATION. 

§ 607. Definition — why affisedrto the attribute — feraininiz'ation 


,697^698 




of the v. — this «» why quiescent — when mbMized — 
effect of Its mobilization. 




§ 608. 


CHAPTER XXIII.— THE TAN WIN. 
Definition— kinds of Tanwin 


«99V7«8 


§ 609. 


Its quiescence and mobility— its suppression, allowably 
or necessarily. 


703-705 


CHAPTER XXIY.— THE CORROBORATITE &■ 
§ 610. Double or single, mobile or quiescent — o.f. — meaning — 


706^709 


§611. 
§ 612. 


conjugation of tbe v. corroborated by the ^ —the 
single ^ where not used. 
Both peculiar to the v. — tw: corroborated by tuem 
Vs. not corroborated by them — their aftmon in requisi- 
tion — in enunciation after another corrob., like the j 

of the oath and the red. U — to the correl. of the con- 
dition — to the condition not preceded by U —after 
the red. U otherwise than in condition — after 5 and 

J — to the aor. devoid of all the foregoing— to the 
act. part. 


709:710 
710-715 


§ 613. 
§ 614. 


The £) inseparable and otherwise 
Suppression of the double ^ , allowably — of the single 
. , necessarily and otherwise. 


715-716 
716-718 


§ 616. 
§ 616. 


CHAPTER XXV— THE- 5 of SILENCE. 
Definition — when affixed~»its suppression .;., 
Properly quiescent — when»mobi]ized 


719tj24, 
724J-85 



CONTENTS. 



§m 



CHAPTER XXVI.— THE and jh or PAUSE. 
Affixed to the (_/ of the y&m. in pause — a a substi- 
tuted for the ±J of the fern, ia pause and continuity. 



CHAPTER XXVII.— THE PARTICLE of DISAPPROVAL. 
§618. Definition-— when affixed — with or without imitation ... 
§ 619. Its meanings ... 

§ 620. Its affixipn to the expression mentioned — to ^) after 

the expression. 
§ 621. Its position in the sentence 
§ -($22.. Its omission allowable or necessary — retention of the 

Tanwln in pause allowable with it — the s of silence 

necessary. 

CHAPTER XXVIII.-THE PARTICLE of TRYING to 
REMEMBER. 

§ B28. Definition — it is inelegant — when used — how formed .. 

§ .624". Like the augment of disapprobation — but not followed 

by the a of silenue. 



PAGE. 

726-727 



728-730 

730 

730-732 

732-733 
733 



734, 



:fj^.r,t tech sesocxntix 

THE VERB. 
CHAPTER I. 



THE VERB IN OENEBAIs 

§ 402. The v. is what indicates-a meaning in itself 
connected with one of the three times (§h). It indicates 
two things, accident and time;. for ,.15 Hestood or has stood 

S Sf 

indicates standing injsasttime, *jA>./fe stands or wilt 

us 

stand standing in the present and future, and *» Stand thou 
standing in the future, the accident being ^uS Standing, 
which is one of the two things indicated by the v., and is 
the inf. n. It is distinguishable from the n. and p. by 
means of (1) the o of the ag., pronounced with Damm 

S A *t 

in the 1st pew., as taJbii ; with Fath in the 2nd pers. 
masc, as i&J^Uj ; and with Kasr in the 2nd pers. fem. y 

A A» A • A 

as j>i« : (2) the quiescent <a> offeminiuization,as »*>-♦»* 

' A / A *<>> ' 

and w&*-*& ; whereas the vu of feuoiniuization affixed to 

' i 

ns. is mobile through the vowel of inflection, as SjJ> 

ft' a 9 #tsa a tiit , a a a * ,, • " 

S « tw and &*! •*> + us^l^ and & «l«w> cu^ ; and tbe 

* ' ' / 3a 

t«u pf feoiminization] affixed to the p. } as cy^, *&%>>, 



r 2 ) 

m * S* AS* 

, is rarely quiescent with i_ij and J , aa u>*) and 

A w* 

is*-* : (3) the ^ of the fern, ag., affixed to the imp., as 

A / */ 

-*y*M j and to the aor., as £&y£* ; but not to the pre£ : 
(4) the ^j of corroboration, whether single, as XCVL- 
15. [153, 610]; or double, as i-^A b uti^iaJtf VII. 
86. Assuredly we will drive thee, out, Shu'aib. It is 
divisible into pret., aor., and imp. [603]. The. BB hold 
that inflection is original in ns., derivative in -vs. [404$s 
and the ELK hold that inflection is original in ns. and vs'.i 
but the first opinion is right. Th.^ uninfl. v. is of two 
kinds, (1) that of which the uninflectedness is agreed upon, 

vid. the pret, which is uninfl. upon Fath, as ^y* and 

jJUbJf , so long as a y of the pL is not attached to it, in 

which case it is pronounced with Damm j nor a mobile 
nom. pron., in which case it is made quiescent [403]: 
(2) that. of which the uninflectedness is disputed, the 
preferable opinion being that it is uninfl., vid. the imp^ 

A A 

as vV*' ' which is uninfl. according to the BB, and infl. 
according to the KK [431, 603]. The inft. v. is the cor. 
[404, 405], which is infl. only when neithei the co:.to- 

t '.' is Ax A x 

borative ^ , as ^.y*** J* » with which he v. is uninfl. 
upon Fath, whether the ^ be single or double, nor the 

/A ht a t A Ay 

^ of the p/. ./em., as jO*^ <»>K>a$M , with which the v. 
is wnw/f. upon quiescence, is contiguous to it [406] 



( 3 ) 
so that it is infi. when it is separated from the corrobo- 
rative . by an 1 of the du. f as ^iy& J& , originally 

yjkr& , the first ^ , i. e. the ^ of the md., being 
elided to avoid the succession of three ^s; and t simi- 
larly tyhen it is separated from the corroborative ^ by a 
P of the p/., as u ji/£> J& > originally ^jfye* ; or by a 

3 h/ As 

,3 of the 2nd pers. sing, fern., as ,*>*£> J& , originally 

tf • />< 
'u^AO*** [610]. This is the opinion of the majority.; 

hut A"kh holds the aor. v. to be iminfi. with the cor- 
roborative yj, whether the corroborative ^ be con- 
tiguous to it or not } and it is related on the authority 
of some to be infi. even if the corroborative ^ be con- 
tiguoosf to it : and IM relates in one of his books that 
there is no dispute as to the uninflectedness of the aor. 
v. with the yj of the pi. Jem.', whereas it is not so, but 
the dispute is found, and the master III in his commen- 
tary on the Idab is one of those who relate it (IA). 



CHAPTER II, 



THE PRETERITE. 



§ 403. It is that which indicates the connection of 
an accident with a time anterior to your time [615] (M). 
It is distinguishable by the quiescent «y of feinininization 
(IA, Sh), as 

4 s A/ 9 Aw*& t * A C/s mff A • uf y/ A • / w-P A j2 • /» A 2tf/# 

(Sh), by Ja'far Ibn 'Ulba alHiirithl, She stole a visit to 
me, and saluted me; afterwards arose and bade farewell: 
and, when she turned away, the, i. e. my, soul was well- 

t A/ /• 

nigh departing (T), and by the «y of the ag., as &>S£j5 

flf^h J 1 ^' '^ ^ Bl essed be Thou, Possessor of 
majesty and honour, each of which is affixed only to a 
literal fret. (IA). Hence it is proved that ^e and 
*»J are not ps., as IS and Th say of ^f* , and as P 
says of ^yd , and that »*» is not a n., as Fr and those 
who agree with him say ; but that they are pret. vs., 
because-the «w [first] mentioned is attached to them, as in 

/ A* ht A / •/ ft * $ A A * A/ 

^& ^1 ut-*»»*J &*Jlb kiiiB v>-—rf jffmd m no/ o wrong- 
doer ; may-be therefore, she may attain felicity, the say- 

A t A * * • ^ ,/A .PA.* *ht t £,, A ^ 

ing of the Prophet u^**>; t$ji £**aaJ| -o l«y »* 
Whoso purifieth himself on the Friday, etc. [87], and 



( 5 ) 

J/ostf excellent is the recompense of the pious, Paradise, 
the abode of wishes and desires and grace (Sh). The 
<pret. is uninfl. upon Fath unless necessity arises for its 
being quiescent or pronounced with Damm, the quiescence 
being on the occasion of the change of an unsound letter 
or the affixion of some of the prons., and the Damm 
being with the j of the pron. (M). When it is conjoined 
with (L, Sh) a mobile nom. pron. (Sh), [e. g.] the pron. 

m *'> [ ** > ] or u) t » ts fi na l is made quiescent (L), [so 
that] it keeps to uninflectedness upon quiescence (Sh), as 

\&*iyb (L, Sh), ut^iyi , ^W^J, li?j-« (Sh), and ^yi 

' * * * 
(L), where the »., originally ^y* with Fath, is made 

uninfl. upon quiescence because the «w and ^ of the 
attached nom pron. are mobile [20] (Sh): and, if the v. 
be triliteral, unsound in the £ , it is lightened by chang- 
ing the £ into I ; and, two quiescents then concurring, 
the £ must be elided, its vowel, if a Damma or Easra, 
having been transferred to the kJ , to give notice of the . 
measure of the v., and, if a Fatha, changed into Damma 
when the £ is a j and Kasra when the £ is a £ , and 
transferred to the i-i , to give notice of the elided ; so 

that from- JUo, i_5&, and v^to, originally Jjk, 

* * * t » A* » A JA 

»-»•£. , and \^*Jb , you say i^Jio , c^ia. , and ir^*a> 
eliding the f after transfer of the vowel assumed to be 



( 6 ) 
upon it to- the O ; and from J6 and j b [484], origi- 

'f* ft/ Pitt .PA 

nally J^S and £*>, yon say tsJS and ct-*>, when the 

I needs elision upon attachment of the mu , changing the 
vowel assumed to be upon it into Datnma and Kasra 
respectively, because these [vowels] are homogeneous 
with the £ , and transferring it [to the ui ] (L). The 
attached ace. pron. does not change the v. from its 

9 A» * tt* ' 

original uninflectedness upon Fath, as djj \-&.y* or 

\±>yb Zaid beat thee or us : and the quiescent nom. pron. 
does not require quiescence of the v, also ; but the final 

of the v. remains pronounced with Fath before the I , as 
* * * 
l>y& , and is pronounced with Damm before the ^ , as 

B t t t9&,& /'/*** St/ A 

\yyi : white in such as g^k &il^l !^*Af II. 15. 
Have bought error in exchange for right direction [663] 
and ' )y*> uXHito ! ***> XXV. 14. They will invoke there 
perdition, i. e. will say, " my perdition, [come ; for this 

S tt A 

is thy time" (B),] the original form is l^s^f with a j 

pronounced with Damm before the quiescent pron., and 

st * 
Uy:i3 with the first y pronounced with Damm before 

the quiescent pron.; then the ^ and } , being mobile 
and preceded by a letter pronounced with Fath, are con- 
verted into f ; and afterwards the 1 is elided because of 
the concurrence of two quiescents. When bare of the 
\mobile nom. pron. [and of the y of the pron.], the pret. 



( 7 ) 

* * * t * h * * * H * ti /// 

in uninfl. upon Fath, as ^yo , ^^^ > £)***-' j Vr* > 

St* * it**' 

and &i^ : while such as ^^ and ta* are originally 

x^/ * ** / 

^.•j and j«* , the 3 and ^ being converted into f 

because mobile and preceded by a letter pronounced 
with Fath, so that, the quiescence of their final is acci- 
dental, and the Fatha is assumed to be in the f ; for 
which reason, when the final is assumed to be quiescent, 

* tit* * ht> 

the o and « return, as ux£«j and *sjj** ,(Sh). 



CHAPTER III. 



THE AORIST. 

§ 404. The aor. is common to the present and future: 

i»Ax 8 

but the J [of inception prefixed to it (MM) in Wj u)^ 
J«aJ Verily Zaid does (M)] makes it a pure present, [as 
it f .a!dJj J JJ'fBuJ ^\ XII. 13. Feri/^ «£ grievetk 
me thai ye take him away (MM)]; while the j« or 

• A / 

xJy [prefixed to it (MM)] makes it a pure future 
(M, MM) : and it is by reason of their being prefixed to 
it that it resembles the n. ; and is consequently infl. 
[402] with the ind. and subj. [corresponding in sign and 
Arabic name with the nom. and ace], and with the apoo. 
instead of the gen. (M). According to the KE, the J of 
inception prefixed to the aor. makes it peculiar to the 
present, as the j- makes it peculiar to the future ; and 

as * * t a / * <*Ax S 

therefore they do not allow ^f& cJy-J fi*aj ^f because 
of the contradiction: but the BB allow that, be- 
cause the J , according to them, continues to import cor- 
roboration only, as when it was prefixed to the inch. [604]. 
As the »., which is vague, like Ja.^ , becomes peculiar 

to one by means of a p. } like J^f , so likewise Ijhe aor., 
which is vague, because of its applicability to the present 
and future, becomes peculiar to one of them by means of 



( 9 ) 
the j» ; and the aor. v. is ihjl. because of the resem-. 
blance mentioned, according to the BB, not because of 
the concentration of various meanings upon it, as in the 
case of the n. [161]. The aor. becomes (1) a pure pre- 
sent by means of (a) ^Ifj [206], \sui , and similar advs. 
indicative of the present: (b) the J of inception, accord- 
ing to the KK, as above : (c) negation by j>*d [456] or 

* a a, $»•_/• n, , 

U [546], according to some, as p^u <s>) j~if an d U 

§A/ as, pa, in, , a 

«*d) f)*i. or f^i *i) ** ; and by ^ [550], according to 

§ A/ t a, a ! £ 

Mb, as t*i5 rj*i «)' : (2) a P ure f uture > hy means of (a) a 

2 • # A i 

future adv., as 1*>* VJ"^ an( * tne ^^ e *• ( D ) ' te attribu- 

. a , , a^j .» *,, 

tion to an expected matter, as &*U£H [.yu The resur- 
rection will come to pass : (c) its importing requisition 
of the act, vid. in command, prohibition, prayer, excita- 
tion, wish, hope, and/ear : (d) its being a promise : (e) 
the two ^ s of corroboration [611] : (f) the J of the 
oath [600, 652] : (g) every apocopative [419] or sub- 

j A, 

junctival [410] op.: (h) the infinitival y [571]: (i) every 
cond. instrument, even if it do not govern, except y 
[below] j while the apod, also must be future, because 
it is inseparable from the prot., which is future : ( j) 

the p.. of amplification [578] : (k) the neg. V [547], 
as S and his followers say : (3) converted into a past by 



( io ) 

A/ S' 

means of (a) J [548] ; (b) the apocopative l*J [548] ; 
(c) 3» mostly [591] ; (d) it [204] ; (e) C") [505] (R). 

In &U.SU* Wxw ^Jtxi b ; l| J«, ; f «JJf &U|^ XXXV. 
10. ^4«rf God is he that sent the winds ; and they 
raise clouds; and We drave them j*£Zj> is put "into the 
aor., contrary to what precedes and follows it, in order 
that the state in which the raising of the clouds by the 
winds takes place may be imitated, and that those wond- 
rous appearances indicative of the Supreme Power may 
be required to present themselves : and thus they do with a 
v. containing a sort of speciality and peculiarity in a state 
that is deemed extraordinary, or that impresses the per- 
son addressed, or otherwise, as says Ta 'abbafa Sharri 

* A/ s A * *<u*f m 3*A> , S a A tifi A „ 

/ / A * * &t°* Ax M * 9h*> 9 e n f m $ 

isu*axsj0 &%sa*aJli" i_^-»J # £)£ J)*H &*£& k*» <Jtf 

s * * .Az /A ^ • ACxs * * t sfi ti if 

[And whoever denies the existence of the goblin, verily 
I announce from certainty, nay, eyesight, that I did 
meet the goblin descending in a desert like the sheet of 
paper, smooth ; and I smite her without consternation ; 
and she fell prostrate on the two arms and on the under 
part of the neck (N)], because he intends to picture to 
his people the state in which he emboldened himself 



( 11 ) 

through his pride to smite the goblin, as though lie made 

them see it (K) : or the difference ia the vs. [in XXXV. 

10.] may be to indicate the permanence of the matter 

** 
(B). The sign of the aor. is that J may be prefixed to 

§ *$ #fs a* n a * */* A t » *** a * \t 

it (IA, Sh), as d.*l \ s fS &» Jk J, d# J y oJb f i CXIL 
3. 4. He begetteth [548] not, nor is begotten, nor is any 
one equal unto Him (Sh). In every v. the aor. is formed 
by adding at its commencement one of the aoristic letters, 
vid. the Ifamza of the 1st pers. sing., the ^ of the 1st 
pers. pi., the e^ of the 2nd pers. without restriction [of 
gender or number] and of the 3rd pers. fern. sing, or du., 
and the ^ of the 3rd pers. masc. without restriction [of 
number] and of the 3rd pers. /cm. pi. The initial 
[aoristic letter (BS)] of the aor. ia the act. voice, (1) 
when its pret. is quadriliteral, whether with or without an 
augment, is pronounced with Damra, by common consent, 

*,*,i a na *S* *w*a * * * s > a ******** 

as f/f j./^, $*$**, ^t^c^^ai, and^yao ^f>-±i : 
(2) when ita pret is not quadriliteral, [whether it Pall 
short of or exceed 4 letters (BS),] is pronounced, (a) ac- 

* * * a * * * * . ■ 

cording to the IJijazis, with ?ath, as ^yc \-iy*t , u>^ 

3 * h * * 2 * S * h * *$** *m* // • / /A # /A/ 

t^yS^i, ti>l2> ci^, fbu fl*Z>, JIM $&»H t and 

* * n * a a a / * * 

_j=cu-.| jaaJw : (b) according to others than the Ijjijazis, 
*- * * 

with (a) Kasr, (a) when the letter is not ^ , and the 
pret. either is on [the measure of] J«* [with Kasr, 



( 12 ) 

aor. AmK with Fath (BS) of the * ], as u^*b *U3 , 
JUl , and Jjw , [contrary to ^fiiii* , its />re£ being 
with Fath, and to J& , the aor. beiug with Kasr (BS)] ; 
or begins with a conjunctive Hamza, vid. such as is 

f h* *h 9 /A 

followed by four or five letters, as va-,iUail jUaA3 and 

S As As A .* A S A ft* 

mv> ; su~l _jaw j or with an augmentative t&> , as 

s ~"s / 

S A 5/s JSss s ASA sS^sAss 

uvJW J£u and u>a^jsk.a? gj 8 "^ J (£) when the 

' ' sS /i 

letter is ^ or any other, in the cor. of ,_$}' i as ( _£*-3 and 

s A tt ' A s ' * s 

,<*& ; or of J*». whose o is a j, as *i>^) J-* 3 *-' 

' *, ' 

and Japii : (6) Fath in all other cases (L). Kasr of 

the Hamza of J&t is chaste in usage, anomalous in 

analogy ; and Fath of it, which is the dial, of Asad, 

is the converse (BS). Every aor. in the act. voice of 

such vs. as exceed three letters [in the pret.], (1) when 

the initial of its pret. is not an augmentative <a> , must 

have its penultimate pronounced with Kasr, literally, as 

s s. A s a A > •» * ' ' ■» s •* / //« ■» <» As s s A s A J A/As 

*- ^-s s * * s s 

S /I iS J> Sss A 3 / */ ///« 

or constructively, as i**l d*£, Oj*«l ^^*-d, «(&«•( 

s tt * * 

S S Kt t ' h .» sA / t t t> * / ** 

^5L«4 , ^Ia£.| ^t*a=»i , and otiuf oUUj> : (2) when the initial 
of its pret. is an augmentative u&s , retains the Fath of the 



t * ft <//// 



penultimate, as jW jJ.»*2, JiUJ Ji&Stj and ~-<A.iJk> 



( 13 ) 

£**•«**£ (L). The moods of inflection in the v. are the 
ind. with Damma, the subj. with Fatha, and the apoc. 

with quiescence, as ,. yi* jj^ Zaid stands, f >*£ ^ ^i) ^ 

Verily Zaid shall not stand (IA, Sh), and Jb J He 

stood not, the sign of the mood being the Damma, Fatha, 
and elision of the vowel, respectively ; and the assertion 
that apocopation is not an inflection is of no account 
(Sh). All other modes of inflection are vicarious subs- 
titutes for. these (IA). In the v. unsound [in the final 
(Sh)], i. e. whose final is [an unsound letter (Sh),] an f 

* A t 

[preceded by Fatha (IA)], as ^su } or y [preceded 
by Damma (I A)], as j}*>, or ^g [preceded by Kasra 
(I A)], as ^ji , the apoc. is formed by elision of the last 
letter (I A, Sh), as a substitute for elision of the vowel, as 
XC VI, 17. [16], gi±i being- an aor. v. in the apoc, the sign' 

/ill** £ * A • A/s 

of which is the elision of the ^ , and &M I Vf J 2 ^ Ay 
IX. 18. And hath not feared any but Qod, an ex. of 
elision of the f , and Sj.1 U J*>, U LXXX. 23. He 
hath not yet performed what He hath commanded him, 
an ex. of elision of the g ; and as for the non -elision 
of the unsound letter, i. e. the » , in ,<*s> notwith* 

A * 

standing that ^* is prefixed to it in the reading- of 

A A *' £s A s 

Kumbul )**t) t5**d t£* XII. 90., the reply is that the 



( u ) 

,y» is conjunct, He that feareth God and patiently 
endurcth tribulations, not conditional, Whoso feareth t 
and that the ) is quiescent either because of the suc- 
cession of vowels in the <~> , ) , «-* j and Hamza, [the 

IS / 

next word being ^ ,] or because it. is a case of con- 
tinuity whereat pause is intended, or of coupling to the 
sense, the conjunct j* being equivalent to the condi- 
tional on account of its generality and vagueness (Sh): 
thus the apoc. is apparent by means of the elision of the 
final [li.j, ° r 3 ( IA )]- The-*uftf. is apparent in 

the v. unsound in the ; or ,3 [by means of the Fatha 

#\ » >> * 3 1> , h / 
because of its lightness, as l«JI &t*o ** f& J XVIII. 

13. We will not call upon any Qod besides Him, and 

0h, th-" ■»■*' *' A ' 

|ouL fcUl (►#£*£ ^ XL 33. (?orf will not bestow upon 
them good { Sh)] ; and is assumed in the v. unsound in 
the I, as iS Stia i ^ , [the sign of the subj. in ^Aiw 
being a Fatha assumed to be upon the J (IA)]. The 
ind. is assumed in the v. unsound in the y , ^ » or 

S hf A/ 

} , as f>±i and ^*)i , the sign of the ind. being a Damma 
assumed [to be upon the y and g (IA), because 

f A • 

deemed too heavy to be expressed (Sh)], and ^-"sad 
(I A, Sh), the sign of the ind. being a Damma assumed to 
be upon the t (IA), which is incapable of being vocalized 
(MM). 



( 15 ) 

y tht y t Ay y B t it* 

§ 405. The five paradigms ^H*** , ^H**? , &}*h > 

* »,Ht y yAy ' ' 

^jjUtf j and ^jaW^ i e., every [aor. (Sh)] v. to which 

an'f of dualization, [whether the initial be ~ ore 
(IA),] or ^ of pluralization, [whether the initial be ^ 
or ct> (IA),] or a ^ of the 2nd pers. sing. fern, is 
attached — are put into the ind. by means of tbe existence 
of the ^ (IA, Sh), pronounced with Kasr after- the f 
and Fath after its two sisters (M), as a substitute for 
the Damma, [the sign of the ind. being the existence oi 
the ^ (IA),] and into the subj. and apoe. by elision- of 
the ^ , [as a substitute for the Fatha and quiescence 
(Sh), the sign of the subj. and apoc. being the fall of 
the m (IA),a* c) L» > sJ JUc l$w LV. 50. Wherein 

**^ x y y y 

x .P y Ay **ht* 

shall be two fountains flowing, ^uk^Aj ^j\^ U, 78. 

X 09 Ay y *J <» 

Ye oemg witnesses, and jjj*<k£ ^ ^ VII. 93. They 
not knowing, the aor. here being in the ind., the sign of 

0* kt Ay A y> 

which is the existence of the ^ , and (Sh)] as fy*AS J ^ti 

y 'Jj ^ f&*o* ^y Ay A // 5 

yiJf |jS>*(» lyisiiJ J^ II. 22/ Where/ore, if ye do not, 
and ye will not do, fear ye the jire (IA, Sh), the f*l««3 

Ay Ay 

with J being in the apoc, and that with J in the subj., 
tbe sign of which in both is the elision of the ^ . la 

* y *i 

^jixUsul VI. 80. [a reading with the ^ lightened (B)j 



( 16 ) 

Will ye dispute with met what is elided is [not the ^ 
of the ind., but] the j of protection [170] : and in 

y J>A y A? 3 At 

u)J*** u)' ^' *'* ^38. #h^ ess they remit, where the ^1 
is subjunctival, and the ^ extant with it, the y is not 

J»A/ $Ay 

the y of the p/., but only the J of the word, as in yU$ a^j ; 
and the ^j is not the ^ of the ind., but only a pron. 
relating to the divorced women, as in II. 228 [406] ; 
and the v. is uninfl. because conjoined with the . 
of the pi. fern., [for which reason ^f does not affect it 

•A3 a /hi s A/ a i y 

(Bj,] contrary to ^55*^ V ^S| SyoZ ^ II. 238. 4«rf 
that ye [masc] remit will be nearer unto piety ; and the 

y .PAy sAJAy 

measure of this ^j**i is ^**i, as when you say 

/A^Ay^yAwy y A.P Ay y> .PAy ,P yois 

^jiw K^JJI or ^jJaa^j : whereas in ^j*** J^l the 

' y 

^ is the ^ of the j?/., and the ^ the sign of the ind. j and 

the original form is ^yy^H [on the measure of ^Ixib ] 
with two « s, the first of which is the J of the word 
and the second the y of the pi ; so that, as Damma on a 
y preceded by Damma and followed by a quiescent % 
is deemed too heavy, the Damma of the first y is elided ; 
and, since two quiescents, vid. the two y s, then concur, 
the 1st is elided— the 1st, and not the 2nd, being elided 
for three reasons; (1) that the 1st is a part of a word 
and the 2nd a [whole] word, and elision of a part is 
easier than elision of a whole, (2) that the 1st is the 



( Ha ) 

final of the v., and elision is more appropriate to finals, 
(3) that the 1st indicates no sense, whereas the 2nd 
indicates a sense, and elision of what does not indicate 
is more appropriate than elision of what does indicate — 

and, when the j is thus elided, the measure of ^f*i 

becomes ^f&i by elision of the J [from ^*H ] ; and 

for this reason, when you prefix the subjunctival or 

****** •»• *** *t 

apocopative op. to it, you say Sf*i ^ J^' and f j**£ J 

(Sh). 

§ 406. The aor. that the . of the Jem. pi. is con- 
tiguous to is uninfl. (M, Sh) upon quiescence [402] 
(Sh), so that the ops. have no effect upon it literally, 
and the * does not fall off, like as the f , j , and g , 
that are prons., do not fall off, because it is one of 

/A lit 9 t sH*>, 

them (M), as II. 228. [235] and ^fr eytoJUl ^ II. 

t AS'" t A «•* 

233. And the mothers shall suckle, ^*&>fJ. and >*^^t 
being two aor. vs. in the position of an ind., but uninfl. 
upon quiescence because contiguous to the . of the 
fern, pi., and enuneiatory„.in letter but requisitive in 

flirO t f t fit 

sense, like &U 1 i_X^>>^i God have mercy, upon thee (Sh), 

• A A • A s /> A A / As 

[and] as ^>y^i ^ and My&t J (M). The cor. that the 
corrob. ^ is in contact with is uninfl. upon Fath [402, 

n * / » AsO C^/A*/ 

610], as &*taaaJf Ji ^J^V CIV. 4. Assuredly he shall 
be cast into the fire that breaketh in pieces; whereas in 



( 16* ) 

^a*~3 ; j*C-.a»!^ j^l^I ^ &$& IH. 183. Assuredly 

ye shall be proven in your goods and yourselves; and 
assuredly ye shall hear the v., though corroborated by 
the ^ , is infl., because they are separated by the y , 

which is the pron. of the ag., expressed in ^j^ , and 

supplied in **#*»# , since the original form is >> y**-»y , 
the ^ of the iwrf. being elided because the combination 
of likes is deemed too heavy, and the y being then elided 
because of the concurrence of two quiescents, ihe ^ and 
and incorporated ^ (Sh). 

§ 407. The moods are not signs of meanings, like 
the cases [19], because the v. in respect of inflection 
is not original [402], but stands towards the n. in the 
same position as the I and ^ towards the two I s [of 
femininization] in respect of prevention of triptote declen- 
sion [18]. And that by which the v. is put into the 
ind. [408], sub}. [410], or apoc. [419] is not that by 
reason of which it is liable to inflection [404, 110] (M). 



THE INDICATIVE. 



§ 408. When the aor. v. is divested of the sub« 
junctival and apocopative op., it is put into the ind. 

(IA, Sh), as *?.') ffi ( ,<5h )- There is a dispute as to 
what puts it into the ind. : according to some (IA), it is 
put into the ind. because of its occurring in the situation 
of a n. (M, I A), thus being like the inch, and enunc. in 

having an ideal op. (M), as in <~>y*t ojj (M, IA), 

* A . '. ' 

where w)*^ is put into the ind. because it occurs in 

$ , 

the situation of v; 1 "* (IA.), since what is after the 

r 

inch, is a situation in which a n. may be expected to 

occur correctly; and similarly in ^^i^ v*"^* 
because he that begins a sentence passing to speech from 
silence is not obliged to utter a n. or a v. as the first 
word, but on the contrary the beginning of his sentence 
is a position of choice in respect of whichever class he 
pleases (M) : but, according to others, it is put into the 
ind. because of its being divested of the subjunctival and 
apocopative op., which opinion is preferred by IM (IA). 
In the saying of Abu Talib addressing the Prophet 

//' *? * , A t f tit Us * * fit *r *Z * » 

* ' ' i * ' 

[603] the v. [is in the apoc. because it (N)] is conjoined 
with a supplied apocopative, vid. the precatory J, 



< 18 ) 

[i. e. oj£1 (N)] ; while Mlo is originally Uby , the 3 

being changed into ut» [689], like »£jfy and 8kxw for «M;$ 

and al^j , [JJfwAammarf, let every soul ransom thy soul, 
whenever thou fearest from a matter destruction 1 (N)] : 
arid in the saying of Imra alKais, [who had sworn 
not to drink wine until he should slay the Banu.Asad 
in revenge for their killing his father, and had then 
slain a multitude of them (N),] 

, tt 4^» • «»A A t ft S *A * .A / A? ih,t»e, 

t / ' ' £ # t * " 

[ Wherefore to-day I shall drink, not. incurring a charge 
of sin from God, nor being an uninvited guest (N)], 

A / A 3 

i_>j£f is not in the apoc, butinthemrf.,the Damma being 
elided by poetic license, or by treating g) in y$e v_>^ 
with Damm like w**a* ; for they sometimes make the 

separate follow the course of the united, so that, like as 

* /><• 

o-ac with quiescence [thus read in XVIII. 49. (K, B)J 

§ j> * m* 

is said for o*£e with Damm, so £?; with quiescence is 

/»* 
said for g) with Damm (Sh), 

§ 409. In ffi 043 jtf and \^y*i J*»» and jik 

Jf b the original form is US , l^Uo , and JVJ ; but it 
tt / 

is made to deviate from the n. to the v. for an object, 
[because of the affinity of the aor. v. to otf in being 



( 19 ) 
applied to denote approximation to the present (AAz)] : 
and the original form is used according to him that 
recites the verse [of Ta'abbata Sbarra (J)] 

/ ' ' ' ' * * ^ 

[459, 460] (M) Then I returned to the tribe of Fahm, 
when I was not near returning, [because of my being 
on the point of perishing (T;]. And how many a tribe 
like it have I quitted, when it was desolate, from ja*0 
i, q. Ua. (J), which is said by Abu -nNada to be the 

<s m * t A** 

correct recital, tyf lJ\ J) being erroneous (T). 



THE SUBJUNCTIVE. 



§ 410. The aor. [v. (Sh)] is put into the subj.vthexi 
it follows a subjunctival [p. (IA). The subjunctivals 

A S As 

are four in number (Sh)], vid. (1) J [549] . (2) ,/> 
[provided that it be infinitival (571), not causative (596) 

(Sh)]: (3) Js\ [594]: (4) ^1 (IA, Sh), provided that it 
be infinitival [571], not red. [563], nor explicative [569] j 
and that it be not contracted from the heavy [525] : (a) 

s As *f t t lA &<°' 

these two conditions are united in ^ f^i .J £*M s^h 
XXVI. 82. And Whom 1 eagerly desire to forgive me 

A SKrt / */ A i * J fiii to* 

and ffi*i* *r>yi uj' *H)i & W) IV. 32. And Qod desireth 
to turn again unto you : (b) the 1st condition is lacking in 

#y«y hi As J> Ass 

Jjtij ^l &JI c^-aaX / wrote to him saying, He will do, 

' * a* hi 

when you intend by ^ the sense of ^5! ; so that after 

A* A? 

this ^1 the t>. is in the ind., because, ^1 being explica- 

* Ass 

tive of c&~aIT t neither it nor what it is prefixed to has 

any [inflectional] place, and it may not govern the subj., 

a i 
like as ^f , if expressed, might not govern the subj\; 

whereas, if you supply the prep, with it, i. e. the »_* , 
it is infinitival, and you must make it govern the 

* *,, At * s 

sub}. : (c) the 2nd condition is lacking in ^y^r ^ A* 

/A s A J>« ' 

^y* *&<• LXXIII. 20. He knoweth that {the case 



( 21 ) 
will be this), there will be among you some sick, 
VjS *$Jf £%>> M ^1 ^jjj. U»! XX. 91. Sec they not % 
then, that {the case is this,) he relurneth not to them 

$/ A sat * A f * o • 

any speech, and &>* ^jC V ^ |j * *«* ^ j V. 75. ^«rf 
*Aey supposed that {the case would be this,)**Aere mjomW 

not be any tribulation according to him that reads x £<f* 
in the ind. ; for in the first two texts it occurs after the 
v. of knowledge, i. e. not the word f J £ , but what 
indicates certainty [526], so that in both it is contracted 
from the heavy, its sub. being suppressed, and the subse- 
quent prop, being in the position of a nom. as the pred., 

S 9t t J>mf S ht / sit ~£ 

the full phrase being c >j*i~' **' and £?±f M M &»f ; and in 
the 3rd text it occurs after opinion, and some read with 
the ind., treating opinion in the same way as knowledge, 

A t 

in which case the ^1 is the contracted from the heavy, 
the sub. being suppressed, and the subsequent prop, the 

pred., in full ,jj£» ^ l$H , and some with the subj., that 
there would not be, treating opinion according to its 
original meaning, not like knowledge, which is the better 
mode, so that for this reason the subj. is universally 

read in such as &i»J| \^-Si ^1 ,I<^ *f m. 136. 

Or have ye supposed that ye would enter Paradise t and 

5/tf l# J*«e ij)' .^ LXXV. 2b. {The owners of {which 
will think that a back-breaking mischief will be done 
unto them, while the first reading is confirmed by 



( 22 ) 

LXXV, 3. [82] and ul| v# *J J <l^jJI XC. 7. 
Loth he think that (the case was this,) not any one saw 
him ?, ^f being here contracted from the heavy, since 
a subjunctival is not prefixed to a subjunctival nor to an 
apocopative (Sb). 
a i 
§ 411. ^1 is distinguished [from the rest of the 
ps. governing the aor. in the subj (I A) J by its govern- 
, ing when expressed and when understood, [contrary to 
its three sisters, which govern only when expressed 
(Sb)]. It is understood, [for the most part (418. A.) 
(Sh),] after [a prep, or conjunction. The preps, that 
it is understood after are three in number (Sb),] (1) 

J^ (IA,Sh),asXLIX. 9. [501] and t$t ^ Jxl 
^y XX. 93. [414] Until Moses return unto us, the 
subj. not being by reason of ^a. itself, contrary to the 
opinion of the KK: (2) the J , which is of four kinds, 
(a) the causative J , as ♦-.ULtf ***Zi /6i\ uCdf UKJf. 
XVl. 46. And We have sent down unto thee theExhor- 
tation, i. e. the Kur'an, that thou mightst explain to men 

/ S// • fib* * s * */ & S fi A* * s s * ss £ 

[504], and r aS3 L iiif tjcl fk4 Uaa* tsOi uXJ Uaa& U| 
4&.G U« u£»j»i >* XL VIII. 1. 2. Verily We have con- 

quered for thee a manifest conquest in order that Ood 
may forgive thee what hath preceded of thy sin and 
what hath followed, the conquest of Makka not being 
indeed a cause of the forgiveness, nor declared to be so, 
but declared to be a cause of the combination of the 



( 23 ) 

four matters for the Prophet, vid. forgiveness, comple- 
tion of blessing, direction to the straight path, and 
realization of the mighty aid [vv. 2-3.], which cnmfrina- 
tion was doubtless achieved when God subdued Makka 
unto him; (b) the J of result, also named the J of 
eventuality and the J of ultimate condition, vid. thai 
which is followed by an antithesis to the purport of 

what precedes it, as Syse ^ ^5%* &J*? J' &***& & 

ti}a-5 XXVIII. 7. And the family of Pharaoh picked 
him up that lie might be unto /hem a Joe and a grief, 
since their picking him up was only because of their 
taking pity upon him, and they intended to make him 
a delight of the eye for themselves, but the matter 
eventually reduced them to his becoming a foe and a 
grief to them ; (c) the red. J , vid. that which follows a 

trans, v., as ^ ^j^ *W *i)i IV. 31. God desireth to 

explain unto you, [ I £&d being the obj. of *t)i , and 

the J red. to corroborate the future sense inseparable 
from desire, as in the saying of Kais Ibn Sa'd |Ibn 
'UhSdafMb)} 

9 9 9 9 £S**>/ ht * f / sSi » S*> "*■' /I/ 9 tiff 

/ desired that the people should know that they were the 
drawers of Kais when the ambassadors were present (B),] 

t t xA>» a t /hi /» >/ 

and t± ji*R*'l »->>* A»*M Vyi) VI. 70. And we have 

been commanded that we should submit ourselves to the 
Lord of the Universe; (d) the J of denial, vid. that which 

ft r * t 

comes after a negatived past from ^J$ [504], as ^ U 



( 24 ) 

&*> Jiil U J* trtJ^yJ ' y^ * u ' in. 173. God hath 
not been minded to leave the believers in that state 

A, h^j ,, A3, A3 *i<« ft ft 

wherein ye are and i-*-***! ^ f**^^ *J" y) 15 l *3 HI. 
174. iVbr Aatfi G«d 6een minded to make you acquainted 

A / A / • J'A 

with the unseen 1 (3) the causative ,^\ as i" u-XX*a. 

/ AJ» 

JUyij / came to thee that thou mightst honor me, when 
yott take it to be causative, equivalent to the J , the 

/ A3 A i A t 

full phrase being ,_<*-•}£> ^ ^J . The conjunctions 

A* 

are four in number (Sh), (1) ^ (IA, Sh), (a) when JS 
would be right in its position (Sh,, [or] when renderable 

by Jw*. [501], being thus renderable when the pre- 
ceding v. is such as is [indicative of an action] consum- 
mated little by little (IA), as in 

t 2 JT •iwA** 3 • *&<** ** * $h*& s A $ A* y A £^J w/ Ay A?x 

(I A, Sh), By God, assuredly I will account the difficult 
easy through patience until I attain, or in order that I 
may attain, the objects of desire; for hopes have not 

* A* fi , 

become realized save for a patient mie (J), i. e. lJ)o] ^a. 

A? St, 

(IA), )S being a conjunction i. q. I J^. , i. e. ^J or the 

A 5 * 

causative J , and the understood ^jl with that to which 
it is pre6xed being renderable by au inf. n. coupled by 

A* 

3 f to an inf. n. obtainable from the preceding v. [538], 
i. e. assuredly there shall be on my part an accounting 



( 25 ) 

the difficult easy or an attainment of the objects of desire 

(J) ; (b) when Vf would be rii?ht in its position (Sh), 

£ a 

[i. e.] when renderable by Iff , being so renderable 

when the preceding r. is not as aforesaid (I A), but is [indi- 
cative of an action] consummated at oue time (J), as in 



*» 9 A * 



(IA, Sb), b}' ZiySd alA'jam, And I would, when I handled 
the spear-shaft, of a people, break its knots unless it 

At 2 

became straight, £ being a conjunction i. q. Vl (J), i. e. 

, j „ , a t a £ 

**iU*«J J Ml (FAj'Sh), in which case I would not break 

its joints, not ^1 ^J\ , because there is no becoming 

straight together with breakage (Sh), and ^ with that 
to which it is prefixed being renderable by an inf. n. 

Ai 

coupled by y to an inf. n. obtainable from the preceding 
v., i. e. there came to pass on my part a breaking of its 
joints or on its part a becoming straight (J), [and simi- 
larly] in 

g f / 3* AC «~*WM»/ A * ..' *' ""' *^' * ' A '* 

[by Kataela Ibn Maslama alHanaft, TV/e/?, by God, if 
I survive, I will assuredly return with an expedition 
towards the spoils unless a nohle man die (T), where 

hi ' S a i s 

also] -jl is a substitute for Vf , as though he said ^f tff 



4 • • .»• 4 



*if <*>y+l, meaning by m/ himself (N) : (2) the ui 
d 



( 26 ) 

(IA, Sh), when illative and preceded by (Sh), [i. e.] 
when the correl. of (IA), negation (IA, Sh) pure, i. e. 
clear of off. sense (IA), or requisition (I A, Sh) pure, i. e» 
not indicated by a verbal n. nor by the enuneiatory 
form (IA), comprising command, prohibition, prayer, 
request, excitation, wish, and interrogation (IA, Sh) t 
which seven together with negation make eight, so that 
this question is what is termed the question of the eight 
correlatives (Sh) : the subj. occurs after (a) negation 

t /Hi t Bt / &• / 

(IA, Sh), as UjjaaXi ILJG U Thou contest not to us s& 

* A» / 

that thou moyst talk to us [53S] (IA), whence ^g&t. ^ 
|yj*x» *$a1* XXXV. 33. They shall not be sentenced 
to a second death so that they may die (IA, Sh), which 
accords with l&*xw t_s&t» UaSG L [412], not with U 

HI t t t** St in f f , %f 

&>&xiA y*e J» (jjocu LLuG (Sh); whereas the ind. is- 
necessary (IA, Sh) in what follows the ci , if the nega- 

- it S , At , 

tion be not clear of aff. sense, as in U JET V{ o-jf U 

Uuoaaxi (IA), [and similarly], in tuj^nXj Iff UU3G U 

',»„,»**$"*"'' ' ' * * 

and tiSaaaw UajG JVy U , because m the 1st ex. the 

a 
negation is infringed by ^1 , while in the 2nd it is prefixed 

* 
to Jtj , which denotes negation, and negation of nega- 
tion is affirmation (Sh) ; (b) command, as 

, , h tt r r'ht St t r +, f * * * 



( 27 ) 
(IA, Sh), by Abu -nNajm al'Ijll, she-cnrnel, journey 
thou with quick amble to SulaimSn, so that we may rest, 

a i 

the subj. being governed by ^ understood after the illa- 

« i 
tive conjunction ui , and being with ^\ rcnderable by 

an inf. n. . coupled by the u-J to an inf. n. obtainable 

from the preceding v., i. e. let there be on thy part a 

journeying, then on our part a resting (J) ; it must be 

9 S>° • /** % X t 9 A t 

in the requisitive form, j-^t -Uo li-i^ uXa*«.sw with 
the subj. uot being allowable, contrary to tbe opinion 
of Ks ; and must not be expressed by a verbal n., 
iji,fils &*a with the subj. not being allowable according 
to the majority, while Ks allows the subj. unrestrictedly 
[187], and IJ and IU allow it when the verbal n. is 
of the letter of the v., as in ._Xio.33.ii J\)i AligUl, so 
that we may talk to thee, and how likely is tins saying 
to be right! (Sh); if it be indicated by a verbal n. or the 
enimciatory form, what follows the i-i must be put into 
the ind [421], as uXjJ( ^y-*^ 1 * &^> Be silent ; then I 



a Sr° 3 , ,, 



will be good to thee and j-^l j* 1 ^ ^jj-saM i_X 
Sufficient for thee is the story, i. e. Let the story suffice 
thee;, then the people will sleep (IA); (c) prohibition, as 
< x t ci- JOtl* J- 33 ** &A» fj*k3 »j XX. 83. And be ye not 
exorbitant therein, so that Mine anger light upon you 



( 28 ) 

,, ******* * * $>•*• *>' *'*>' ' 

(IA, Sh) and ^!v**> ^i»-^ l& &> J" h)"* V 

.* ' ' ' ' 

XX. 63. 64. Forge ye not a lie against Qod, so that He 

destroy you by a chastisement ; whereas, if the prohibition 

2 a a * • * 

were infringed by V\ before the «-i , as in Iff ^y*' V 

j /A// 0S* £ ' 

,„^^iAi ij** £ea2 /Aow raotf any one save 'Amr; then 
he will be angry, the ind. would be necessary- (Sh) ; (d) 
prayer (IA, Sh), as J»iM H» ^r^' VJ ^ £ord, 
Ac/p TViow me, so that I be not forsaken (IA), [and] as 

t si* Si /* A 9 Stil* 

ty»»jU JLe ^U *$Wf O Goi, dispose Thou me to repent' 
ance, so that I may repent (Sh), whence 

h * * A/ • fi^ •• h * * tit ** A«jy <i» ^ 

****** * * * * 

(IA, Sh), Jfy Ziorrf, enable Thou me to be obedient unto 

Thee, so that I diverge not from the path of them that 

*i 
walk in a most excellent path, ^\ with that to which it 

is prefixed being renderable by an inf. n coupled by the 

illative conjunction »-J to an inf. n. &c, [as before,] i. e. 

let there be on Thy part an enabling of me to be fyc,, 

then on my part a lack of divergence (J) ; it mus"; be 

by means of the v., the subj. not being allowable in 

*il*o * At* * * 1** * 

&UJ uXj».jj*» l_£' Ua« God send down rain unto thee [41]; 
* 

so shall God quench thy thirst, or then God willfyc. (Sh); 

#A/ * J>* **n an* *i 

(e) request (IA, Sh), as f^- i-*£*a** ***** J)" ^ Wilt 

' * * 

thou not, or Wherefore wilt thou not, alight biside us so 
thai thou mayst get good? (IA), whence 



( 29 ) 

Uu.« Jj s\ ; Li *Jy^ uS * U y&J* yoS VI f \fl\ ^>\ '* 
(IA, Sh) ao» of the noble people, «>?*# thou not (i.e. 
7 rfesw-e of thee that thou wouldst) draw near unto us, so 
that thou mayst behold what they have told thee (the rel. 

being suppressed, in full &> i^yj*. )? For (the <-> being 
causative) a seer w not like him that has heard, an inverted 
comparison, meaning that on the contrary eyesight is 

stronger than hearsay, where Mf is a p. of request, and 

A* 

the understood ^ "with that &c. is renderable &c, [as 
before,] i. e. let there be on thy part a drawing near % then 
a beholding (J) ; (/) excitation (IA, Sh), as LXIII. 10. 

[426] (IA), [or rather] as &*dl J=>^ *-*l~f Ua> 
Wherefore hast thou not become a Muslim, so that thou 
mightst enter Paradise?, while LXIII. 10. belongs to the 
category of the sulj. in the correl. of prayer, the 
expression of excitation or request being metaphori- 
cally used for prayer ; excitation and request approxi- 
mate one to the other, and are both comprised by admo- 
nition to the action, but in excitation there is more cor- 
roboration and incitement [574] (Sh) ; (g) wish, as 

te * Ijls s )f J;'** f^** '*'***' lS*^** ^ ^ 75 - ° would 
that I had been with them, so that I might have won 
great good fortune (IA, Sh) and 

(Sh ), by Umayya Ibn Abi-s Salt, May there not be a 
messenger for us from her, so that he may inform us 
what is the distance of our goal from the beginning of our 



( 30 > 
tourse * (FA) ; and all the KK allow hope to be treated 
like wish, so that its correl. conjoined with the ui is put, 

St\£ xuyr 

iuto the subj., and IM follows them, whence £Lf JUJ 

/Si/ /l S^ / /iS / yhinyo ' 

^IL»U ^,l ; *«Jf w,U«-| v U*yf XL. 38. 39. May-be, or 
Peradvenlure, I shall reach the avenues, the avenues of 
the heavms, so as to, or so that I mny, ascend in the 
reading of Hafs on the authority of ' Asim (IA) ; (h) 

interrogation (IA, Sh), as tU S^aS*** .*U££ .., UJ J.$j 

VII. 51. 77ie» ore there far us, or Aaw<? we, any inter- 
cessors, so that they may intercede for usf (IA) 5 it must 
not be by means of an instrument followed immedi- 
ately by a nominal prop, whose enunc. is a primitive, 

ps r>fit % h* yj si a / 

so that the subj. is not allowed in &#^U t±t j tjSyU JM> , 

J • A&/ ^ my y Si /> y * 

contrary to &-/1* *&' *SfA Jfi> j but there is no dif- 

f ' y 

ference between (a) interrogation by means of the p., as 
in VII. 51., and (b) interrogation by means of the n. as 

s2 r 3/ y y *y /4^> * *■» S^ y A y 

in $&e\ya>£ U«*». UJ^ &Uf j»;«i ^JJI **3 ^ II. 246. 
read with the subj., Who is he that [186] will lend unto 
God a goodly loan, so that He may double the recompense 
of it t and with the ind., and He will, or so, or then, will 
He double, and in a tradition quoting the words of God j.* 

9 , , yl&y ■» »' 

Sj ^^AspA-<i iV)' 1 ^ *^° ^^ ca ^ u P on Me, so that 

y f 

1 may answer him t , and (c) interrogation by means 

y ySiy y 9kt y*% 

of an adv., as ^))£ <-*** <#' Where is thy house, so 

y , yfy » y y y 

that I may visit thet?,i^»\p ^ J* When wilt thou 



( 31 ) 

s $/ / 0/ 

journey, so thai I may accompany thee? , and ^J5 Ljk*f 

s s s 0?/ 

uXjaa-ols How wilt thou be, so that I may accompany 

/*/ S t° / / /0% /$J*& uj $ // 0/$ 

theef ; the v., however, in >U-J} £* J/f &U1 ^jf y Jf 

jJS / O 9 S 0$t\^> S OS/ «W ' ' 

K^aaa* j£)Vf £-ya& -*U XXII. 62. Hast thou not seen 

that Qod hath sent down from the sky water, so that, or 
and (that) consequently, the earth becometh green f is not 

I ,/oi 

' in the subj. (Sh), [but] in the ind., coupled to J/f , and (B) 
diverted (K, B) from the pret. (B) to the aor. (K) to 
indicate the continuance of the effect of the rain during 
time after time (K, B), first because the interrogation here 
means affirmation, i. e. Thou hast seen, and secondly, 
because the earth's becoming green is uot a consequence 
of that to which the interrog. p. is prefixed, i. e. the seeing 
the rain, but is a consequence only of the rainfall itself 
(Sh); and, if the v. were in the subj. asacorrel. (K,B) of 
the interrogation (K), it would denote negation of the 
becoming green, so that the earth may become green 

/S // / O// S Q/0£ wi // b/i 

(K, B), like as yCSJe ^XAe. ut^jwj ^ | y fl , with the 

subj., Hast tlwu not seen that I have conferred benefit upon 
thee, so as to, or so that as a consequence of thy seeing 
this thou mayst, be grateful f, denies his gratitude, but with 
the ind., so that, or and consequently, thou art grateful f, 
affirms it (K) ; whereas' if the interrog. p. were prefixed to 

m S OS/ fir// mf S r" / • sitt" //0$ 

i>JJ £i*a£J /U AmJJ -. &U} JU| God hath $c, so that, or 
and consequently, the earth becometh fyc, the subj. would 



( 32 ) 

be correct, Hath God fyc, so that the earth may become 

o $ j> o • ti 
Sfc? ; nor is the second reason refuted by A cyjaa^f 

^ **y~ S)h^ V^ 1 '** J** c>/' Y.BLAml 
unable to be like this raven, and hide the corpse of my 
brother? on the ground that the hiding of the corpse is not 
a consequeuce of that to which the interrog. p. is prefixed, 
because inability for a thing is not a cause of its realization, 

for (Sh) ^Ijf is not (Sh, B) in the subj. as (Sh) correl. 

of the interrogation, so that I should, or may, hide (Sh, B), 

but as coupled to the sub), v. ^f\ , Z being wrong in 
saying [in the K] that it is in the sub}, as correl. of the 
interrogation (Sh), because the sense is not Were I unable 
[4*c], J should hide \SfC.~] (B) : (3) the y , when denoting 
(IA, Sh) simultaneity (Sh), accompaniment (IA), and 
preceded by negation or requisition (Sh), in the same 
positions as the ui (I A), [i. e.] in the eight positions men- 

fi / S / ***** Siir** SO S &SS 

tioned, (a) negation (Sh), as l^v>£%. ^^1 *W ^ W; 

•i^M Jw ; fXU III. 136. [Or have $c. (410),] when 

not yet hath God known those of you that have warred 
in the cause of religion and likewise known the patient 
sufferers? (IA, Sh), i. e. when, or while, God knows that 
ye war and do not suffer patiently, whereas ye ought 
to desire to enter Paradise only when God knows that 
suffering patiently is combined with your warring; (b) 
command, as (Sh) 



( 33 ) 

^U*!o ^oUj A s~,yoi * ffUJI .1 *uS) ^o! ls-45» 

(IA, Sh) by Rabi'a (M, J) Ibn Jusham (M), or AlA'sha, 

or AlHutai'a, Then I said to this vvomau, Call thou whilst 

I call; verily a more distant range for a shout, or, the J 

being red., a most far-reaching shout, is that two callers 

of 

should call out. the understood J and the v. being render- 
able by au inf. n. coupled by the y to an inf. n. obtain- 
able from the preceding v., i. e. let there be a calling from 
thee and a calling from me (J) ; (c) prohibition, as (Sh) 

* t • O// / / Q/f $ t B*<b f i-f It* Ox sO/ * 

f{Jhti csJU» f of uXd* $£ * &l£# JG. "lla. ** &£> 1/ 

(I A, Sh), by Abu -lAswad adDu'ali, Prohibit } thou not 
another from a habit while thou practisest the like thereof; 
for that will be a great opprobrium unto thee when thou 
doest it, i. e. [as before] let there not be on thy part a pro- 

hibition and a practising (J) j (d) wish, as Vy oy tLXJ b. 

yji^iJ! ^ ^j^; U>; uw«e«e v 4 ^ VL 27 - ( Sh )> thus 
read by Hamza, &c, with the two vs. in the *ubj. by treat- 
ing the <f like the t-5 , would that we were sent back 
while we treated not the signs of our Lord as false, and 
became of the believers! (B); (e) interrogation, as (Sh) 

'« 0<Of *£sst><o 9 3/Of/ Of / *// OS/ / 2 i Oft 

jtsJJl) XOyJI f&My m ^M ^fo ffr lJ] jJ! 

(IA, Sh), by AlHutai'a (Sh), Was I not your neighbour while 
between me and you were love and brother hood f, i. e. [as 
before] confess ye my having been a neighbour to you and 
love and brotherhood's havi ,g been between me and you, the 



( 34 ) 
Hamza denoting interrogation compelling confession (J) } 
these are the positions in which the sub), has been heard 
after the j of simultaneity, and the 6G have inferred it 

from analogy in the rest: (4) ^ [418. A.] (Sh). 

§ 412. As expounded by S, UjjoaJCi UwGU [411] 

means (1) U&weu Uu£» IJU3C U Thou earnest not to us; 

then how shall thou talk to us?, i. e. wert thou to come to 

us, thou wouldst talk to us, and (2) ^ Ml Ij*I UwG U 

lijkjaaw Thou never contest to us but thou talkest not to 

««, i. e. there is on thy part much coming but no talking 
<M). [See 417.] 



? 



§ 413. The ^f may not be expressed after t5 Xs* 

(JA, Sh) in poetry or prose (Sh); nor after (IA, Sh) the 

of denial (Sh), [i. e.] the prep. J preceded by the 

denied ^JS , as in *^s u>Jf^ *^lUJ &U| .tf U. VIIL 
33. I?k£ Qod hath not been minded to chastise them while 
thou art among them (IA) ; it may be expressed after the 

three other kinds of J, as^/f JV Ly\) XXXIX. 14. 
And I have been commanded to, or that I should, become 
(Sh), [and] must be expressed (M, I A) between the prep. 

J and the neg. V (IA) if the v. to which it is prefixed 
has V prefixed to it (M), as !i>jj v/^ **** i-**** I came 
to thee in order that thou shouldst not beat^ or lest thou 



( 35 ) 

shouldst beat, Zaid (I A) ; it may not be expressed after ^ 
except in poetry, coutrary to the opinion of the KK; and 

it must be understood after y in the two cases, and after 
the i-i and the % iu the eight positions (Sh). 

§ 414. It is not inevitable that the v. should be in 
the subj. in these positions ; but on the contrary there is 
a way of making it deviate to some other idea and mood 

of inflection. After LS Xa. it has two conditions, (1) it is 

in the subj. (M), [because] ^ is understood after f J^, 
(Sh), when it is (M, Sh) future or iu the predicameut 
of the future (M), [i. e.] future with respect to what 

Si / 

precedes 4 _ 5 *=* , whether it be future with respect to the 
time of speaking, as £M Jv*> ^ji^ 1 * *jJ* ^ Jl XX. 93. 

[411] We will not cease to be devoted to it until <§•<;., the 
return of Moses being future with respect to what precedes 

^jXa. , i. e. their keeping to devotion to the worship of the 
calf, and similarly (Sh) &isJ( J^o! ^ o-«JM / be- 
came a Muslim, in order, or so, or to the end, that I might 

/v J>Oi Us so 

enter Paradise (M, Sh), tglaoj Jk*. uy^ when your 

O /■ 

entry is awaited, not yet realised, as though you said ^ 

ft tot 

Iglaof , / journeyed in order that I might enter it, and 
*iS**l \S Y^« ii*^ *****' 1 spoke to him in order that he 
might counsel me something (M), or not [future with res- 



( 36 ) 

pectto the time of speaking], as Jyfl Jfi L £ s >- 'y^jj 
II. 210. And they were violently agitated until the 
Apostle [and they which believed with him] said, in 
the reading with the sub}., the saying of the Apostle 
and the believers being future with respect to the 
violent agitation, not with respect to the time of the 
announcement, since God recounted that to us after it had 

r- SO 

happened (Sh), and J>ft «t^>* when your entry is con- 
cluded, but is in the predicament of the future as having 
been awaited at the time of the existenco of the journey 
made on account of it, until I entered it (M) : (2) it is in 

the ind. (M, Sh), ^1 not being understood (Sh), when 
it is (M, Sh) not future in either of the two respects (Sh), 
[but] present or in the predicament of the present (M), as 

fSstst 3 • SO 

igkxot J«k. s^jyu (M, Sh) when the entry is being realised 
at present (M), [i. e.] wben you say that while you are in 
the state of entering (Sh), J journeyed, or have journeyed, 
so that J enter, or am entering, it, as though you said 

• mO-O /SS Oi /i £ * 

JS\ IgJLxoi U! ( J^ so that I now enter, ox am entering, it, 

S/t> s ■& a * S •O-a S m * S /• S O^ * • 

(M), and &*Ia> jsu y>**M J^ssj. ^^- Je"f is^j& The 

' ' '£ ' ' 

camels drank, or have drunk, so that the he-camel comes, 

i Ot f f 

or is coming, dragging his belly (M, Sh), and i*jj ^fy 

S* SOt ' Si • 

&j .s^j 1/ ^gX^ Zaid has fallen, or fell, ill, so that they fyc. 
[]], the sense being so that the state of the he-camel, and 
of this invalid, is that he comes fyc, and that they fyc, 



( 37 ) 

/■& *• s J> t tit t S/ /• ft>^ I Os J) Of • 

and Jl^-Jf J\ E tXa.f II ^^Xa. &L*Jj &ia> ^ ^L, 

/ asked, or Aoue asked, about this question, so that I have 
no need of asking, i. e. so that my state now is that I have 
no need &c. (Sh), or when the entry is concluded, but 
you are imitating the past state, so that I enter [meaning 
entered} it, II. 210. being also read with the ind. (M) in 

the sense of the present, like £M o^ , except that it is 
a past present imitated, so that the Apostle Sfc. say [mean- 
ing said] (K). If the v. after ( Jv>~ be future with respect 
to the time of speaking, the subj. is necessary, as XX. 
93. j but if it be future only with respect to what precedes 

LS *a- , either mood is allowable, as II. 210. : and similarly 
if its quality of present be with respect to the time of 

speaking, the ind. is necessary, as l^t^of ^>. y~jy when 

you say that while you are in the state of entering j but 
if its quality of present be not real but imitated, it is put 
into the ind., or may be put into the subj. when^there is 
not supposed to be imitation, as II. 210. The v., however, 

is not put into the wirf. after Jta. save on three conditions; 
(1) that it be a present, or renderable by the present, as 

2* s 

exemplified ; (2) that it be an effect of what precedes ^jXa. , 

a o 3^» ps Of 3 / J> f*s Of 2 / s * 

so that ***£Ji ^ilsu Ji=*. c)>» and Ig&of ^yc* vuy* U 

fPB Of 3 / / O Of 

and l$la.L>.' ^s>, ^ ja> are not allowable, because the 
rising of the sun is not caused by the journeying, nor the 



( 38 ) 
entrance by the uofc journeying, aud iu the 3rd ex. because 
the existence of the cause is not certain (ML) ; [but] you 

// JO/ Si • • O fi 

say t^iloj ^ASk usjy*>\ with the subj. Didst thou journey, 
or Hast thou journeyed, in order that thou mightst, or 
mayst enter, or until thou enter edst, itf (M),and ^j^ ^**> f&f 

ts a Of 

l$*.t±l Which of them journeyed, or has journeyed, so that 
he enters, or is entering, it? (M, ML) with the ind., or 

ff » Of 

tgla*iJ in order that he might, or may, enter, or until he 

tf * Ot 3 s s f s 

entered, it f with the subj. (M), and I^LLoj ^X=* ^tw JU 

JPAen «Kds£ thou journey, so that thou enterest, or art en~ 
tering, it f , because the journeying [in the last two ear*.] 
is certain, and may therefore be a cause, the doubt being 
only as to the particular ag. or particular time ; and Akh 
allows the ind. after the negation on the understanding 
that the original form of the sentence was off., aud that 
the instrument of negation was afterwards prefixed to the 

entire sentence, not only to what precedes J*s>. , and had 
this ex. been presented to S with this sense he would not 
have forbidden the ind, in it, but would have forbidden it 
only when the negation is made to overcome the cause 
exclusively, and every one forbids that ; (S) that it be a 

/fi 9 0"£ 23 • Of 

complement, so that tgl^-ol ^k* iSJ* w ' s not correct » lest 

m f f / f 

the inch, remain without an enunc, nor l JZs* ^j*— ^ 
/s toi , , ' 

lgB*)i if the ^S be non-attributive (ML), [but] you say 



( 39 ) 



\^^\ ^Xa. ^ja- ^y with the suhj., not otherwise, My 
journey was in order that T might enter, or until I entered^ 

,a a a? 5 • «? Ay 

it (M); whereas., if you say t^of ^Xa. ^»*f ^ja* 
My journey was yesterday, so that Tenter, or am entering, 
it, the in<£. is allowable, unless you make j»*l depend 
upon the j*- itself, My journeying yesterday, not upon 
a suppressed y^x-t (ML) ; and, if you mean the ^S 
to he attributive (M, ML), or add j— %S and make it 

, , * A* S*A / ' 

depend upon ^ , or say ****** ';*•*•, either mood (M), 
the ind. [or sub}.] (ML) is allowable. My journey came, or 
As* come, to pass, or was yesterday, or tov, or /*a$ been, 
a fatiguing journey, so thai I enter, or am entering, it, or 
en orflter ///.a£ / m*/r/U, or wwy. enter, or mw/i7 / entered, 
it (M, ML). 

, .C A .» A* A*, .0 ,f 

§ 415. The text ^j^-e jl f^ 1 -^ XLVII1. 1(5. 

[538] is read with the sub;. [ (^**«*i jf . meaning ^f J\ 

IjJUj (R),] by subaudition of ^ , F<; shall Jght with 
them until- they submit : and with the ind. by association 
[in inflection] between ^j****** and f&<p& , or they 
shall submit, [i- e. One of the two matters shall come 
to pass, either the Jighting or the submitting (K, B), as 

S A jP 

is indicated by the reading \yA~*t (B), there being no 
third (K)] ; or by inception, as though it were said 



{ 40 ) 

* 9 K t A» hi Sh t /A? hi f /» 

u)^* 1 *** t t& $ '■ and you say &*«* ^tjUf y ^G yi> 
.fife wtW s/ay me unless I ransom myself from him ; or 

/i hi 

make it inceptive [with the ind."] according to t»l y 

thi 

^gwvXaf or I shall Sfc. : and S says concerning the saying 
of Irara alKais 

• , hSt t a/ hi fhs s ** s3 t fht h/ • 9t shst 

' t ' 

Then I said to him, Let not thine eye weep; we shall 

only seek sovereignty, unless we die and be excused that, 

if you put the ind., it would he legitimate Arabic on the 

ground either that you associated the first and last, we shall 

* * s /S 

• only seek sovereignty or die, as though you, said J^***. Lif 

* «/ /2 «! ' &■ 

sajyj Li I £ or we shall only die ; or that it was incep- 
tive, disconnected from the first, we shall only seek 

'■ h 5 * h / hi 

sovereignty, or we shall die, in the sense of ^j** ^aai 3 f 
, >, 
vuy+i or we shall be of those who die (M). 

§ 416. Jf the 3 does not signify i. q. £«• , but on 
the contrary you intend to associate v. and v., or to make 
what follows the j the munc. of a suppressed inch., the 
subj. is not allowable : and therefore in what follows the 

/ sS*> jf / A •/ y t S .o 3%, , 

3 (IA) in the saying a$\ Vj^J »-**«•*" J^» ^ three 
moods are allowable, (1) the apoc. (IA, Sh), by associa- 
tion between the two vs. (IA), when you mean by the 
% the coupling of v. to v., in which case the 2nd is the as- 

sociate of the first in the prohibition (Sh), as ^yjUf vj^j 
J)o «o< <Ao?' eatjish and drink milk (IA), as though you 



( 41 ) 

said Do thou not this, nor this, the <-_> being then pro- 
nounced with Easr, according to general rule, because 
of the concurrence of two quiescents, the w and the J 
(Sh); (2) the ind. (I A, Sh), [when you mean a d. s.,] 

a t A £ t t htr 

by subaudition of an inch. [80], as •_>?""',? * ** e * u ^' i 
^^Uj wAen Mow drinkest [538] (IA), [or] when you 
mean inception [539], But thou shall, i. e. mayst, drink 

(Sh); (3) the subj. by means of ^t understood (I A, Sh), 
when you mean to couple the inf. n. of the v. to an inf. 
.». supplied from what precedes it (Sh), in which case 
the prohibition js from the union of the two [acts] (IA, 
Sh), as *— 'r^3 while thou drinkest, i. e. Let there not be ' 
on thy part eating fish and drinking milk (IA): [and 
similarly] lj*XG in the text JI»Wu JaaH \f~A> Vy 

£ t A~° S9h t * 

VsaJ! f yj& y II. 39. may be in the $«fy\, [by subaudi- 
tion of J> , the j denoting union (539) (K, B>, in the 

* r 

sense of £•• (B), -4»rf confuse ye not the truth with 
falsehood, white ye conceal the truth, i. e. unite, or com- 
bine, not confusion of the truth with falsehood and con- 

cealment of the truth (K, B), like y/JJ; (K)] ; or in the 
apoc, [included under the predicament of the prohibition 

3 fins * * 

(K, B), meaning \y*& Vy And do not ye confuse SfC, 

and do not conceal (K),],Jike 
f 



( 42 ) 

t s ** hits a /Ay a / 5 /• st fi it ph/t ' j* th** a / /> 
J^spjj ia-J Jm&> A i_#ti * &3f j) ^JUj ? ,$ J j*" f*^ ^J 

' if " 

[And do not thou defame the friend and compass his 
harm ,* for verily thou, if thou do that, wilt be pronounced 
witless and accounted silly (AAz) ; while the codex of 

/ SS*ti 

Abd Allah Ibn Mas'iid {alUudliall (Nw)} has ^y***) 
(K, JB), i. e. ^y+& f*- 5 '; (B), in the sense of j*^>^ 



concealing (K, B)] : and you say «-*;^5',J csb3 Visit 
thou me while I visit thee, with the subj., meaning in 

Arf> * US* 

order that the two visits may be combined, like ^«ol w=J& 
g\ [411]; aud ^;;;l; with the ind., and I shall visit 
thee, meaning To visit thee is incumbent upon me in every 
case ; then let there he on thy part a visiting ; while, if 

' AJ>? ' 

you mean the imp., you prefix the J , and say v^jjifj 

and let me visit thee, not t~*;jf j , because the first is 
uninfected upou pause [431] (M) : and S mentions 
in the sayhig [of Ka'b alGhauavv! (M)] 

Js;*- ^^° **- **"***•> * cs** u j"* 1 is® *i<~u u ' t-i 

the sit/ij. [of t-^*aij (K, AAz), 4»rf / am »o* one to soy 
the thing that dues not profit me, while my comrade gets 
wroth at if, i. e. that my luck of profit and my comrade's 
wrath are united in (AAz), by diversion (539), this diver- 
sion being in the suite not of ^sU j~aJ f because then 



( 43 ) 

the meaning would be / do not say a saying that does 
not unite my -profit and my comrade's wrath at it, but of 

» t ti t 

Jj^i U| U , because then the meaning is The saying 
that does not profit me is not co-existent with my com- 
rade's wrath at it, and that because of the non-existence nf 
either both or one*of them (R)] ; and the ind., and that 
my comrade gets wroth' at (M, R), by coupling to the 

t t h* & 3t A3t tmtS 

conj. jtib' *-aJ (R) : and the text says ,J> fj% *# ■j**** 

tt * t * t t 

Srtt ft t tt$A^> 

iUJU r b. ; lf|XXII. 5. [539] That We might make 
plain unto you (Our power and Our wisdom). And 
We cause to remain in the wombs what We will, i. e. 

S 9 3 A ** 

*D jssj) (M); and is also read with the subj., That We 
might Sfc, and cause $c. (K, B). 

§ 417. The sub), is not allowable in U.wtj> J^j 

tSm t St 

Ujj.33^9 , the iJ not being preceded by negation or 
requisition ; while the saying [of AlMughlra Ibn Hunain 
atTainiml alHanzalS (Jsh)] 

/ t hit t *t° * ' hit t t lit 3Shif 

, i t t # t t t tt 

\t will leave my place of abode to the Banu~ Tamzm, and 
betake myself to (a tribe which is in) AlHijSz, so thai I 
may be at rest (Jsh)] is a poetic license, the saying that it 

K , t flit 

is originally jSsujJUti with the light corrob. ^ changed 

' * t *te 
into f in pause, like Ui-JJ XCVI. 15. [649] in pause, 



( 44 ) 

being a flight from one license to another, since the cor- 
roboration of the v. except in requisition, condition, and 
swearing, is a license [612] (Sh^. The ind. is allowable 
in Uuo.aaXJ UjuG U by (M, ML) coupling (ML) [and 

' ' s9ut * J> ft 

consequent] association, as though you said Ui'oaaj Us 

» Ul , 9 ' 

(M), so that va>o«w becomes associated in the negation, 
Thou dost not come to us and dost not talk to us (ML), 
like LXXVII. 36. [below] (M) ; or by inception (M, 
ML), so that it becomes off. (ML), as though you said 
\jyn\ J^3=u ks»JU and consequently thou art ignorant of 
our case (M), i. e. Thou contest not to us, and consequently 
thou talkest to us {now instead of that) (ML), [see below,] 
as in the saying of Al'Ainbarf 

* * / * r t ' 

[Save that he has not brought to us certain tidings, and 
therefore we hope and multiply expectation (Jsh)], i. e. 

01 /* 9 A ft n$ 

^i.^ .ssai* (M) : and the subj. by subaudition of ^f , 
which has two meanings, negation of the cause so that 
the effect becomes negatived, and negation of the second 
only (ML). In negation, as lX»/U ,c*aJG U , you have 
four cases : — (1) you construe the O merely to couple 
the form of the v. to the form of what precedes it, so 
that the second shares with the first in its inflection ; and 



( 45 ) 

therefore the ind. is necessary here, because; the preced- 
ing v. is in the ind. ; so that it is as though you said 

t 2 hi t/ 

uX*yi Ls , the second sharing with the first in the 
negation prefixed to it, Thou contest not to me, and I do 

S0t J t hi tt , t A/ / /«/ /I 

not honor thee ; whence ^ ^yi ^) &)*****■ ^ ()i ' L * >a> 

s t thtt 

^^Jj^ji LXXVIL 35. 36., the o being copulative, 
and the subsequent v. being included in the tenor of the 

preceding negation, as though Hi were said, This etc. 
[159], nor be permitted and make excuse : (2) you con- 
strue the i_i to be merely illative, and the subsequent 
v. to be inceptive, but, notwithstanding its inceptive- 
ness, to be constructed upon, a suppressed inch. ; and 
therefore in this case also the ind. is necessary, because 
the v. is free from subjunctival and apocopative ops.; 

* a hit t a hi tit 

bo that you say lX*/$ , i. q. i-£«yj t»U , i. e. Thou 

t t 

comest not to me ; therefore 1 honor thee {because of thy 
not coming to me), that being [said] when you dislike 

At tt fi htt ft 4 ht t 

his coming j whence &*a* ^s UiLax£> U-.6 jjj U , 

1 1 s t 

i. e Zaid is not hard,- therefore, or so that, he is kind to 
his slave (because of his not being hard) : and the differ- 
ence between this case and the one that precedes is 
manifest, because in the 1st case the negation includes 
what precedes and what follows the u? ; whereas in 
this case the negation flows exclusively towards what 
precedes the lJ , not towards what follows it, because 



( 4C ) 
you do not make the v-i couple the v. after it to the 
negatived v. before it, so that the former should share 
with the latter in the negation, but you make it purely 
illative : and the GG mention these two cases in UajU U 
Uikisao , which is a mistake, since it is absurd that the 
coming should be non- existent and the talking existent 
[see above] : (3) you construe the O to couple the infl 
n. of the v. after it to the inf. n. paraphrased from 
the v. before it, and the negation to be discharged upon 
the coupled, not upon the ant.) and in that case the 

Hi 

subj. governed by ^ necessarily suppressed is neces- 
sary, Thou contest not to me so that I honor thee, con- 
structively There is not on thy part a coming, and then^ 
i.e. succeeded by, an honoring on my part} but there is on 
thy part a coming, and is not on my part an honoring; : 
(4) you construe the <-i to couple the inf n. to the 
inf. n., as before, but the negation to be discharged 
upon the ant. ; so that the Coupled is negatived because 
it is a consequence thereof, Thou earnest not to me, so 
that I may honor thee, and the sentence means There is 
not on thy part a coming: then how shall there be on my 
part an honoring t: and these two cases are allowable in 
U?i*anAJ UajG U [412], since it is correct to say Thou 



( 47 ; 
contest not to us talking, but thou contest to us not talk' 
ing, and Thou contest not to us: then, or so, or there/ore, 
how shalt thou talk to us? In "fine, we have two cases of 
the ind. and two of the sub}.: and 'jui**** so that they 
may make excuse might he read according to one of the 
two mentioned for the subj., vid. the second, Thou earnest 
not to us: then how shalt thou talk to us?, i. e. nor be 
' permitted (to make excusa) : then how shall they make 
excuse ? ; ;but not according to the-6rst, Tkat^mesi '--tooi \ 
to us talking, but' thou contest to us not talking, since" 
then the sense would be nor be permitted in the state of 
their making excuse, but shall ; be' permitted, otherwise^ 
which sense is not intended (Sh), but absolute- negation 

of permission and consequently of making excuse (B). 

tit / 

If you put ^ in place of U , there are two cases of the 

w t S A$ 

subj. [in w£*>»» ], subaudition of ^ , Thou shalt not 
come to us, so that thou maysl talk to us, and con;jiing f 
and talk to us; and one case of the ind., vid anacolu- 
thon, [i. e. inception (DM),] and consequently thou 
talkest to us [above]: if you put J , there is one case 

A* 

of the subj., vid. subaudition of ^1 , Thou didst not 
come to us, so that thou mightst talk to us ; and one of . 
the ind., vid. inception, and consequently thou talkest to- 
rn', while the apoc. ia allowable by coupling, and folk 



( 4« ; 

la us : and, if you say l&janA* ^ c^j| U , there is no 
apoc. otind. by coupling, because no [apoc. orind. (DM)] 
v. precedes ; but it is [in the ind.] only by anacoluthon, 
Thou art not coming, so that thou talkest to us ; [while 

the subj. by subaudition of yjf is allowable (DM)]. In 

r 9 »S, 4/ A , 

uX»jfli l5 *-yC J& the ind. is allowable in two cases, 
[coupling and inception (DM),] Wilt thou come to me, and 
then (shall) I honor theef, or Wilt thou come to me? 
Then I will honor thee ; and the subj. by subaudition [of 

A i * » «■»/ t *$ i*' A t 

yjl ], so that lmay honor theef: in &*j£X* ±Sf-\ i^j J8> 
the ind. is not put by coupling, but by inception, /*• Zaid 
thy brother, so that thou ho-norest him?: and in lJJ JJb 
euyCXs «aII ,-,tfIM the ind. is allowable by inception. Hast 
thou a regard for him, so that thou honorest him ? ; and 
the subj., either as a correl., so thai thou mayst honor 

$ ' A 

him ?, or as coupled to cyiaXJI [418. A.], the subaudi- 
tion of ^jf being necessary in the former case, and 

a£a-o » , Ay/S 

allowable in the latter. Such as ^fpS ^ U^^^i. t& 
U^iaJLjJ XII. 109. adutits of the apoc. by coupling, Have 
they not, then, journeyed in the earth and seen?', and 
the subj. by subaudition, so that they might see? (ML) : 
and in 

JfsHt >*/«/ •AxA.e /A/ A S btf a «/f /«//«!« /«• r^ 3SaxA.< 

3IU-. ili*^ ^^Jf uCi^aoj ja>j 9 4 3 ta *** •''j* 1 ' C^y J 1 "*"' f** 



( 4t» ) 

[by Jamil, $**& is in the ind. by inception (540), and 
may not be in the subj., because (AAz)], says S, lie 
floes not make the first, [i. e. the asking (AAz),] the 
cause of the last, [so that the t-i should be .illative, 
which is the condition of the subj. (AAk),] but makes the 
abode speak in every state as though he said U« ^q* 

* A, 

/jk^i i [Hast thou not asked the desolate abode concern- 
* 

ing her people, for it speaks f But shall a barren desert 
inform thee to-day? (Jsh),] like as you say \-£oa& Jm$ 
Come thou unto me, for I talk t> thee, meaning for I 
am of those who talk to thee in evert/ state (M). The 
text XXVI. 102. [592] is exactly like the [former] ex. 
[ J\ vJ&k\\ ejd ja (DM)], if it be admitted that y 
denotes wish (ML); whereas, if it denoted condition, the 
wbj. as a correl. would not be possible, but only the hid. 
by inception, and the subj. by coupling to tbe pure inf, *. 
«/ (DM): and you say &Si*.aa*» &*& y *y He wished . 
that thou wouldst come to him, so that thou might* foA 
to him ; while the ind., and talk, is excellent, as ia 
^yife*** jtoS* y f^Jj LXVIII. 9. Tliey ichh thai 
ihott wouldst deal gently with them and they then 4ml 
gently with thee, [the ci being copulative, i. e. Th*9 < 

wish for reciprocal dealing gently, but have deferred th+ 
S 



( 60 ) 
gentle dealing until thou deal gently, or illative (B), 
while ^y^^S is made the enunc. of a suppressed 

,. J> hS til, 

inch., i. e. ^f^>H {& (K), i. e. and in that case they 
will deal gently, or and there/ore they now deal gently 
from eagerness that thou wouldst deal gently (K, B),] and 

a lit , 

in some codices J **&•>*> (M), as correl. of the wish, 

' » / 3 i ,K, 

so that they may deal gently (B): and in MU i>a.f i J^*S 

*** 3** 1 * ^ '^ a ' ^ may find wealth and expend thereof ! t 
or Tften / *Aa// expend thereof the inrf. is allowable in 

A? 

two cases, and the subj. by subaudition of ^ , «© *Aa* 
I may expend; but in «i* ji>l» VU ^J cu-aJ O Ma£ / 
may have wealth I Then I shall expand thereof or so that 
I may expend, the ind. by coupling is impossible [for 

A 

ef »j/ in, nt, 

want of an ant. ind. (DM)]. In &-j££» ,>j»j JUJ the ind. 

is allowable by anacoluthon, Let Zaid stand : then thou 
wilt honor him, the apoc. by coupling, and do thou honor, 
and the subj. by subaudition, so that thou mayst honor 
(ML). And ['Amr (AAz)] Ibn Ahrnar [Ibn Al'Amar- 
rad (ID)] says 

[He treats a barren she-camel that has baffled him, in 
order that he may make her conceive, and delivers her of 

a young camel (AAz)], as though he said I|pbXjU* ^flaj , 



( 51 ) 

A/ 
o* by inception, [And he delivers; while gJHi may be in 

the subj., as coupled to l$»HUf } an d deliver (AAz)]. 

§ 418. You say ^Ju-^aJ J ,5*^ m' **i)' ^ flfe**** 
that thou wouldst come to me and afterwards talk to me j 
and the ind. is allowable, and afterwards thou wilt talk 
to me : and Khl allows an option ia the saying of 4 Urwa 
al'Udhrl 

i^^a.! oWl U Jk*. ci-^U % Silsa* Ufcf^l Jf Iff jfc Lj 

between the subj. in >&»#& , [Aw «s «7 aught but that I 
see her unexpectedly, and then am stricken dumb, so that 
I am not on the point of answering (AAz),] and the ind. t 
[And then I am stricken £fc. (AAzJ] : and an instance of 
anaeoluthon [with the y ] is the saying of Abu-lLaham 
at Taghlabi 

[It is (incumbent) upon the judge resorted to one day, when 
he passes his decree, that he act not unjustly; and he shall 

# A* • Sf A / h*0 M/ h // 

rfeaJ impartially (Msh)], i. e. i**aib y& 5 'V^f >** **** 

' * r 

Not to act unjustly is incumbent upon kirn; and he £fc. t 

like as you sayXj-T &J ,_5***i; ^=P4 ^ ^ M* o»^ ««cA 
a thing behoves him. S says that in accordance with 
this ex. the ind. is allowable in the case of all these ps. 
that associate (M). 



§ 4 13. A. The aor. v. is put into the subj. by means of 
J (IA, Sh) allowably, not necessarily, suppressed (Sh), 
[i. e.] suppressed or expressed (IA), after (IA, Sli) a con- 
junction (IA), [vid. one of] the four ps., the j , the t-5 , 

S* fit 

J , and )\ (Sh), when preceded by (IA), [i. e.] when 
coupling to (Sh), a pure n., [i. e. such as the sense of the 
v. is not intended by (IA),] as [after the y (Sh)] in the 
saying [of Maisiin Bint Bahdal (Sh) wife of Mu'Swiya (J)] 

(I A, Sh) And the wearing of a woollen cloak and that 
mine eye be cool from tears are dearer to me than the 
wearing of fine garments (J), related with )*> in the subj. 
by means of ^t understood, as being coupled to -*J 
as though ^e if) were said (Sh), ^f with that to 
which it is prefixed being renderable by an inf. n. cou- 
pled by the y to the preceding inf. n. (J) : and [after the 
u? (Sh)] in the saying 

(I A, Sh) Had there not been an expectation of a suppliant 
and that I gratified him, I should not have preferred in 
donation contemporaries of others to mine own contempo- 
rary, i. e. J should have given unto mine own equal in age 



( 53 ) 

* a! 
also, and not postponed him (J), ^c^ being governed in 

a J ' 

the subj. by ^1 allowably suppressed (IA), and being with 
it renderable by an inf. n. coupled by the t-J to the pre- 

■»3 ■» /A s ut /A S Sw,t tH, 

ceding inf. «., i. e. *y Ju>£ f^, pf ]fj (j) . an( i 

[after ^ (Sh)] in the saying [of Anas Ibn Mudrika 
alKhath'ami (J)] 

(IA, Sh) Verily I and my slaying Sulaik, then that / 
should pay the price of his blood, are like the bull being 
beaten wlien the cows have loathed the water (J), the 
practice of the Arabs being to beat the bull, that the 
cows may go to the water and not refuse it, to 
escape being beaten themselves, the cows not being 
beaten because they are too weak to bear it (Sh), where 
J2*! is governed in the subj. by ^ allowably suppressed 

• 

(IA), and with it is renderable by an inf. n. coupled by 

2_, 3/hr 5* ftir 3 «// ul 

J to the preceding inf. n., i. e. &&* f l&h ,^**) ^f 

ni £ s\,jB S t*'9 A? ft ft // 

(J); and [after ;' (Sh)] in *1 &1II &*&i J r~* JS S 

», t ft* i ' ft * ftf S> A / 

y«- ; J^ji ; ! i^law. /!;; j* ;! l*="; XLII. 50. 51. 
Kor hath it been suitable, or belonged, to a human being 
that God should speak to him save by inspiration, or 
from behind a veil, or so that He should send a messenger, 



( 54 ) 

* as 

[read among the Seven (Sh/] with J.-^» governed in the 

as 
subj. (I A, Sh) by .^jl allowably suppressed, because it 

i«f #A / 

is preceded by ^-y , which is a pure n. (I A), Ua.^ aud 

• A* Hi * /A 

J..-JJ J in the sense of Ml**;! being inf. ns. occurring, 



r»ft A 



like tbe ado. ^^p^ d)) ^j* > in the place of the d. s., 
i. e. U~j* j| ^t^p*- ji )) uj-* l»***~« ^1 kp-j* (K), and with 



a a* , t Hi 



the ind., [as meaning J—ji y& ^! or life sendeth or U-.^* 

# A • ft 3? A/ 

coupled to U^^ i. q. l^y or sending (K),] and ^1 ^ 
^1 y SjS *& ^ XI. 82. Had I but . strength against 
you, or that 1 should betake myself, read with the subj. 

A i 

[by subaudition of ^1 (K)], because preceded by the 

est S 2 as fS* 

puren. 8j> , as though l»y jl Sj» were said: whereas 

***$*?* * *■' * 
i Q Uujaa» UuJG U , though the coupling is to a preced- 

§ t t § 'A •A 9 St t 

ing «., i. e. iS»s>v±=»J ^^f uCU i^^ ** > st '^ tna * ». is 

* ' A* 

not pure, so that there the subaudition of ^ is necessary, 
not allowable, contrary to the present question, where 
it is allowable, nay, 151 prescribes that expression is 

§ A^ S * H„ >«S/ 

better than subaudition (Sh) ; while in oj) *■******? ytiaJf 
t-_»t»*i*l JF&af is flying, so that Zaid gets angry, is the 

/ / A/ 

^ [179] h~"4*d must be in the ind., because it is 



( 54a ) 

coupled to jSlb , which is an impure w., i. e. such as the 
sense of the v. is intended by, since it occurs in the 
place of the v., as being a conj, of Jf , the con}, being 
properly a prop., so that $&> is put in the position of 

;4% , the o. f. being ja!a» *JJf , and the v. being for- 

ht is 

saken for the act. part, when J! is put, because J( is 

prefixed only to ns. (I A). Suppression of [the subjunc- 
tival (ML)] ^f , [while it still governs the subj. (IA), 
is regular in (the aforesaid) known positions, and (ML)] 
is anomalous, [not to be taken as a precedent (IA), in 
others (ML), (i. e.) in other than the before-mentioned 
cases of necessary or allowable suppression (IA),] as in 

• • A / Sti» sAs C 9>i& fi 

laybaj Xyt Bid thou him that he dig it and J*» ^Uf tii. 
u£,i£.b Seize thou the robber be/ore that he seize thee 

s / A s A £ St S%s A i ' 

(IA, ML), i. e. UDjaaaj ^f and i_5"J.i.b ^ (IA), and 
the saying [of 'Amir Ibn Juwain atTa'l ( Jsh)] 

hsshi Jt A //Ay Ks 3 h / Ass * s s s -9 ss A si Ass 

[ Jwd / Aape no£ seen the like of her a spoil of one; and 
I restrained myself from making prey of her after that 1 

ssstii hi 

was on the point of doing it, i. e. &**»f ^ (Jsh)], though 
Mb says that the original form was l^lxsf , the f having 



( bib ) 
been elided, and the vowel of the 8 transferred to the 

preceding letter, which is better than the saying of S, 

a* 
because the latter understands ^1 in a position where it 

ought not to occur expressed, vid. the/)rerf. of otf [460] 

(ML), and the saying [of Tarafa (J)] 

/ * 

h * * fit l\ r mZji * * K"i hi r 

^jisMU^if J2> «ytJJJ| d^l ^fj 



/ * A* A » 



In the version with y&*\ in the *h-4j., i. e. y^-\ ^ 
(LA), renderable by an inf. n. governed in the gen. by a 
suppressed prep., i. e. ^j\ )y**- ^j', Nov:, thou 
that forbiddest vie from being present at the fray and 
from attending festivities, icilt thou be my preserver 
(when I comply with thee in that) ?, the suppression oi 

A i 

J here being made approvable by its presence in what 
follows, as in J>H ^o.** J V £****> That thou shouldsi hear 
Sfc. with £*«*J in the sub). (J). When, however, the v. 

a£ 

is put into the ind. after the suppression of ^ , the case 
Ijecomes easy ; but. notwithstanding that, is not regular : 

m w n.tS1*<* 9 * A t 

andhence XXX. 23. [175], p\ 3 j.a*JU£**«J [2], and 
the better known version in the verse of Tarafa [1] (ML). 



THE APOCOPATE. 



§ 419. The apoc. is the aor. v. to which one of 15 
instruments is prefixed (Sh) : which instruments are of 
two kinds, first such as apocopate one v. (IA, Sh); these 

A/ 

are four [in uumber] (Sh); i.e. (1) <J (IA, Sh), as CXII. 

3. 4. [404] (Sh); (2) U (I A, Sh), as LXXX. 23. [404] 
and III. 136. [411] (Sh); both of which denote negation, 
are confined to the aor., and change its sense to the past, 

that which is denied by Ui being only [a past] contigu- 
ous to the present (IA); (3) the imp. J (IA, Sh), as 

&A3Uw -• 6*** ,3 jfef LX V. 7. Let a possessor of abun- 

dance expend of his abundance (Sh); (4) V in prohibi- 

• s s yJ* f° & A * A • • 

tion, as l*** &UJ ^1 ^f=^ V IX. 40. Grieve thou not; 
verily God is with us (IA, Sh) ; both of which are some* 
times metaphorically applied to denote prayer, as ^fty 
i_£>» UuJU: XLIII. 77. Let thy Lord make an end of us 

and Uia.l£> U U>j H. 286. Our Lord, chastise us not (Sh): 
secondly such as apocopate two vs. (IA, Sh) ; these are 
eleven [in number] divided into six classes; (a) denota- 
tive of mere dependence of the correl. upon the condition 

(Sh); i.e. (5) J (IA, Sh), as JU IjJyJ jl VIIL 19 - 
And if ye return to warring with the Apostle, We will 



( 56 ) 

/ A 

return to his assistance (Sh); and (6) Wil (I A, Sh), as 

, m 9f%, * & A t l\B $ m • A? f ft/ • A /S/ 

Kh>\ pG 8bJ ~» i_s)G to, * y*\ c^J! U v-uG UJ! uC>|j 

/ ^ / /• •, • & £ 

(I A) -4«d »«'»7y £Aow, whenever thou shalt do what thou 
art enjoining, thou wilt find him that thou enjoinest to 
do it to be doing it (J); (b) denotative of rational objects, 
and subsequently made to imply the sense of condition ; 

A / /A f 4r* 9 A /A/ A / 

i. e. (Sh) (7) -. , as to >=pd Uy J*« >* IV. 122. 
Whoso worketh evil shall be requited for it (IA, Sh) ; (c) 
denotative of what is not rational, and subsequently made 

to imply the sense of condition ; i. e. (Sh) (8) U , as U^ 

Sl><a .PA/Ax A * A *,h, 

&Uf &*lso ftf*. ^ S£*su II. 193. And whatever ye do of 
good, God will know it; and (9) Ug«, as *<• to UjC Lg* 

• A* t , a A / •/ / // • A / •*, ' // ' 

<gx*i*i U3 jsaj Ui [$> lifa~JS &>f VII. 129. Whatso- 
ever sign thou bring unto us, that thou mayst enchant us 
tliprewith, we shall not be believers in thee (IA, Sh) ; (d) 
denotative of time, and subsequently made to imply the 

sense of condition; i.e. (Sh) (10) t JU, as (I A, Sh) JU 
Jl MS [424] (IA) [and] 

A? tS/hrO A/ A/ // A (/ #/// /uirO £ , » t\s/ 

(Sh), by Tarafa, And I am not wont to settle in the water' 
courses from fear ; but whenever the people seek assist' 
ance, I assist (EM) j and (11) ^Of, as 



( 57 ) 

* / A// A/ 3 / sth*> AJ> A/ / / //A/ A f%f / A h* / Sf 

/ <» / / ^ / 

(IA, Sh) Whenever, i.e. If at any time whatsoever, 

t£>e gran^ thee safety, thou wilt be safe from others than 

its ; and when thou obtainest not safely from us, thou 

wilt not cease to be afraid (J) ; (e) denotative of place, 

subsequently made to imply the sense of condition ; i. e. 



9 K/htO J)th A* S 3/ //AS 



(12) ^.1 , as ey,JI f&yAt \fp U«J IV. 80. Where- 
soever ye be, death will overtake you (Sh), [or, as IA 



//AS 



says,] WjI , as | .; ^ ' . : ^ . ,,_,-..-. 

A • '/Abi/J-'* m*> V/A? <-t },*.''& **"' 

J*j l^U*J £}.}\ UL>f % yta. ^ 'ixtii Sjaud 

• / *" ' fit *•'■■*' 

(LA), by Hassan Jbn Birar alKalbi, The beloved is like 
a spear-shaft grooving in a place where water ■collects ; 
wherever the breeze sways it, wherever it sways it, it sways, 

//A? /A? 

U-bf being [composed of *j| , ] a cond. n. governing 

/Aw/.P A / / 

the suppressed l$k*J and J+> in the apoc., and U red., 

' ' /AW/.P 

and the aor. t;. iu the expressed l$U*2 being in the apoc. 
as expos, of the suppressed opoc. (J); (13) ^f , as 

* t S * s9 \t / /A/ 0? / %* / / */ if (! / / 

i)Jsb& V L&uiy, U »a* tL| # tut? ^-Jlx^G J| .JULi. 
x / / • / • 

(IA, Sh) il/y ftpo friends, whencesoever ye shall come to 
me, ye shall come to a brother that will not seek aught else 

/A/ a s e 

than what will gratify you, j£* being direct ofy". of J^taau* 

/•.PA / ' 

(J) j and (14) (JUa* , as 

/A?AiO / <*//>$ ill* / / Aui A /A / /#« * 



( 58 ) 
(IA, Sh) Wheresoever thou art straight, i. e. moderate and 
well conducted, Ood will decree for thee success in future 
limes (J); {f) vacillating between the [last] four classes; 

it B* * AJ>$ lit, AJ>3S 

i. e. (Sh) (15) ^1 (IA, Sh), which in &** f\ ^ ^1 
Whichever of them stands, I shall stand with him is of 

A • A sft£ A sAx mi s3 iO %$ 

the category of j-*, and in v--*;! ^r^V v'; 1 ^ t3* 

Whichever of the beasts thou ridest, I shall ride is of 

, a j>$ a *• a/ a i 

the category of U , and in po) ^«a» ^y. jjl On u>Aa£- 

ever day thou fastest, I shall fast is of the category of 

SS A A ? A A / X s 23 £ 

^J^* , and in ^j^M j**%" ^j 1 ^* ,5' i» whatever place 

' * xaS 

<Aow «#es£, / «An// s& is of the category of ^t (Sh). 
The instruments which apocopate one v. are all ps. .• 

A 

and (IA) of those which apocopate two vs. ^ and 

s A A £ , A 

UM are jp*. (IA, Sh), ^ by common consent, and UM 

according to S and the majority, while some hold it to be 
a n. (Sh), and the rest are ns. (IA, Sh) by common con- 

sent except in the case of U§# , and more correctly in its 
case, as is shown by VII. 129., for the pron. in the gen. 
relates to it, and the pron. relates only to a n. (Sh). The 
first (IA, Sh) v. (Sh) [or] prop. (IA) is named condition [or 
prot.] (IA, Sh), because it is a sign of the existence of 

the second v. and the sign is named kj~ (Sh); and the 
first prop, must be verbal (IA): the second (IA, Sh) v. (Sh) 
[or] prop. (IA) is named correl. and apod. (IA, Sh), from 
being likened to the reply to the question and requital 



( 59 ) 
of actions, because it occurs after the occurrence of 
the first, like the reply after the question and the requital 
after the deed requited (Sh) j and the second prop, is gen- 

erally verbal, but may he nominal, as £Uyf <±i) **"> d 

or J-a«H &» If Zaid come, I will honor him or he shall 
have favor. When the condition and apod, are verbal 
props., (1) the two vs. are preterites in the [inflectional] 

hj> Shi AM t hi hSh • A £ A 

place of the apoc., as *£«*»&tf j^i-*=*.f ^X1ma\ ^f XVII. 
7; If ye do good, ye will do good for your own souls; 

hi ha j>hi * ' sh» a * 

(2) they are both aorists, as ^ ^Ju\ J» L I^u^j ^Jj 

Jfi,iB hth t 9 S $ h 9 ' ' £ 

&ll| Sj jXj—taai Sj&ku II. 284. And if ye display what is in 
your souls, or conceal it, Ood will reckon with you because 
of it; (3) the first is a pret. and the second an aor., 

t h9t /hi h ht m * 9 * ft * *h£ ,0 * I • A<o J> S f / A f 

as l$i» f^U*f p&Jf uiy l$**d5j *****' ^j* 33 *! **£# ^ j* 
XL 18. Whoso is desiring the present life and its pomp, 
We will fully repay to them their works therein ; (4) the 
first is an aor. and the second a pret., which is rare, as 

,h<a* h f f hi / 3 <** Sh s hS * m / A * A • 

jojJJ j &S&*. >x» ^jaaAjy * &x* o~i/ j^aw ^>jXJ> .* 

* * re * e * / * f 

/ h 9 

(IA),by Abu Zubaid, praising a person addressed by m^jS , 
Whosoever beguiles me into evil, the *_> being i.q. ^J"/, 

<Aoa «ot7< fie in respect of him like the choking obstruction 

• ht 
between his windpipe and the jugular vein, the v. in cs*if 

being in the [inflectional] place of an apoc. (J), and 

A/ A S Bss / 9/ t 9 AW\*o /,'*' **' A / 

&4J0 *«• -d*? U &J ^* ^w*M &J fii ^ words of the 

** / ' ' 



( 60 ) 
Prophet Whoso performeth his devotions throughout the 
Night of Power, unto him wiil be forgiven what hath pre- 
ceded of his sin. When the condition is a pret. and the 

tft A 

apod, an aor., the apod, may be either an apoc, as /!»• ^1 

iht HSt 0A/ * 

yp* Jb ^J If Zaid come, ^Amr will stand, or an ind., as 

« / // / $ /v/ t s fit tt h t / A/ 5 t s ti fi t 

t t ' t a ' £ 

(IA), by Zuhair, And if a friend come to him on a day 
of soliciting^ he will say. My property is not absent, nor 

■S.St •....• 

refused, where the prop. Jjpk is in the [inflectional] place / 
of an apoc. (J), either of which is good (IA), though the 
apoc. is better than\ the ind., [on which see §, 586 and 
below;] and what is meant is pret. even though [not 

S si l\*t /It A 

literally, but only] ideally, as - %»! £> J ^1 with the ind. f 

which is good, though J>l with the apoc. is better, If he, 
stand not, I will stand (J) : but when the condition is an 
aor. and the apod, an aor., the apoc. is necessary [in 
both], it being weak to put the apod, into the ind. 7 as in 

s ths t si 'a • a s a t 3 stKi t * t a stttt * 

(IA), by Jarir, Akra 1 Ibn Habis, Akra 1 , verily thou, 
if thy brother be overthrown, wilt be overthrown, the 

St us 

prop. ye* being in the [inflectional] place of an apoc.} 

this [rule], however, is subject to the restriction that 

1 *' 
the v. of the condition be not denied by ft , for, if so, the 

ind. in the apod, is good, though the apoc. ip better, ai 



( 61 ) 

JAs a 9* §As h*t As A hPt 

)ps. fjso, oj j fV ^ ^J or f«i (J). The *>. of the con* 

* $As s s A 

dition must not be (1) past in sense, so that «jjj f*^ ^ 
&3M J>| ^j-^J is not allowable, and the text &**» «*-aT ^f 

* /A s As/ 

&XJU kW» V. 116. #* / Aa«e .*a«J eV, Thou hast known it 

* 
means If it appear that I have said it, like 

St s u> J> A 2 A s Ass J/ s »'*//*/ sA»o s s 

(Sb), by Za'icLIbn Sa'sa'a alFaVasi addressing his refrac- 
tory wife, Whenever we trace our lineage, it will appear 
that an ignoble woman did not bear me, and thou wilt not 
Jfnd any means of escaping from tlvat thou shouldst acknow- 
ledge it, the pron. being made Jem. from relation to the 

s JPA s A s As 

& ji*T generated from ^^ J (N), for the apod, here is 

s s 

like the condition in the test; (2) requisitive, so that 

at A A.PS A-»s s 

f ^1 or j»5jJ or fW H is not allowable; (3) aplastic, so 

S s A s As 

that ^j-** ^1 or j~{1 is not allowable; (4) joined with 

# Ai>s s A s A 

an amplification [578], so that Ju i»i*«/ J is not allow- 

As $A s s s A s A A 

able; (5) joined with oi', so that *}.') p$ & ^ or ^ 

AJ>s As * * 

Ju i** is not allowable; (6) joined with a neg. p., so 

A.»s 3s A AJs A s A 

ijaiat f«i U yj( or fSj Jt ^ is not allowable, unless it 

As s .Ps/ s s ASs ss A s a s As A s 

be J or.V, as in &vJUj is-ib Li J*& J ^1. V. 71. 
^»tf |f *Aow rfo »o^ thou hast not delivered His message 



( «2 ) 

and J>pS J &Z JZ 8JU£ V| VIII. 74. i/>e do si 

not, there will be sedition in the earth (Sh). "When the 
correl. (Sh, ML), as sometimes occurs (Sh), is one of the 
things that do not become a condition (Sh, ML), it 
must he joined with the ui (Sh), [so that] the lJ becomes 
a cop. for it (ML); namely, (1) when its v. faapret. in 
(Sh, ML) form and (ML) sense (Sh, ML), whether 

A y • • s S$ A 3S.P P 9 s s y h 

properly (ML), as is^ao-oS JjS >* oi* &-£uJ> AS A 
XII. 26. If his shirt have been rent in front, she haih 
spoken truth (Sh, ML), where «** is to be supplied, and 
XII. 77. [below], or tropically, as &iuJb /la. ^^ 

^UJf ^j {Qtof?) cfc**£* XXVII. 92. And whoso com,' 
mitteth iniquity, their faces have been cast downwards 
into the fire, this v. being treated like what has come 
to pass because of the certainty of its coming to pass 
(ML) j (2) when its v. is (Sh, ML) requisitive (Sh) [or 

otherwise] originative (ML), as &U| ^fP^ f^ ^ 
^^ajG HI. 29. If ye love God, follow me(Sh, ML) and 



A A* A 



i — aae u Ui &>y> ^*yL ^j*> LXXII. 13. And whoso believeth 

on his Lord, let him not fear in the reading with the apoc*, 

' . "*• ' ' 

V being prohibitive, whereas in the readiug t-*l=»i with 

the ind. V is the neg. W , which may be conjoined with 
the v. of the condition, and apparently, therefore, the cJ 
should not be prefixed, but this v. is constructed upon a 



i to ; 



suppressed inch., i. e. LJ&su V ^» (fie) .shall not fear, so 
that the pro/>. is nominal, and therefore needs the t-i or 



/ t ft ** 



(if , and there is a like ellipse to he supplied in oU «#j 

*A J>i-o P yA/y 

6l« &Uf JSXiui» V. 96. ^4rarf whoso reverie ih to the like of 



*« ^ *K* * S* 



this, GW will lake vengeance upon him, i. e. i>H JUij> ^i f 
otherwise the opoe. and omission of the «-i would be 
required (Sh), and as sU* ft'h g& S)f fty* ^^ ^ 
^jAR-* LXVII. 30. If your water become sunken in 
the ground, who shall bring you running water?, 
which contains both nominal! ty and originativencss, 

**f& &Ufj9 i3j,3 (•** ,J> If Zaid stand, by God J will . 

' if St S,t,S ft $l\s A JV Kr A 

assuredly stand, and J*^; S^L US ujj ,^-Jo A ^ If 
Zaid repent not, Oh ! his perdition as a man ! ; (3) when 
the corral, is a verbal prop, like the nominal, i. e. (ML) 
when its r. is aplastic, as f^j ^U uXJU jSf Uf .y J 

• 5 • A #A • s Af * Z u s s *s ' ' i 

^XLl^. ^- !**=. ^"^ ^l ^ ^^ XVIII. 37. 38. If 

thoih en udder me [100] /f» />« /<?« //•*?» thou, in substance 
and offspring, haply my Lord may vouchsafe me better 

than thy garden, ^S> U*ii ey&J^! IjwW J IT. 273. 

If ye display the alms, most excellent will it be as a thing 

a ' A 5 ^> .# • a •• 

[471], Mey, i. e. tf//e display of them, ^Ua^l yj^ ^my 

XLf i\iJs UjyJ &l IV. 42. .4nrf to whomsoever Satan it 

«» * 

a yokefellow, evil is he as a yokefellow (Sh, ML), and 






sj. j v\\ j* ^ u&i J*k cr; iil 27 - And 

whoso doelk that is not of God in any thing (ML); (4) 
when its v. is joined with (Sh, ML) an amplificative (Sli) 

/ */»/ A** A / 

[or] some [other] p. of futurity (ML), as &U* ^ Ji } 
&'.J| f *AJLij wJy*i IX. '28. ,4im*, if ye fear impoverish- 
mail, God will enrich yon and £^ ** i_KiX~o t -j 
U**s». &*M -a>*AsjA-i ja£u*j>j IV. 171. And whoso 
tcuMliotfth His service and disdat'neth it, He will gather 
them unto Himself, all of them, (and requite them) (Sh), 
|and] as 8j^3 ^ij je- ^ f^l»»3 U ; IIL HI. And 
whatsoever ye do of good, ye shall in no wise be denied 
ike recompense thereof (ML); (5) when its v. is joined 

Ay $h, A J»/$S^// A •• A Ay A 

with >S . as J*S j-» &i £\ Jj,- oii Jjjw ^1 XII. 77. 
J7'/<e steaJ, a brother of his hath stolen before ; (G) when 

* Its 

it:: «. is joined with a neg. other than V or ^J . ns V. 71. 

^A • ,/Jj** 2*/ A// Ax* •, A /A / A S S 

I above! andli^ &1JI ^* ^li SaaH* 'J* wJSaj ~«. III. 

13S. ^4nf/ w/ioso iurneth upon his heels back from the faith 
.«&a# no/ /iarm GW at all by his apostacy, but himself 
(Sh), ; (7) when it is joined with a p. that the head [of 
the sentence] belongs to, [because the prop, beaded by 
•suei'i a p. is not fit to occur as a condition (DM),] as 

j , A^a j tut s t * S' * St* t t t n hi K t 

t^l^Xf ! uj^aJC oUj Js $ silaJ ^a. ^gji udaf ^<i 

(ML), by Rabi'a Ibn MaferQm (T, Jsh) adDabbl (Jsh), 
£o that, if I perish f (many a) one possessed by rage, 



( 65 ) 

whose blaze of hostility is on the point of flaming out 

fiercely against me (T, Jsh), w^, to which the head 
[of tho sentence] belongs [505], being supplied after 
the lJ [515] (ML), [though] I say tlmf. the lJ is put 

here because the full phrtise is ji=>. ^o »_>_) .UJf ^ j* V U 
the matter and the case are that many fyc. (T) ; (8) when 
it is a nominal prop. (Sh, ML), which [also] cannot be a 
condition (IA), in which case it must be conjoined with 

$ / A / m & * * *Jtr A <r s A • h* A • 

the «-i, as fj& s^Ji* J? ^ y£ ^atw i_X—«»^ ^ 

VI. 17. And, if He touch thee with good, He is powerful 
over everything, [i. e. is able toperpetuate it (B),] or with 
the lol that denotes unexpectedness of occurrence (Sh, 

ML), which sometime acts as a substitute for the «-* 
(ML), as XXX. 35. [1] (Sh, ML). The ui is some- 
times suppressed by poetic license, as 

• A if" / A w Si-" 5 £ »"/' * 9f t* t sll*> • • • A/O sAs A ' 

.!£• &1M jJU ^2JU ^*Jf^ * tayCAj &U( cwU«»aa/| J*a> *# 
r * * * , * , , • *"* 

(ML), by 'Abd ArRahman Ibn Hassan Ibn ThSbit, Whoso 
doeth good deeds, God recompenseth them ; and the evil 
proceeding from the servant with the evil that is its re- 
quital are alike in Ike presence of God (Jsh); but Mb .is 
said to have disallowed that even in poetry, and asserted 

tS9 A • t I A St*' •A t**B ' , tt, A • 

that the [true] version is »>£&e ^^^ jA^J J*%i&" > 
while Akh is said to have held that it occurs in chaste 
prose, and IM allows it in prose as an extraordinary case. 
The prop, occurring after the ui and f«3f as correl. of an 



< liO ) 
apocopative condition [426] lias an inflectional place, 
[that of tbe apoc (DM),] because it is not beaded by a 
Bingle [». (DM)] that receives the apocopation literally, 

as *»( Ju A t or constructively, as lXa-^J ^a**- ^ ; 

e. g. VII. 185 [1] and XXX. 35. [1] : and the understood 

ft /A/ h * 

is liko the present ui , as in £M J*a* ** and, according 

to Mb and one of S's two methods [below], g\ «0'f ^5 
(ML). There are three questions of suppression in the 
category of the condition and apod. (Sh): (1) the apod, is 
suppressed (IA, Sh) by itself (Sh), and the prot. serves as 
a substitute for it (IA), which is contingent upon two 
matters, (a) that it be known (Sh), which is the case when 
its suppression is indicated (I A), and (b) that the v. of the 

* A // 4 h f * hi 

prot. beapret. (Sh),ns **-!*» ^ J®» *&-•>! Thou wilt be a 
ttro7ig-doer } if thou rfo, thou wilt be a wrong-doer (IA, Sh), 

where both matters exist (Sh), the correl. being suppress- 

i / * si 
ed because »•&> «*-'! indicates it, and the full phrase 

i , / Kit / A t* A § f ' »* 

being JU& *3-*i> oJ>*» ^ J^* *=-**' ; and this is of fre? 

' & ' htt A 

quent occurrence (IA) ; whereas ^j ^1 and the like, 
wliere there is no indication, are disallowed because the 

t AJ> A 

two matters are non-existent; and «wS ^ and the like, 
-where there is no indication, because tbe 1st matter is 

A ,Kr A § t /hi 

non-existent j and J*&» ^ JU* uwf and the tike, becauso 



( 67 ) 

* f a # 
the 2nd matter is non-existent; the text says ^ ^ 

' ' ' ' £ £ 

&A> j^JlXi ^U*JJ J UU «f VI. 35. And if their aversion 
have become grievous unto thee, then if thou be able to 
seek out a passage into the earth or a ladder into heaven 
and bring unto them a sign, do thou [so] (Sh), the correL 

of the second condition being suppressed (B), in full J*»& 
(Sh, B), and the whole forming the correL of the first 
(B), aod the suppression in this text is extremely beau- 
tiful, because there is added to the existence of the tw» 
conditions the length of the sentence, which belongs to 
that [set of conditions] with which suppression is good 
(Sh) : (2) conversely (IA) the v. of (Sh) the condition is 
suppressed (IA, Sh) by itself (Sh), and the apod, serves- 
as a substitute for it (IA), which is (IA, Sh) rare [420], 
(IA) [and] also contingent upon two matters, (a) that it be 

S / 

indicated, and (b) that the condition occur after Vfj 

/ .PA/ / S- / A J> & 

(Sh), as (IA, Sh) u&oU tyj ^ Repent thou; and if 

# A if 3 / 

thou repent not, I mil punish thee, i. e. i-^Ju W) , and 
(Sh) 

J» * 9 IUO //A/lAsS/ A*. // / A // /Am // 

* * & * ' . ' 

(Sh, IA), by Muhammad alAhwas bidding Matar [48] • 
divorce his wife, And divorce thou her, for, the ui being 
causative, thou art not a mate /or her f and if thou 



( 68 ) 
divorce her not, the sword shall smite the crown of thy 
head (J), i. e. l$SUa3 1*1^ (IA), originally H Ji), the - 
of .1 being converted into J and afterwards incorporated 
into the J of the «eg% V (J) ; but sometimes that is not 
after VSy , in which case it is anomalous, except in such 

as ^«s J^Aa. .! [98], in which case it is regular, the 

entire prop, of the condition, however, not being sup- 
pressed therein, but part of it, which is likewise the case 
in such as IX. 6. [23], so that neither of them belongs 
to what we are engaged in; and generally it occurs 
when the instrument [of condition] is conjoined with the 

neg. V, as exemplified: (3) [420] (Sh). The suppres- 
sion of the correl. is (Sh, ML) (1) disallowed, i. e. where 
the two conditions mentioned are non-existent, or one' of 
them is so (Sh) ; (2) allowable (Sh, ML), i. e. where they 
both exist, but the indication is not a prop, previously 
mentioned in that sentence literally or constructively 
(Sh), as in VI. 35. (ML); (3) necessary, i. e. where [the 
two conditions exist and] the indication (Sh, ML) of the 
correl. (ML) is (Sh, ML) the prop, mentioned (Sh) before 

the condition, as J*» ^ J&> y&, or around it, as 

* &t*9s PSli" /ft rt S / 

^oa$J &U| *l& ^f Uf j II. 65. And verily toe, if, God 
please, shall be guided aright, a case of which is ^1 &Wf j 
,r.« r - J ojj '£ [427] (ML). The {prop.} literally pre- 



( 69 ) 

* h*t h i * f hi 
ceding is like wsJUi ^f ^Ua t->J| : and the constructively 

* ' * »i $ A/ * * A 

preceding has two phases, (1) ^\ jj) ^ ^ 1 will stand 
i/Zaid stand and £*} SGf ^Ij , for (Sh), according to 
[the o*Aer method of (ML)] S [above] (Sh, ML, J), it is 
a case of hyst.-prot. (ML), [i. e. the prop, composed of] 
the [posterior aor. (Sh)] ind. [and its ag] is meant to be 
understood as preceding the instrument (Sh, J) of con- 
dition (Sh), and is indicative of the [suppressed (J)] 
correl., but is not itself the correl. (ML, J), the o. /. 

being f t jf r f] and »G| ^ J jit (Sh), so that [the correl. 
is necessarily suppressed, and] it is as though he said 

— *■»/ ^tt a / *A* § ( ;/J» a atf 

iJt J«e &ll«— fj>. J*li. sC»| ^\}fi.y And he will say, 
ififc.y {he will say) etc. (J) ; whereas, according to Mb [and 
the ELK (J) and S in his former method], the ind. itself 

is the correl., the u3 being supplied (Sh, J), i. e. Jj«£» 

£M , [like V. 96.,] and the aor. with the i-i is necessarily 
in the ind., because it is really an enunc. of a suppressed 
inch., so that the nominal prop, with the «-i , in the place 
of an apoc, is the correl. of the condition ; while, according 
to I A [above], the correl. of the condition occurs as rih 
aor. v. in the ind., not in the apoc, because the v. of the 
condition is a pret. — —though their saying that the ind. 
itself is & correl. means that it is a correl. in sense, not in 
form, because it is an ind., nay, on the contrary, what is in 

the place of an apoc.and correl. is the prop. J^E» , an aor. 
v. in the ind, and its ag. apron, allowably latent in i 



( 70 ) 

and with this ind. the i-i is not supplied, because (J), if 
the correl. be suitable for being a condition, like the aor. 

not denied by U or ^J , nor conjoined with the p. of ainpli- 
fication or with i*> , it need not be conjoined with the «-i , 
as ype *&&. *i) A± ^ (IA), the apoc. not appearing 

in it only because the instrument, when its influence does 
not appear in the pret. condition, is too weak to govern the 

correl. (J); and [similarly] ^y> with lightening [of the 

ui ] and (K, B) retention of the g (K), [i. e,] the ind. (B), 
is read [by AlHasan (K)] in XI. 18. [above], becuuse tho 

condition is a pret., like g\ »GI ^' ; (K, B):(2) [427], 

§ 420. The 3rd question is the suppression of the 
instrument and v. of the condition (Sh); [for] in the 
correl. of (M, IA) the things before mentioned [411], 
except negation [422] (IA), [i.e.] command, prohibition, 
[prayer,] request, [excitation,] wish,and interrogation (M), 

A 

you may apocopate (M, IA) by means of ^ understood 
(M), when the [illative] vJ is dropped and apod, is 

, Mi us 

intended, as i-£;)f ,J )') Visit thou me ; I will visit thee, 

t r 0* s AS* A * As * 

and similarly the rest (1AJ, e. g. UJ f^a. ^i Ja*3 V 

* AS$ f Sh, /At 

Do thou not ; it mil be good for thee, <*$)$ u£k> ^»f 

(»•/* </* Si A/ 

Where is thy house f I will visit thee, UjUsw UuI* &ZJ 
Would that lie may be with us t he will talk to us, Iff 

fA * A 9 S A* 

JjAi. ^ J)ju Wilt thou not, or Wherefore tcilt thou 



.( 71 ) 
not, alight f Thou wilt get good (M). Its condition is 
that the instrument and v. be preceded by a requisition 

t a hi 

(1) of the form and sense of the condition, as \-JUf\ t5 *Jut 

in full t-C/l JjO & Come thou to me; for if thou 

" * - , A A 

come to me, JT icfW honor thee, L-C*^Tf being in the apoc., 

according to the correct doctrine, in the correl. of a sup- 
pressed condition indicated by the mentioned requisitive 

• S s t jaS h* t* hP 

v., (2) of the sense thereof only, as ff- U JJf f jJUS JS 

A *h*s hfi&s 

f££* (&i) VI. 152. jffay thou, Come ye near; I will rehearse 

hs ttt A • 

what your Lord hath prohibited unto you, where fyUZS ^t» 

may not be supplied, because Jl*» is an aplastic ». having 
neither aor. nor pret., so that some have fancied it to be a 
verbal n. ; but there is no difference between requisition 
by means of the v., as exemplified, and [requisition] by 
means of the verbal n. [421], as 

• A • hi * h ft/ A / • * hi * / ^iS.* «// 

by 'Amr son of Alltnaba (Sh), who was his mother, 

his father being Zaid Ibn Manat a heathen, And my 

h/ 
saying whenever it [his ( _j«fc»] heaves and surges, Be 

steadfast; thou wilt be praised or find thy rest (SM), 

/ A J> 

^dkftsa? being in the. apod. (Sh, SM) as corre/. of requiai- 
tioo (SM) after uCUU a verbal ». (Sh, SM) in the sense 

*A* ' 

of J*m\ (Sh). Some say that the corr«/. is put into 
the apefe by means of an assumed condition* i. e. Jp ^£ 



( 72 ) 

• Aff ASt 

u£$ ^jf J others, by means of the prop, before it 

' A 

(IA): [and] ^1 is allowed to be understood because 
these things indicate it j Khl says that the correl. is in 
the apoc. because all these commencements contain the 

A 

sense of ^1 (M). Suppression of the cond, prop, is 

t f&i<& SSA A J> S S*es 

regular after requisition, as &M\ (£*-*&% ^^yli III. 29., 



■f mt A / 



i. e. ^y^swJu ^G, Follow me; for if ye follow me, God 

, ' ' * i, , At s 

will love you ; and occurs without it, as &***\j ^^ ■ ^ 

J> SA*>, f s * ' ' & 

.ybj&b ^UG XXIX. 56., i. e. Verily Mine earth is 

spacious ; where/ore if to worship Me with purity be not 
practicable in this land (ML), worship ye (K) Me, worship 

ye Me (K, ML) in another (ML), the \J> (K, B) in ^J^G 
(K) being [the cop. of] the correl. of a suppressed condi- 
tion (K, B) : and suppression of the cond. prop, exclu- 

«■» /Am s f 

sively of the instrument is frequent, as £*| tg5Ua > [419, 

/Aiu t £ * A f ' 

■where IA calls it rare], i. e. l^Sita? V ^ (ML). 



§ 421. As before mentioned [411], when command 
is indicated by a verbal n. or the enunciatory form, its 
correl. is not put into the subj., [but into the ind.,] after 
the kJ : and if the c-5 be dropped, it is put into the apoc, 

s As A A $ A ' 

as L-Xxl| •M.a^l &a Ite silent ; I will be good to thee and 

£**•*/ MA * ArO s MA s 

^JiJJ Jj» ti-JoaJ! i_X*«o. Sufficient for thee is the story} 
the people will sleep (IA) ; [for] what contains the sense 



( 73 ) 
of command or prohibition is on an equality with these 
two in that [respect], as ^Z* f ja£- J*#j yy*\ &U I J&S 

&aJU A man has feared God and done good, meaning $■** 
and J*&d Let a man fear and do, lie will be recompensed 
. for it, and ,j*^l (►*£ uXwa„ A o more / the people Sec. 
§ 422. The understood [condition] ought to be 
homogeneous [in negation and affirmation (AAz)] with 
the expressed [requisition] (M); [so that] the apoc. 
on the fall of the uJ after prohibition is allowable only 
on condition that the sense would be correct in assuming 

A / 

S to be prefixed to the V (IA), and [thus] the condi- 
tion of the suppression after prohibition is that the carrel. 
should be a matter liked, such as entering Paradise and 

/•/«« S lit ItSAt , 

safety (Sh), as in [ &.a»M Ja-Sj )*£> V Disbelieve thou 

t 

not; {if thou disbelieve not,) thou wilt enter Paradise and 

*/*/ fikiG t J> h t t 

(Sh)] JU»J' u«*y| «• ^jj V Approach thou not the lion; 
(if thou approach not the lion,) thou wilt be safe (IA, Sh), 

A/ A r A' A * si**" t V lit f A 

with JUJ* in the apoc, because J*«J lJ~V1 ^ ^y» V A 
would be correct [in sense] (IA) : and therefore, [if it be a 
matter disliked, such as entering Hell and being devoured 



t S^> »S»/ A*A/ 



by the wild beast (Sh)] in [ jUJf Ja-oJ f& V Disbelieve 

* 9 A t t 

thou not; thou wilt enter Hell-fire and (Sh)] ** ^o* V 
\-XiSb a.«.U{ Approach thou not the lionj he will devour 
thee (M, IA, Sh), the apoc, is not allowable, because 



I /4 ) 

(M, IA) negation [Approach thou not] does not indicate 

t a h/ * a 

affirmation [if thou approach] (M)j [and] ^j* ^j^V ^ 

t^i*»l'l is not correct [in sense] (IA), for which 
reason the subauditiou is not allowable in negation [420], 
so that tw-«s3j Ua3G U is not said ; but (M) you put 
the ind. (if, Sh) by anacohithon, as though you said 

t St%t Sit 

t_XWb aJtf y&p »m7y Ac Will devour thee ; or, if you 

prefix the cj , and put the subj., so that he devour thee, 
it is good (M) ; while Ks allows the apoc. (IA> Sh), because 

A 

lie does not stipulate that ^ should be prefixed to the 

f 
V, so that he puts it into the apoc. as meaning [Ap- 
proach thou riot the lion;] if thou approach the lion, lie 
will devour thee (IA) ; but he has no proof in the reading 

A a t r> * 

[of AlHasan (K)] j&wJ LXXIV. 6. [1], because that 
mav be meant to be understood as pansal, which is 
facilitated by its involving a production of affinity with 
the vs. mentioned with it. whereas to construe it to be a 
subsi. for what precedes it, [i. e. ^*.*i (K),] as some assert, 
is not good, because of the contrariety of their meanings 
and the want of indication of the second by the first (Sh). 

§ 423. If yon do not intend apod., and therefore put 

2 s * ht/ A A ft 

the ind., it will be (1) an ep., as Wj uXJjJ ^» ^ ^^ 

a t 

JLSjj XIX. 5.6. Then grant Thou to me from beside Thee, 
i. e, from Thy bounty and power, a successor that shall 



( 75 ) 

X ;/«/ * xA S A .« A xx 

be heir to me, (2) a d. s., as ^j$**i f#k*k ^ *a>^ii [not 

XX X 

traceable in the Kur'an] Then leave thou them in their 
rebelliousness confounded, or (3) anacoluthic and incep- 

X * Ax AJ 

tive, as lJ^kSj, f Arise: he calls t/iee ; and the text 

xAxxx^xx .» X X X # XX A xArf> (* X A.PX A Ai^X 

X X X X 

XX. 79. 80. And make thou for them a dry way in the 
sea, not fearing overtaking nor dreading drowning, or 
Thou shalt not fear overtaking nor dread, admits of its 
being either a d.s. or anacoluthic. 

X a£ S f A / Ax A 

§ 424. You say cjOM ^JLft-J ^C A If tfiou 

x /• " { 

come to me asking me, I will give to thee with the interme- 
diate [aor. v."] in the ind,, as says AIHutai'a 

a JAx XXA XXAxAx X Ax X J Ax Ax X X 

//' X # / XX X £ xx W 

(M) Whenever thou contest to Mm, i. e. 'Uinar Ibn Al- 
Khattab, directing thyself by night to the light of his fire, 
thou wilt find a most excellent fire, beside which will be a 

t Ax 

most excellent kindler, the prop. )&*> , consisting of an 

aor. v. in the ind. and its latent pronominal ag., being in 

h 
the place of an ace. as a d. s. to the ag. of &30 (J) ; and 

XX 

'Ubaid Allah, Ibn AlHurr says 

xS^x^xx^Ax ^ X X A X XX x A A.P x >X X X 

** X XXXXX X 

(M) [154] Whenever thou comest to us, visitest us, in our 
dwellings, thou wilt find huge firewood and a fire ? 



( 76 ) 

has blazed up brightly (Jsb), putting it in the apoo, (M) 

,*/ 
as a [total (Jsb)] sitbst. (M, Jsb) for UjG (Jsb). 

§ 425. A v. (IA, Sh) in the aw. (IA) after the *-5 
or *, (1) whea it occurs after the condition and apod., 
admits of three moods (IA, Sh), the apoc, the ind., and 

pt*s * A /■ A// «w JM.P A X 

the sa6;\ (IA), as >l£* ^i ^ II. 284, after £J| f ; J+? ^f > 

' ' A Ay * 

[419], read with the apoc. in ^*t (IA, Sh), as coupled 
(Sh, B) to the apod., and forgive whom Hepleaseth (B), 
and ind. (IA, Sh, K) inceptively (Sb, B), as being f*i y& , 
And He will forgive (K), and subj. (IA, Sh) by subaudi- 

A J 

tion of ^f , which is of weak authority, transmitted by 
lbn 'Abbas, so that He may forgive (Sh) ; and similarly 

j> / , AfO SH S i°S Si« ' ./ . A A/ t S * #$■ A Ay Ax 

■jJjsJl >$&Mj .j-WI £Ai; * U% ^S j>f iJ% Ji 

9 / t 9/ / A/ « S i« 8 / { A/ • * yAy A * %/t 

Jam &S jhj3 ^laJj i^a.f * jS** v-A** 8w> ** <**&) 

(IA) [350] ^n«? «/* Abu Kabus, surname of AnNu'man lbn 
AlMundhir king of the Arabs, perish, the springtide of 
mankind and the sacred month will perish, i. e. men's pros- 
perity and security will vanish j and we shall hold after Mm 
the remnant of a life, flat in the back, having no hump, i. e. 

A S %f 

unprofitable (J), is related with 6dJi in the apoc. (IA), 
[as] coupled to the apod. (J), and J^-U in the ind. (IA), 
the y being inceptive, and the prop. <saJJ the enunc. of a 
suppressed inch., i. e. ^^ cJ 3 ^? > or ta © ) coupling the 



( 77 ) 
nominal prop, to tlie verbal prop, of the correl., And we 
shall, or and we $c, (J), and &*& with the subj. (IA), by 

making the ^ denote simultaneity and jf necessarily 
understood after it, while toe hold, the subj. after the 
correl., though the ? (like which would be the u* ) is 
not preceded by one of the nine comprised in 

f*^ =cJ jV* J-*> ^b £°'; y 

• /• tit 9 AZi ^ * ft 9hiO/ S3 • / 

Command, and pray, and prohibit, and question, and 
request because of their exciting; wish, and hope; in 
like manner negation has become complete, being allowable 
because the purport of the correl. is not certain to happen, 
since it is dependent upon the condition, so that what 
occurs after it resembles what occurs after interrogation, 
which is put into the subj. alter the j of simultaneity 

H9 

and the illative t-5 (J): and similarly after t > [51') | 

A A/ A/ A£sss A * 

the apoc. and ind. arc allowable, as Jj.AX*«jr fyyS ^jfj 

,«//»£ 9 Sf * Z9 " /«/ * A, ' f 

f 3CJUUl fy;& y f? f^ Uy» XL VII. 40. J«rf; 2/ ?/e 
turn back, He will take in your stead a people other than 
you, and afterwards theij will not become like you and 

< 9 t S9 * &* //«*«.« 99 St 9 A* 9 t9 A t 

^^aib If J ; boU| ffa ^fi* ^f, HI, 107. (M), 

in which laat text, £M ^' being made to deviate front 
the predicament of apod, to that of inceptive enunciation, 
the ind. makes the negation oi help an absolute promise 
and this enunciation is coupled to the prop, oi condition 



( ?8 ) 
and apod., as though it were said And (1 announce utild 
you that), if they fight with you, they shall turn to you 
ihe, i. e. their, backs; and further, or moreover, J> denot- 
ing posteriority in degree, because the announcement that 
desertion shall be inflicted upon them is greater than 
the announcement that they shall turn their hacks, (/ 
announce unto you that) they shall not be holpen- 
whereas the apoc. (K), which is also read as coupled to 

iy^d (B), would make the negation of help restricted td 
their fighting with them, like the turning of the backs, 
And, if they fight with yon, they shall turn to you their 
backs, and further, or moreover, shall not be holpen (K) : 
(2) when it occurs between the condition and apod., admits 
of (IA, Sh) two moods (Sh), the apoc. and subj. (IA), as 

/ A A* S* A/y &/ A 

i_X*/l ,^1 J^} ^G y)f If thou come unto me and 

' hit A 

walk to me, I will honor thee (Sh), [and] as Jij ^t 

j> i * * * 

• AA*9 ''■"«"» Ar fit* 

tjU/\ liita- £fssj) ojj with £fsu in the apoc, or subj. 

* * 
(IA), an ex. of the subj. being 

• A t '* * 'i ' 9* * ' A ' " A* • y A /* S A fHf A ** 

(IA, Sh), where e-asw is governed in the subj* by Jl 
necessarily understood after the ^ of simultaneity, and to- 

gether with ^1 is rcnderable by an inf. n. coupled by 
the s to an inf. n. obtainable from the preceding v., i. e* 

4 fit/ 4 * a-° ■»** »'/ »' 



( 79 •) 

though the y is not preceded by oue of the before men 
tioned nine, because of the resemblance of condition to 
interrogation in lack of certainty, And whoever draw* 
near to us while lie is lowly, we will shelter (nor. 
apoc. of ^ J ) him ; then let him not dread oppression, 

so long as (the adverbial infinitival I* ) he tarries, nor 
wrong. In the 1st case the apoc. is of stronger authority 
than the ind., and the ind. than the sub}. ; and in the 2nd 
the apoc. is strong, and the sub;, weak, in authority ; while 
the ind. is forbidden, because inception is not allowable 
before the correl., though some argue that there is noth- 
ing to hinder the ind. as being an enunc. of a suppressed 
inch, and forming [together with its inch."] a parenthetic 
prop, between the v. of condition and the correl. (J). 

§ 426. S asked Khl about J-j-l J\ J±f>-\ V$ 
vaaJUaJJ j* ^\y j3^t> s~*if LXIII. 10. Wherefore 
will Thou not defer me [574], i. e. my death, nnto a near 
term, i. c. for a little while, so that I may give alms f 
And 1 mil become one of the righteous ; and lie said, This 
is like the saying of 'Amr Ibn Ma'dlkarib 

[Let me alone, so that J may go to one side one duy, and 
fight the foes, and suffice thee, so that thou mayst not 
peed to repel them on another side (AAz)], and like the 
paying [of Zuhair (AAa, 3*h)] 



( 30 ) 






£ 



[/< appears to me that I am not an overtaker of what has 
passed away, nor outstripping, {i. e. able to escape (Jsh),} 
a thing when it is coming (AAz, Jsh), like which is 

yj> *» Kt S * // jff t * A » 3h* * —' f 

# ' S * ' ' ' ' ' 

(D), by AlAhwas alYarbu'i, (TAe^, i. e. The Batiu 
Darim, are) ill-omened fellows, who make not near kins- 
folk to thrive, and whose raven croaks not save by reason 
ofsepatation (Jsh)], meaning that, as they put the second 
[«.] into the gen. because the ^j , being sometimes pre- 
fixed to the first, is as though it were expressed in it, so 
they put the second [v.] into the apoc. [538] because 
the first, being put into the apoc. when there is no i-i 
in it [420], is as though it were in the apoc. (M). In this 

a si 

reading ^1 is coupled to what is before it by assuming 

the »-i to be dropped and JJ^! to be in the apoc, which 
is named coupling to the sense, [because the antecedent 
is a cornel, only as regards the sense, not as regards the 
letter, in consequence of the prefixion of the wJ that 
prevents apocopation (420) (MA),] and is termed in 
reference to other than the Kur'an coupling to the ima- 
gination [538]. Some, however, say that it is coupled to 

the [inflectional] place of Jj-et* , the place of which is 
the apoc, because it is the correl. of excitation, which is 



( SI ) 

ft 

governed in the apne. by ^[ supplied [120], and that it is 

like the coupling in VII. 185. [1,538] with [the reading 

of] the apoc; and, according to this, in addition to the 

canon mentioned, [i. e. " the prop, occurring after the ui 

t 
and !3t as correl. of an apocopative condition" (419) 

(MA, DM),] one should say " or as correl. of requisition" : 
nor is this question [of the correl. of requisition (MA, 
DM)] restricted by the uJ , because they. recite as a case 
of that [coupling to the place of the jump. (DM)] the 
saying [of x\bu Duwfid Juwairiya Ibn Alllsijjaj allyadl 
(Jsh)] 

S,t a titbit list t% ui// h* si * suit 

[ Wherefore give ye unto me your she-camel tied (in the 
time of heathenism) at the grave of its master without 
food and toater (until it should die); may-be 1 shall become 
reconciled with you (MA, Jsh), because of your giving it 

t At 

•to me (MA), and I shall bring my destination, orig. oUJ 
(129), gradually near by riding on that camel (MA, Jsh), 

A A* A S h» 9 t% „,, 

g)oJU.f being coupled to the place of *£saJLeJ J*J 

without supplying a «J (DM)] j though F says that j.; JLf 
is coupled to the place of the lj constructively prefixed 

uttt 

to l J*} and of what follows it, in which case I say that 

, "» /A* «/ 

this here, [i. e. in requisition (DM,),] is like jJ>\ Jai* ^ 
[419] in the cat. of condition. But the truth is that the 
coupling in the cat. [of coupling to the correl. of requisi- 



( S2 ) 

a u / a -. 

tion (DM)] is a coupling to the sense, [i e. ^yLii A 

tittt AS Si A * * A? M* ft ' ' r 

J'h J 1 *" ' and e) 1 * 1 *' lS 5 ^ c)' ( DM )»] because, the 
tub}, after the lJ [in the text (DM)] heing renderable by 

a n., [i. e. ,<** t 3 1 *" *' ja^ «-*** ^*} (DM),] it and 

the «-i cannot be in the place of the apoc. (ML). 

§ 427. The second [phase of the constructively pre- 
ceding prop. (419)] is when the condition is preceded by 

an oath, as in &i*/N ^^ .o' *W * •% &x*> ifhccnme 
ft> me, / tt?i/J assuredly honor him; for &A-»jTlf , being the 
correl. of the oath, is meant to be understood as preced- 
ing beside it, and the correl. of the condition is suppress* 
ed because indicated thereby (Sh). The oath and con- 
dition are both in need of a correl. [650]. The correl. of 
the condition is either an apoc. or conjoined with the O : 
and the correl. of the oath, if an aff. verbal prop., then, if 
headed by an aor., is corroborated by the J and . , as 

'***5 \£?-t°^ h ty God, I will assuredly beat Zaid, and, 
if headed by a pret., is conjoined with the J and i>S , as 

$A* * * >•"* i<*" 

\)jl Js tsil &UU By God, assuredly Zaid has stood; if a 
nominal prop., [is conjoined] with ^f and the J or with 

g $ —*' *l\* m ill <Pi 

the J or J alone, as J® \*i) ^ &*M ; 5y God, verily 

Zaid is standing or *>l» <H? assuredly Zaid is Sfc. or te; ^ 

*-, * 

JtS i»ri^ #c; and, if a neg. verbal />r<?/>„ is negatived by 



( 83 ) 

* ' * 4ax J> */ ' ll-3, 9 Sr / f Sly A 

U or W or ^jf , as jjj r^ 5 * ^ &U b or «•*** ^ or f^ lJ 
By God, Zaid does not, or will not, stand. When a 
condition and oath come together, the correl. of the latter 
of tbeui is suppressed because indicated by the correl. 

of the former ; as ^y* ^*fd ojj ^G ^f &Uf^ , where 

the correl. of the condition is suppressed because indicated 
by that of the oath (IA), [for] that the mentioned ia the 
correl. of the oath is shown by its being- corroborated, as 

in the [last, as well as in the first,] ex. and in f^yy^ J^y 

'J^*i. V Jj ](>si\J^ LIX. 12. [And (by GodJ 
ij they, i. e. the hypocrites, do help them, i. e. the Jews, tkey t 
i. e. the Jews or the hypocrites, shall assuredly turn their 
backs, and afterwards Kill not be holpen, but God will (K, B) 
forsake (B), destroy (K), them, and the help of the hy- 
pocrites or their own hypocrisy, respectively, will not 

profit them (K, B),] and by the ind. in ^y^H (Sh); and 

$A , hi/ 3i^s 4 As , • A 

as %y+e Jb &Mf j ojj «•&' ^ If Zaid stand, by God, 'Amr 

will stand, where the correl. of the oath is suppressed, 
because indicated by the correl. of the condition (IA): 
when, however, the condition and oath are both preceded 
by (IA, Sh) an owner of an enunc. (IA) [i. e.] something 
requiring an enunc. (Sh), the condition (IA, Sh) is pre- 
ferred to the oath (IA) [and] must be regarded (Sh), 
whether it precede or follow (IA, Sh), so that it receives 

A S*, 

the correl., that of the oath being suppressed, as ^t i*i) 



( 84 ) 
**/t &Ut j r 6 or r l» J &Uf j 2airf, i/ Ae stand, by Ood, or 

' ' *' A i,*>, *A, 

by Ood, if he stand, I shall honor him (IA), ^f &U(^ ojj 

**t *Si 2!aitf, ©,y GW, if he stand, I shall stand (Sh) ; 
and the condition has been preferred, though rarely, when 
preceded by the oath, even though not preceded by an 
owner of an enunc, as 

* tkf httiiO rt/ A t t hP f -# /*A/ IV A f f / * A * 

• > / • ' # "^ t * ' * ^ / 

• A / 

[by AlA'sha (J),] the J of J& being subsidiary to 

A / ili&* t SS / 

an oath suppressed, in full ^jaJ &Uf», and t»iC 1/ in 
the opoc. as correl. of the condition, and the correl. of 

■f A* ,» 

the oath suppressed, whereas Iaa£E If in the *nrf. would 
be said, if the oath received the correl. because of its pre- 
cedence, as is generally the case (IA), (By Ood,) if thou 
be proven by us, even after ( yj* being i. <±. ceu ) tf/te enrf 
of a fght, when we might be supposed to be exhausted, 
thou shalt not find us shrink from the shedding of the 
blood of the people in a fresh conflict; but the majority 
disallow that, and explain such instances by holding the 
J to be red., not subsidiary to the oath, so that here there 
is no oath, but only a condition, If $c, or, as AlFaridi 

gays, U££ V may belong to the oath, the ^ being elided 
for the sake of the metre ; whereas, when an owner of an 
enunc. precedes, the condition must have the correl., 
because, if it were dropped, a hiatus would ensue in the 



( & ) 

prop, of which the condition is a part, and the oath i>< 
uttered for mere corroboration (J). When a condition 

Kit A * A A/5 A 

supervenes upon another, as v&-»l» c^j£ ^f c^^J J 

$ , ' ' ' i ' i. 

jJHa Jf thou eat, if thou drink, tftou art divorced, the 
vorreL mentioned belongs to the first, [not to the second, 
because in that case the second and its correl. would be 
a correl. to the first, so that the cop. ui would be 
necessary, whereas there is no »-i (MA, DM),] the correl. 
of the second being suppressed, indicated by the first 
condition and its correl., [which are therefore posterior 
in sense (DM),] as they say of the correl. posterior 
to the oath and condition, [since they hold it to belong 
to the 1st, aud the correl. of the 2nd to bo suppressed, 
indicated by the correl. of the 1st (DM)]; and for this 
reason the critical theological jurisconsults [of the 
Shafi'f "sect (MA, DM)] say in reference to the ex. men- 
tioned that she is not divorced until the last [condition] 
be fulfilled first, and the first fulfilled last, because the 

$ t Kit tttt A f A * A 

full phrase is $$o c^~»t» is^l J* c^?>« ^1 // thou 
drink, then, if thou eat, thou art divorced: but they hold 

ft A h»/ t / AS A? .0 A/S A A* A* Ssttt *t 

the text J$ J r d £f% J cy^;f ^ lS =^ f***^ »p 

» p, AP Kt » ~P Sh*> 

jot-ij A &iyi fiJJf XI. S6. Nor will my counsel pro- 
fit you, if I desire that I should counsel you, if God 
do desire that He should mislead you to be a case 

htt tthi A? » h ti A hB hf»tht rr 

in point, [ jf* £** J **>*J J Jf***' t**»H V ; 



( 86 ) 
being a condition and indication of a corrci, the whole 

M t t A 

the indication of the correl. of £M ^JS ^ , and the full 

/'** »' * A'* A t hat h» hi » t iiifO , , a 

phrase ^waM Jt cwO;l ^ fof* ^ <*i)t & l, f ^ Ji 

hP hPhfht * hSi £ ' ' £ 

i jsa^ii f£*&i V f£i If God do desire fyc, then, if I 
desire Sfc, my counsel Sfc; for which reason we (B was a 

t m J* A t * A 9 / ht 

Shafi'I) say that, if a man said ^fusJ! aJa*o ^ /jfUo i&Jf 
*a, hi, a ' i ' ' 

1fc>j>3 us-**!** yjf Thou art divorced if thou enter the house, 

' £ 

if thou speak to Zaid, and she entered the house and 
afterwards spoke to Zaid, she would not be divorced (B) ; 
(so that the second condition is prior in sense, as 
in the first ex., a conclusion differently reached in the 
case of the text by Z, who says that) the apod, of (the 

mt , / h 

second condition) jJS ^J$ ^f is what is indicated by 
ja^J *£»&> V , and this indicator is in the predica- 
ment of what it indicates, so that (being virtually an 

m * hti A 

apod.) it is conjoined with a condition ( iJl w&o^f ^i , 
If God do desire etc., my counsel etc., if I desire etc.), 

A 

as the apod, is conjoined with the condition in ^f 

/ / hi A s ht 1 A , ht S / • A thi & 

JLiC! J u<xM et*A*»»a.l ^1 e>*A.<«3J If thou behave 
well to me, I will behave well to thee, if it be in my 
power (K)] ; whereas this requires consideration, since 
there are not two consecutive conditions followed by a 
forrel, as in the [first] ex. and in 

£,,/>» ft,m , *' S P ' )thp h * » .»A ^ A 

» ' t* * * f £. ' / £ 



( 87 ) 

[If ye seek succour from us, if ye be terrified, ye shall 
obtain jrom us asylums of glory that nobility has adorned 
(Jsb)] and 

/* t t */ / * A t S* A fit A *tht $ l\t/ A * 

Ui V Vyih CUD ..» ^-aBJ * cs-J!^ ^J &>**> yajy.6 ^U 
' * £ £ 

by Ibn Duraid, [ Then, if I stumble after it, i. e. this 
&*>U , if my soul seek escape from this &*i*|. , say ye two, 
May st thou not rise up (from this place of slipping)/ (Jsh),] 
because in the text no correl. is mentioned, but only the 
two conditions are preceded by what is a cvrrel. in sense 
to the first condition, [as B also says,] so that it ought to 
be supplied beside it, [that condition and its correl. being 
made an indication of the correl. of the second, and 

(DM)] the o. f. being f*i&± & {& geS\ ^J utOjt ^f 

m * * A A-J> * 

& \$ u)' ts 33 "^ V I desire SfC., my counsel #c, if 
God do desire fyc, while there is no reason for supplying 
the correl. after them both, and afterwards supplying 
it preceding beside the first condition (ML).. 



CHAPTER IV. 



THE IMPERATIVE. 



§ 428. The paradigm of tlic imp. [from every 

v. except y*\ , iS<M , and JT| (L)] is upon the measure 
of the aor. (M, L) apoc. (L) act. voice second pers., the 
aug., however (M), [i. c.] the aoristic letter [404] (L), 

ht A s 

being elided (M, L) from it (L), as £* , ^j*° , and 

A A • ■» " S ' * S A * J> 

^p.o from £-£", "-o 1 -^, and c >=m^, and the like, 
where the initial [of the imp.] is mobile (M). When 

y yA? 

the ?>»p. is formed from J*M , the duj. Hamza of the 

A *£ 

latter is put in the place of the aoristic letter, as */? 

/■•A? * AJ J A/* * h ,9 

from j./l (L), the o. /I of ,.>£» being ^/j5 , like ^p-^ , 
ia accordance with which ff\ is educed (M) : and, 
when it is formed from auvthing else (L), if its initial 
(M), [i. e.] if the second letter of the aor. (L), be quies- 
cent, you put a conj. Hamzn, [in order that you may 

* * A * A 

not begin with the quiescent (M),] as ^ye\ , 3^"! , 

A A • A .P A , * * h, $ * / h * 

and ^j* 3 ***! (M, L), from *~»y& , jft&Xl , and -.jmL-J 

' '/« "A* ' ' ,a, 

<M), and f$ from ^j^f aor. ^y^. ; but, if it be 
not quiescent, you retrict yourself to the elision [of 

A A« A A * t 

the aoristic letter], as ^*, f s, ^^o, Jf ; , from 

$ t s sit * f. ,e /e ' ' ' 



( 89 ) 
from the aor., not from the preL, because the two former 
are alike in indicating future time (D). The imp. of 
every o. to which a du. f , pi. y , or ^ of the second 
pers. sing. fern, is attached, is divested of the . [405], 
as lUi! , S}*»\ , and ^!*»f ; and [the imp.] of that [«.] 
to which it is not attached is made quiescent in the final, 

A /A 

if it be sound, as J*M , and is curtailed of the final, if jt 

• A ' A PHP 

be unsound, as ^M , +$, "fS [431]. The conj. Hamza 
is pronounced with Kasr so long as it is not before an 

A f A 

original Damma or an accidental Kasra, as j_**fi>3l , where 

A A ' 

it precedes a Fatha, \syb\ , where it precedes an original 

PA * ' '. 

Kasra, and I **>! , where it precedes an accidental Dam- 

ma ; and with Damm before an original Damma, as 

A PA P 

~f4 ; and before an accidental Kasra may be pronounced 

J A f AP 

eitber with pure Damm, as u-*is> b ^gjcf , or with Damm 
smacking of Kasr, as £<f\ with a Damma inclined towards 

/v? ' / , i * tZ 

Kasra. The vs. y>\ , Ja-I , and J/f deviate from the 
analogy of the other vs. that have the second [letter] of 
the nor. quiescent, so that the conj. Hamza is nut imported 
before their initials [in the imp.], but instead of that their 
initials are elided for lightness, because of frequency of 
usage : sometimes, however, they occur regularly, as 

AP P A P S A P P HP 

}*jl » ^-jl i and J/y , which is frequent in y> with the 



( 90 ) 

con. • , as xJ*dU u-X1jb| y>\^ XX. 132. And enjoin 

thou upon thy family prayer and *-*/** ^ y*\) %«*M J4- 
VII. 198. Accept thou the easy and enjoin the right (L). 
The sign of the imp. is [a combination of two things (Sh),] 
(1) indication (IA, Sh) of requisition (Sh), [i. e.] of com- 
mand, by means of its form (IA), and (2) reception (IA, 

St 

Sh) of the ^ of the second pers. sing, fern., as tS JX» 
**** Sf) iS*>*"h XIX. 26. Therefore eat thou, and drink, 
and be calm, or cool, in eye (Sh), [or] of the corrob. . , 

3 / A 3 j £ A * 

as ^jj^l and ^-/M (IA) : and [therefore] to it belong 

s * 

' " /*> * hi 

(1) \sJ3b t [orig. «y! , derived from -j| i. q. ^acf , the 

.*/*•• , a j> a/* 

Hamza being converted, as in ip^yb and c^U&> from «&J> \\ 

and w^b! (D),] with Kasr of the ^ , [as of the k of 

jyJeU: , both being imps, from Jfob (aor.) ^1$* (««/". ».) 

JJGl^, and Jo\e (aor.) J*l*t (inf. n.) SJUeU* , as says 

Hassan (BS) Ibn Thabit, on being presented with a goblet 
of diluted wine (H), 

th9 Ax / */ • A S A t 9 /J>A/// /«// s^j 5 

Ja£7 J l^Jl«i itt-lXa ut4XS # t£u>o>* l^j^ ,c*lf J 

P%r% w/wtf i/iow efc"tf.stf offer me and I rejected was diluted 

(be thou slain!) (1) ,• then give thou it not diluted (BS),] 

/ tt 
and (2) JUS' with Fath of the J , contrary to the asser- 
tion of Z that they are verbal ns. [187, 420], since they 



( 81 ) 

indicate requisition and receive the ^5 (Sh) : you say 

t .P / t\Pf f A.P £ f 

[sing. masc. wyU&, pi, masc. |jjUs> , as f&foy. S?&> 11. 

105. Give ye your proof \ not *■&& , as the vulgar say, 
* 

sing. fern. (D)] Jito (Sh, D) with Kasr of the «t> , as 

t 

A •• tt mt t S AJ> t 

t St SS^> Ht A thi^ t t Stt 

(Sh), by Imra alKais, JFAere / say, <?»»e </to«, gran/ fAotf 

me my request, she advances towards me with swaying gait, 

slender in the flank, plump in the place of the anklet (EM), 

t / tt 

pi. fern. l2 j«Ua , du. masc. or fern. U5U6 , there being no 

distinction of gender in the du. of the imp., as there is 

tss sB tStt t 

none in the du. of the pron. in Lg*Ui and l*Q>.y£ or in 

• ASS / / A A/\ 

the sign of dualization in ^>Hfl and ^ftJJ^I ; and an 
Arab, to whom a man- said cwUfc , said u£olfi>| U &Uf . 
meaning i_X*ta*f By #orf, / do not give to thee (D) ; [so 

t 

that] the saying that it is a verbal n. is refuted by its 
plasticity and by the attachment of the prominent nom. 

S S t * 

prons. to it (BS) : and you say [in calling Ja.) 

»t tt t t tt 

&JU? , but reject the 8 in continuous speech, as L> Jtsu 
* ^ • */// 

J^ j (pl- masc.) (yU3 , as 

2 St r*ttAr° t t tt tt tt Ht A/Ai^» / t f\*l t S tit tt 

x • t t t 



( 92 ) 
Come ye, we will renew the obliterated covenant between 
us ; each side of us is blameworthy on account of that 

A • // 

churlishness (N), sing. fem.~\ Jl*2 with Fath of the J 

A • A A f A 

(Sb, N), like L J^ and ^**»! (^h), because it is the £ 

of the »., like the £ in ^uJ>*t<u , and the J of the v., 
which ought to have Kasr, has dropped off, the o. f. 
De i n g tf^ 1 *^ (N), though the vulgar, [ the people of 
Makka (K),] say [ JU3 (K)] with Kasr of the J , and 
a post-classical [(poet,) AlHamdairi (K),] said, [when in 
captivity to the Greeks (Jsh),] 

i/// A» A / • At t 9 si 

&*La. ^fL> is^aJj u»,»^ JyiJ 

^JJf &jtl0 u^J> u ^^J &*+ 

• .P PPAiG A A y • • •• 

ss As PA £ tO * t A% / / • y? 

UJug jfcoJf c-i^ij U ^j^- y 

,, j PPA*> A •£ • / 



&a*^ ^ l>. ;; 3 y JUi 



a ,*• 



^l vr"^ r**^ t-S* 



( 93 ) 

9/ * us* S j> %* s * a /£ 

SJUiltf (C^H) JJ**'''* LJ^aa-ajj 

/ .P .PAyy $ .» A • J> fi A •/ 

^U V J^J ; u^) 33 " u»-&«ej 

*»*•"/ A S *o A xA? J A J> A • / 

IXjJJ. £*ijJb lJoU J.( c^xTo>aI 
t •»/ S ^ A • Six 

(Sh) J say, w/iere o pigeon has cooed near me, O my 
female neighbour, has thy state become like my state f 
Love fore/end! Thou hast not tasted the calamity of 
absence, nor have cares bestirred themselves in mind of 
thine. O my female neighbour, fortune has not dealt 
fairly between us ; come, I will divide with thee the cares, 
come. Come ; thou unit see a feeble soul in me, agitated 
in a chastened worn body. Shall a captive laugh, and 
a freed one weep, and a grieved be silent, and a heart- 
whole mourn aloud f By God, I have been more meet than 
thou for tears and wailing, but my tears in the afflictions 
are precious ! ', [the J of is^aJUj being elided for Iight- 
ness, like &H* &> c^-aII* , orig. &J0 like &i»l* , whence 
the reading of AlHasan iyi*3 w ith Damm of the J in 

IV. 64., the y of the pi. being next to the J of ^^J 
when the final is elided, so that the J has Damm like 



2 Shta/f / 1st /// 



SySZ (K),] fem.pl. ^bJ, as J±Z+\ ^l*^ XXXIII. 
28. Come ye, I will give you the allowance of divorce, 
du. masc. or fern. UJbu (N). If a word receive the g of 



( 94 ) 
the second pers. sing, fern., but do not indicate requisi- 

tion, as ^A«»y&, or indicate requisition, but do not receive 

' ** * f, a 

that ^ , as <±>&> h J'j> in the sense of ^Jy\ , it is not 

* / ft 

an imp. v. (Sh); if it indicate command, but do not 
receive the corrob. ^ , it is a verbal n., as S-o and J^v a » » 

53 • • S3 //S • 

which are ns., because you do not say *%& or ^$a»- , 

Ax A .P A.P A/£/ 

though £-0 is in the sense of i^-X«| and J4*=»- is in the 

A A? a ,S US Us AS 

sense of J-*»l , whereas you say ^£— ! and ^jJ-$ (IA). 

§ 429, In the pass, voice the imp. is formed by 
means of the p. prefixed to the aor. in the same way as 

/> Ax • A? A x AJ> 

V or ft [419], as c>^! i_>j*a£J Be ^ow beaten, thou, 

§ A/ A x A B ' ti A • h% 

i*i3 ^y^ ^ e ^ ^id be beaten, and Uf i_->/^^ Let me be 
beaten, me; and similarly in the act. voice but not in the 

§ lit A A t ,i A Ki 

second pers., as i>ij <—»/■<*£* Let Zaid beat and Uf ^ya)S 
Xetf ?«e tea*, ?ne, [165]. 

§ 430. It has occurred, though rarely, that the imp. 
has been formed in the second pers. act. voice by means 

$ fhtSt t ' t 

of the j?., as in the Prophet's reading |ya*jftXU i_£Jii*i X. 

/ t 

59. [with the cm , which is the o. f. (K, B), though 
discarded '(B), and is agreeable with analogy (K), Then 
at that then do ye rejoice, the repetition of the o being 

r* t A f f 

for corroboration, like ziS ^'f?j V (62) (B), and 



( 95 ) 

A s* tt a a&s 

f£x^.Lo* |^Ja.UJ Take ye your places of repose said by 
liim in one of the campaigns (K)]. 

§ 431. According to the BB (M), the imp. is 
uninfl. upon (M, Sh) pause (M), [i. e.] quiescence 
[159], or its substitute, because it is uninfl. upon what 
its aor. is apocopated with, so that it is uninfl. upon 

A A 

quiescence in such as i_ >yb\ , upon elision of the . in 

t A S A ' ' A 

such as hy°\ > Sf.yoS , and ^.y^S , and upon elision of 

asa /A A 

the unsound letter in such as )*l , J>^>-\ , and ^f , as 

0*»s fihs a/ s a/ / s aSi s A ^a / ss a 

lud 1/J>' OS Uy«i ^giLa SJ| .yef J\ US)o! XX. 45. 46. 
Go ye two unto Pharoah ; verily he hath become rebellious; 

f* A 

and speak ye unto him with soft speakings where Uauf 

' f. 
and V J! are uninfl. upon elision of the ^ (Sh) ; but the 

KK say that it is apocopated by means of the J under- 
stood, which is wrong (M). 



CHAPTER V. 



THE TRANSITIVE AND THE INTRANSITIVE. 



§ 432. The v. is divisible into trans, and intrans. 
(IA). The trans. (IA, M) is that which arrives at its obj. 

without a prep., as lo^j u^.yb (IA), [and] is of three 

(S Ay * *// 

kinds, trans, to one obj., as !i*jj yz-^.yb , [tfrems.] to two, 
as &«*. !«>jj \sjy»f 1 clad Zaid toith a coat and ut~*le 
U-oti !j^3 -^ ^we«> Zairf fo &c excellent, and [toms.] to 
three, as H*«t» fj** \*H) uwJ*! / ma«te -Zbirf to know 
i Amr to be excellent (M): the intrans. (IA, M) is that 
which does not arrive at its obj. save by means of a prep., 

as i*i}* ,Af )y* ' or which has no obj., as Oij *& (IA) ; 
[or it] is of one kind [only], that which is confined to the 

ag., as ojj u-^Jpvi (M). All vs., trans, or intrans., aft. or 

non-att., share in two matters: (1) they govern thenom.; 

f * 
for, if non-att., they put the sub. into the now,., as ^tf 
<» t 4 /is 
ILaG tjji j , if a#. and in their original mould, they put the 

' § A/ / • 

og\ into the worn., as ooj j*** > aQ d» if «#• but not in their 
original mould, they put the pro-ag. into the nam., as 

*AfA^> /• St * 

yV] i^&y ~Sl.iQ. And the decree was fulfilled; (2) they 
put into the ace. [435] ns. other than [ns. of] five sorts, 



( 97 ) 

(a) the assimilate to the direct obj., for according to the 

St A / % t t 

majority it is put into the ace. only by eps., as &&*) ftf"** , 

(b) the pted., for it is put into the ace. only by the non~ 

# r*t $ At t , S AS 

att. v. and its Variations, as Uils ^.j ^ and ^m*j> 

e ~t ssht ' ' ' 

US tif } (c) the sp., for it is put into the ace. only by 

*At $ A • 

the n. vague in sense, as U;.) Ji&) , or the v. unknown 

# Ay § A/ • • • * 

in relation, as Uii i*>j ^_Jia , and its variations, as y*> 
L«a» w-^9 , (d) the unrestricted obj., for it is put into the 
ace. only by the plastic att. v. and its variations, as UUs f 

ft {w/J * t K S t t At t * "/ S A * 

and UU> «56 -2> while UU*a»{ &Juu&.( U and t*>» c^**/ 
^y are disallowed, (e) the direct obj., for it is put into 

St S At t 

the ace. only by the self-trans. #., as l^.j ut-*j*« (Sh). 

The sign of the trans, v. is that a 8 relating to other 

than the inf. n. should attach itself thereto, namely the 

ststhi * tht 
8 of the direct obj., as &X5UI t->Wf The door, I shut it, 

whereas the 8 of the inf. n. attaches itself to the trans. 

and intrans., so that it does not indicate transitiveness or 

* At SSAt t S A Si t 



intrausitiveness of the v., as !*>£j &*>/« ^y^\ The beat- 

* lit / A5i* S tit t 

ing, I beat Zaid therewith, i. e. ! jj j VJ*^ "W^ i and 

SSASS t At t t ^A*> S ** 

«x»S -USIf jTAe standing, I stood therewith, i. e. j.Uafl ex** : 
t * 

the sn^rans. v. is that to which the 8 of the pron. of other 
than the inf. n. does not attach itself. The property of 
the foww. t?. is to govern its obj. in the acc. } as cu^oJ 



( 98 ) 

w»XXl| 2 studied the books, unless the obj. be its pro-ag., 

in which case it must "be put into the nom., as \A>f,i£ 

^JSi f TJie books were studied : sometimes, however, the 
direct obj. is put into the nom., and the ag. into the ace, 
when there is no fear of ambiguity, as in the saying Jjji. 

t t A A«"» S fkS <" 

^U~»Jf (_, »j£M TAe nail tore the garment ; but that is not 
regular and is confined to hearsay (IA). The v, as 
regards the direct obj. is divisible into seven sorts: (1) it 
requires no direct obj. at all (Sh), [i. c.] it is intram. (IA, 
ML), (a) when it indicates (Sh, IA, ML) (a) the coming 

4h$ ft/ 

of a thing into existence, as y>\ &»m- A matter came to 
pass, £J}\ k»~y The seed -produce sprouted, and 

;w/ « ^ J; W / « S i" J / Shit *t*, iu *° / / t 

sKSJiM &+}&. £^1 Jf> * ^ySola >l££J) ^ lof 

[When winter presents itself (450), wrap ye me up warm ; 
for verily the old man, winter enfeebles him (J),J the 

adv. in v«l ,J u^lS^ being in my opinion an ep. of the 
post-pos. nom., which, having taken precedence of it, has 
become a d. s., so that it depends first and last upon a 
suppressed [word], namely unrestricted being, or being 
dependent upon the v. mentioned as a causative obj., 
whereas the discussion is concerning the direct obj., (6) 
the coming of a sensible quality into existence (Sh), 
[e. g.] cleanness or dirtiness (I A, ML), as J-aW! JUo The 

night became long, ;^l y£ The day became short, "Va*. 



( 99 ) 

*-><pS The garment became worn out (Sh), lJ&> (Sh, I A), 
^b (Sh, IA, ML), jLJ (Sh, ML), -Jo, and X-% 

(IA), " sensible " excluding such as J* , which is trans. 

' '. ' ' '. 

to two objs., f$» which is self -trans, to one, and _)?, 

Ax * h f 

which is trans, to one by means of the p., as i*i}* is^f 

if ' * 

$A/ / f 

1 was glad at Zaid (Sh), (o) an accident, like ujj j*>* 

2/ A y • 

Zaie? /"<?// z// (Sh, I A, ML), j*»l It became red (IA), -f , 
^S-J , ^La> (Sh, ML), (d) a natural disposition, as (IA, ML) 

jj^, r /, uiyb (IA), r 5*, ^, £»A, (e) color, as 

;*• A • £ 53 / A / e * * 

ysA , -ot , ;U=^.! , or (7) appearance, as £*0 , l-~L& ,. 

t / / * / 

.«.«, ( Jia» ; (b) when it is made to imply the sense of an 

intrans. v., as *$"= i-#aa* <^*-> ^j XVIII. 27. ^nrf fe* 
no/ tf/iins e?/es g-fonce o/ from them, XL VI. 14. [63],. 

XXXVII. 8. [11, the saying &>*=». *J &Uf £— ifoy 
God answer the prayer of him that hath praised Him! y 

m A /Ay A /> 

and iJ! ;3X*3 .1^ [63], which are made to imply the 

9 A • • / Ax f 9 ft f * / * * b / h* 

sense of t--*^ ^ , t-*) 1 * , u)}*"^. ^ » v 1 ^**'* / an< * ^^^i 

A AJ» 

and <±*»h (ML) : (c) when it is on the measure of (a) 
J*i with Damra, as lJ^Jj , \Jy& (Sb, ML), r / , r y (Sh), 
this being devoted to the vs. denoting natural disposi- 



( .100 ) 
taons and to such like ^vs.] as [denote attributes that] 
subsist in the ag. and do not pas3 beyond him, on which 
account the trans, turns intrans. when its measure is 
changed into J** for the sake of intensiveness and won- 
der, as J=*j>\ s-»/^ and f& in the sense of toy*] U and 

fit thi 

&*4>! How hard he strikes! and How intelligent he is ! 

fit 3 «*> fifiKt fit 

(ML), while [in] S*UaM (&#*") Obedience befitted, or 

• ttKi° tfi t /' 

was allowable for, you and yj*^! ^° He reached Ah 
Yaman, [no third (instance) having been heard (ML), 
the two vs."] are made to imply the sense of g») 

and & [433], (b) J*a>! , as y*SJ\ (Sh, ML), ui^l 

(Sh), 3^1 (ML), (c) j^ [with Fath of the £ (ML)], 

or (rf) J** [with Kasr (ML)] , whose ep. is [only (DM)] 

' if s, 

on [the measure of (DM)] J**» , [in (Sh)] such as J3 

(Sb, ML), which Jik with Kasr shows to be J** with 

% / t t i * *t 

Fath, jdo , ***- 1 a£«-*' (Sh), and gf (ML), the words 

3* / t * 

" in such as Jo " being meant to exclude such as Jasj , 

,, , , ' 
which is trans, by means of the^rep., as tJ^j Jiw .fife was 

niggardly of such a thing, [see (2)] (Sh), (e) Jl**1 , as 
a, * a s?xa aSy * •/a^a' 

-U&5I (IA, ML), ^UM (IA), )Ui| (ML), (/) JU*if [with 

' / ' ' ' ' 

• y A/ A 

the two J s rarf. (ML)], as f?uf»S , [or with one of them 



( ioi ) 

X X A xA xAx A 

aug., as (ML)] j~- *i*i'| (IA, ML), (g-) j***\ , as 

■P Ul ,<> xAx A . ' ' 

t-£^l ^^-1 , i. e. TAe cocA; ra^erf its feathers [for fight- 
ing (L)], the saying 

Ay A xx u/ SSSKt A/Ax * xl5^» XXX Ax 

XX X XX 

[SfomW Acs begun to overcome me; I drive it away 
from me, and again it overpowers me (Jsh)] being ano- 

my •A 

malous, while there is no third to them, (A) J*fS , 

S AxA^> S X xA / / xAS ' 

as ±f}\ oi&y! The young bird trembled, (i) Jaef i. q. 

xx xxx ' J> xA>»3xS *«S-« xxA? 

fj/ iiS ^Uo, as ^oJI •**! and £#! 4*as»\ [488], or (j) 

XX AX A ' <" X /J»^S 

J*aX*«! indicating the being transmuted, as Jjf v*>U*J| jf 
[493] ; (d) when it is an augmented quad., as ^p^ , 

x x Ax A Sx x^ 

faa^l , j*&Sj (ML) ; (e) when it is quasi-pass, to what 

' ' , SxA * A XX 

is j&-a«5. to one [06?. (IA)], as (IA, ML) ijJUf from usxOd-» 

X X A.*» xxAxx. <*Ax J> A x A X ' ///« 

i3j»j«Jf , £>=hjj from laej is^a-^o (IA), j««£>j from 

.PJA X X 

&JV*/ (ML) ; but the quasi-pass, of the doubly trans, is not 

• • /,/ //• h *K*b & As # A fix 

intrans., but tfrans. to one (%*., as ^*€** &&-***! Iojj «s"*€» 
2 macfe 2<ztW to comprehend the question, and he compre- 

J/SxXX /»i* Sthi/ 

hended it and *J**» jsaifl &****• J tawgA* Aim grammar, 
and he learnt it (IA); for the quasi-pass, abates a 

«p / •• x AST *■*» J>i» A xAj£ 

degree from the quasi-act., as &*~*k <->yi\ &X-mJ{ /jpirf 

' X XX J>J>Ax2 

«po« Aim /A* garment, and he wore it and ,.& &***! 



( 102 ) 
/ made him to stand, arid he stood; and the phrases 
Ua> \0 JlLa*ls U2>^5 £JULixxw( / asked him to give me a 

' ' ' ' * * /• as a /A / A 

dirham, and he gave me a dirham and ^swaii &J«sj^aiL*»| 
/ consulted him, and he counselled me beloug to the cat. 
not of quasi-passivity but of requisition and compliance, 
the essence of quasi-passivity being that one of the two 
vs. should indicate an impression and the other should 
indicate its ag.'s reception of that impression (ML): 
(2) it is perpetually trans, to one obj. by means of the 

A/ A S A • 

prep., as o-j} ^j* \A~**az I was angry with Zaid and 



&> m>)y or &ji* , whereas in «_jp£Jb J3 He became 

* * * • 

abased by reason of the beating and IJ>& ^*» He fattened 

on such a thing the gen. is a causative obj., not a direct 
obj. : (3) it is perpetually self-trans, to one oft/., like the 

/• f/shf& s Ass s A/ 

w. of the senses, as &3HJf ^^> -^, XXV. 24. Ore 
the day that they shall see the angels, iss^ai] .»x*mo -y # 

J> A • 

L. 41. Ore /Ae rfoy rf/ja* £&ey s/ta# Agar tf/ie c?y, ct-««" 

* *"* / Ay>A^= • / J J/ / 

t-^aJi / s»ie& */*e fragrance, «w^J| 1$a» m^V** ^ 

* A // 

XLIV. 56. TTiev s/*a^ no* fasfe rfe«*/i therein, c^J 

,tb,**> ,mj «urf> PS S , , A? 

Sfj*M / touched the woman, >L*JJ| JL^V J iV, 46. 
Or if #e fee wiVA women, [where Hamza and Ks read 

A* A " 

^<mJ (B)] : (4) it is trans, to one direct ofy". now by means 



( 103 ) 

of itself, now by means of the prep., like fi2> , p& , 
i*-aS, as &UI &»•*; l^£&fj XVI. 115. And be ye thank- 

' ' /A/ // hS krO ■$. 

fulfor the bounty of God, t-OjJiy , J £&S J XXXI. 
13. Saying, Be thou thankful unto Me and unto thy 
parents, l&s&ej / counselled him, *# u>aa^>^ VII. 77. 
^4»<£ Aowe counselled you, 63^aS and &J *~j±^i and &JI 
7 directed my course to him : (5) it is now self 'trans, to one 
direct ofi?., and now not tfrans. by means of itself or a 
prep., like j*» and ba& , as sG ^i> and fttsai He opened 

his mouth and Xf f* and ksa£> ifts mouth opened: (6) it 
is trans, to two [067's.] ; (.1) now trans, to them both, 
and now intrans., like j<*&> , as JUM ja'i> 7%e properly 

Ia / AJ J JAx Ax 2.P 

dwindled and La£ ^^cI'm J J IX. 4. Jnrf wAo a/for- 
ward* have not abated from you aught of the conditions of 

f A X 

the covenant, where, however, some allow l-£« to be an 

S #A/ 

unrestricted o5j., i. e. U UaiU ; (b) perpetually trans, to 

• • / 
them, the second of its objs. being like the obj. of )£&, 

• •£ X^A • A 

e. g. y*\ and ^ftiX**l explained below, or the first of its 
two objs. being logically an ag , as &*^ &jj-*T and 

* • J>J>A yA? 

I^Ujo fiJUla*j , since the first of the two objs. is wearing 

and receiving, so that there is in it a logical quality of 

ag., or its two objs. being orig. inch, and enunc, which 

is the mental or factitive v. [440] j the first of these three 



( 104 ) 
sorts, i. e. that which has its 1st obj. always free from 
the prep., and its 2 ad obj., sometimes free from it, [in 
which case, however, the v. belongs to the cat. of exten- 
sion (DM),] and sometimes fettered by it, comprises such 

xx£ xxA x A x X A XXX X 5x XX 3 X 

as r l, /iX*| [433], ;K^f, 2j^ , - y) , ^ , ^ , 

XX 3 X X X X XX m tn0 x 3 •" X 9S%/$ 

Uo i. q . ijrMl JW, and .'» , as y**k .-lifl ^r^ 
II. 41. Will ye enjoin upon men piety f and 

x A fi x AxA*«x xA / tii& s .pAx£ 

&> ys^fyA U JaJG ^*»lf UjCv»l 
xx x 

x x ft t x X .PA XX A XX 

^JX \j>) JU 16 uXXTy jiii 

[by Khufaf Ibn Nadba or 'Abbas Ibn Mirdas (N) (or) 
'Arar Ibn Ma'dikarib azZubaidl (Jsh), I have commanded 
thee beneficence; wherefore do thou what thou hast been 
commanded: for I have left thee possessor of property and 
possessor of estate (N)], which combines tbe two dials. 
[514], 

XX A X A/A xi *" £ A x Ki 

• • • • / 

; }X* cXi J/ (3r ! J/, ^jj 

X *> x "^z 

J beseech God to pardon mine intention and mine error, 
my trespass; and every man is doubtless committing' sin 
and 

J»X A * * A x £A x xi»« •? A X A 2 

X X 

* XXA<=x J A xA«*> Ax x A^ ifl x 



( 105 ) 
f / beseech Ood to pardon a sin that I retain not in my 
memory : the Lord of the servants, unto Him are directed 
the face and the work of each one of the servants (Jsb]), 
VII. 154. [514] and 

/Sh^Bs A u fO / A yA ,-Oy Kit 9 ft 

/ y 

y Ay y \t fSSfO J> HS* 

lS 5 ^** u)^ lS"^' ^' 1 ^*' 
t t t fi 

/ S S si /DttrO, K$*B , Ay A 

[by Kuthayyir (SM),] i. e. Ua^l l&Jt^ ^aij >* yii.f, 

y y x 

[And they said. She has gone far away; wherefore 
choose thou from patience and weeping (one of them). 
Then t said, Weeping will be more healing in that case to 

ilr" Ay /i SSli// Ay i 

my burning passion (Jsh),] 6ii\ i*x* b| &%if and i*a* ^h 
&Mf I surnamed him Abu l Abd Allah, or &yS , e. g. 

A y Ay y? y K* » Aw *e / y /»-« * r>» S / y *h t kJ> / 

&***. bt js± ^jjf ur * im jjs uca v r ^=i\ j* 

It is wine doubtless, being surnamed Uk f #fc e as tlie 

y y A t si * 

wolf is surnamed &***. y$ and 

1U r u Jf\ \# us, 
And in order that I might by means of her be surnamed 

Ay SfitiS y 

mother of such a one, tH'y. £aa*«, I named him Zaid and 

mS A S r» All^ * // hi A *y Ay/ y A y y A y .«.» AS y / 

J»d I named JMw John that he might live; but there uw 



( 106 ) 
not for a matter that God had decreed any way of escape 
among men, i±i'y. &3j*l> I called him Zaid and 

* */ A sAfi At/ * t "f A Pi A// A • tit t ti A/ f 

"Dmm l Amr called me her brother ; but I was not her 
brother, nor was stickled by means of sharing the breast 

fi • A • fit** 1 9ff s f A ••• 

with her, &^ &JJ| f&o** aSi^ III. 145. And assuredly 

PSA t s 

God hath fulfilled unto you His promise and ^ &£>tA*9 

Ay/it** ss s A Sis 

i**yf / was true to him in the promise, I^Ua^j XXXIII. 



AP /A iti/s 



37. We married thee to her and >** )f xu - f**'^')')) 

* ' # ' 
XLIV. 54. And We will marry them to fair large-eyed 

Ps s * A/ P A PA/ 

spouses, &*Ul© «*£)! i~Jf or Wj / measured unto Zaid 



Pt t Ay p Att 



his food, and &JU >±tjl "^j^ ov '^3 ^ weighed unto Zaid 



P A p AP Ptt Ai AP P/ / , 



his goods, e. g. ^j-*^. {&?')) ^ f 2 ^ '^j LXXXIII. 
3. And when they measttrc unto them or weigh unto them, 
they make the measure or weight deficient, where the 1st 
obj. of both [v.t.~\ is suppressed: (7) it is trans, to three 
objs. [434] (Sh). The v. [perpetually] trans, to two 
objs. [by its own means] is of two kiuds, that wherein 

the two objs. are orig. inch, and enunc, like J& and 
its sisters, aud that wherein they are not orig. so, like 

, A$ t f 

^jla*! and IS . In the latter ease the o. f. is to put 

9 / A <* A/ P A t A$ 

first that which is logically an ag., a« '*&>o I.jjj cj^Ja*! 



( 107 ) 

I gave Zaid a dirham, where fw^j should be put first, 
because he is logically an ag., since he is the recipieut of 

*tlyj> s A t f>9, t A • A S hi 

the dirham, and yj+^l £«*J f)\) ^ ^j^' Do ye clothe 
him that has visited you with the tissue of AlYaman, 

A t 

where the 1st obj. ^* should be put before the 2nd obj. 

A , 

£*»*> , because he is the wearer. But what is not logi- 
cally an ag. } may be put first, though this is contrary to 
the o. /., provided that there be no fear of ambiguity, in 

« #A> * h* S A • K$ 

which case the o. /. is obligatory, as in \y* l^j ws^aLj*! 
where the recipient must be put first, since the other, if 
put first, might be taken for the ag. Sometimes what is 

not must be put before what is logically an ag., as c^Lacf 
&j±=J*a J&>jJ| I gave the dirham to its owner r where 
&as»U> , though logically an ag., may not be put first, lest 
the pron. relate to a [word] posterior literally and in 
natural order, which is disallowed (I-A). 

§ 433. Trausitiveuess is occasioned by (1) the 
Hamza (M, ML) of J2» , as LXXI. 16. [40] (ML); the 
Hamza causes what was an ag. to become an obj., so that 
the v., if intrans. before the Hamza is prefixed, becomes 

Sax <> f , 

after its prefixion trans, to one obj. y as i*jj g-y*- and 

# A/ P A /A i 

f »*Jt,3 a^fA , if trans, to one obj. becomes trans, to two,, 
as &**. tV.} j-** Zaid wore a coat and &**? IojJ hs~*«uJf 
i dressed Zaid in a coat t and if trans, to two, becomea 



( 108 ) 

trans, to three, as ^JLcl and ^1 [434] (IA) : (2) doubling 
of the medial (M, ML), as la^ ^ ^U| ^' XCI. 9. 

Verily he prospereth that purifieth it and </#*•*£ ^liM *S> 
X. 23. He is the One that maketh you to journey, for the 
assertion of Abh 'All that the reduplication here is to 
intensify , not to make trans., [the v. being orig. trans. 
before the doubling (DM),] like 

yS s A * 6i » t fS!i/ t*h * AS ^t A «)/*/ // 

UDwuuji -» &J*» J>S) J «l» * l%>yu ct^JI S^JUw »* >«laBJ If. 

[by Aba Dhu'aib alHadhali reproaching Khalid Ibn 
Zuhair for having set a female friend of his against 
him, And do not thou be impatient at a course of action 
that thou hast made current; for the first to be content 
with a practice is he that makes it current (Jsh),] requires 

consideration, because &y is rare and &$**» common, 

nay it is even said that £»>•«» is not allowable, and that in 

the verse the «_> is dropped by extension (ML) : (3) the 
prep. : these three causes attach themselves to the intrans. 

■*JA/ lit 93MZ* 

and make it trans., as &X*a)j( J removed him, &*a-^ I 

* A ft 

gladdened him, and & c^-a-yi- I ejected him, and to the 

Ilrans. to one obj. and make it possessor of two objs., as 
yj S3yis4 I. assisted him to dig a well, ^tyJJJ &XJU 
J taught him the Ifur'an, and &*jloJ| &*l* u&*yae I for- 
cwly dispossessed him of the estate; and the Hamza attaches 



( 109 ) 
itself to the trans, to two objs. and transports it to 

is / / 

three, [but only in the case of ^) and |»k (ML),]as 

S A /AS 

m>*AA (M) : transport by means of the Hainza is regular 
in the case of the intrans., matter of hearsay in other 
cases ; and transport by means of reduplication is matter 
of hearsay in the intrans,, as exemplified, and in the trans. 

to one [obj.,'] as v_>L«saJ! &£•!* I taught him arithmetic 

/// A • A#^ £fih#f 

and &L*mJ| &£*# [432], and has not been heard in the 
case of the [v.] trans, to two objs. : the Hamza and 

iu / A^ • • K*o / Ax/ /Sx 

reduplication are combined in 3 3a ^> «— '****' l-X^L: Jj; 

f A A A*°/ / • AS5^ sst&s A// /A/ • ? it) / £ 

J^swV| ; si^XJj JyJ^ SJ^i ^ U G'j.^ III. 2. [He 

hath sent down unto thee the Scripture by instalments 
with truth, confirmatory of what hath been before it of 
the Scriptures, and sent down the Pentateuch and the 
Gospel (each) whole unto Moses and Jesus (respec- 
tively) (B)], and Z says [iu the KJ that there is a distinction 

in the two ways of tnakiug trans., Jy being said of the 

/ /hi 

Kur'an because it was revealed by instalments, and Jyj 
of the two [other] Scriptures because they were revealed 
whole, and he himself says in the [prefatory] oration of 

I' 0/&/S t *> '$ f*i/t ft* /nKSt\J3 t/Ki iS^o ii J» A x h* 

the K &?, Wax* l&J-. UUT J>p\ Jy\ ^JJf &U l i^=Jf 
UxlL* ^sJLaJI ^.^ssai Praise be to God, Who has sent 
down the Kur'an as a discourse composed, ordered, and 
has revealed it in accordance with the occasions of good 



( no ) 
because he means by the first its being sent down from 
the Preserved Tablet to the lowest heaven, which is the 
sending down mentioned in XCVII. 1. [160], and by the 
second its being sent down from the lowest heaven to 
the Apostle of God by instalments in 23 years; but the 

^/ / ^•A 9 9r*\Phi& A/x /mP /A/ 

text 8t*»-lj &e- ^pS <s*l* J/ Uy XXV. 34., [where 

Jy is i. q. J/1 , like yp- i. q. y^>-\ , Where/ore was not 
the Kur'an sent down unto him in one whole f (K, B),] 

• / t § Ss t t t 

embarrasses him : ( 4 ) the 1 of J^U , as t*ij j**^ 

fht S A / t 

Zaid sat, Iv^i} us**«Jk. / sat with Zaid: (5) formation 

J> \tt 'ft 

upon u>J*> with Fath [aor.] J*i| with Damm [484] to 

fi St 9 htt 

import predominance, as !i*aj is~«y , i. e. / surpassed him 

t t St A 

in nobility: (6) formation upon J*iL«f [493] to denote 



9 A t A / A 



requisition, or ascription, of the thing, as o*^»L«f 

, ,K* 9 t 99 9 St t ' 

JUl , [i.e. te?)f- cs^Us (MA, DM),] I sought to make 

St 9 A s A t A 

the ■property come forth and IlJ^J us^lwcnXwif } [j. e. 



A * A»o 9 S t t 



^jj ^J ^y-Aaaff o*^ (MA),] 1 accounted Zaid to be 
good} sometimes what has one obj. is [thus] transported 

/ t ArO 99St A / A 

to two ofy's. as i—A^I &X*XXX*«f I requested him to write 

* SSf till" » StSt A SiieO t 

the epistle and i_-*JwiM &MI ^y^aiX*,! , while w-^JJ( >* is 

allowable only because it contains the sense of us^aaX^J 
JT besought Qod to dispose me to repent of the tin, and 



( in ) 

would not be allowable if it were employed in its original 
sense 1 besought Qod to forgive the sin, the saying 

//h / K * * A 

that faCL*,S is of the cat. of ■p=>-\ [ 432] being rejected, 

/ // • /A • f2lr& //t 

[because f& , being trans, to one, as u-£*-»o &Wf f* God 

// A / A 

pardon thy sin!, when formed upon J*^*«l to denote 
requisition, becomes trans, to two by the operation of 
this rule, and the saying that it is trans, to the 2nd by 

/ /A 

means of a prep., like j&M , is a departure from this 
established principle (MA)] : (7) making [the v.] to imply 
[the sense of another], as >-^-) and i&* [432], because 

/ / ,// Ax ■* A • 

they imply the sense of £»*j and £k, and !uv.j \s*Sf 

t / AX x x x x 

and &-**> &&« , because they imply the sense of cJtL 

/ XX A X X A? 

and jS^*' [83] or i — <Hfi>f .He destroyed his mind; this is 
distinguished from the other causes of transitiveness by 
its sometimes transporting the v. more than one degree ; 

S Ax£ t A S3 / 

thus «t»yi i. q. M±>y£ , [orig. trans, by means of the 

A?A^» x£ 

p-ep. (B), j^f ^ W being said (K),] is made trans, to 

' ' #AJ>/J>/.xsSAx 

two oi/s. after being intrans., as t»«aJ lJJI V or liJ^. 
J will not withhold, or a bate, from thee faithful counsel or 
zealous endeavour, because made to imply the sense of 

, , , x XX * '• " **' &' x 

^U [or j& (B) ], whence the text OU&. f&^b>,)f 
III. 114. [ Z7*ey ttrcVJ no* fail you in corruption (B)], 



( 112 ) 

tt Si tS t tit itSi JS/» 

and ypA , yp- , «^ii^-, tul , and UJ are made trans, to 

tthi tt 

three, because made to imply the sense of pM and g$ , 

after being trans, to one by their own means and to another 

by meaus of the prep., as II. 31. and VI. 144. [434]: 

' £ S S tS t 

(8) ellipse of the prep, by extension [514], as J&jjrfjy V 

S tU tt t ' 

\y*> II. 235., i. e. y J^ meaning r l& , Do not ye pro- 

/ St £3 SSt SPh^Ot 

tnise them marriage, <±^y* Jf ^$f \ys^S^ IX. 5., i.e. 

&Ae , And lie ye in waif for them on every road, not an 
t 

adv., because it is restricted to the place in which one lies 
in wait, ao that it is not vague [64], and 

s /»S^ t 2^ ttt tt J>sst s St w tS<" tut %K* 

u t t't t ' t t t ^ 

i. c. jV'jk^ ^ j [ DV Ssi'ida Ibn Juwayya alHudhali, It, 

t t t 

i.e. the spear of AlKhatt, is tremulous by reason of 

the shaking of the hand, the part of it from its handle to 

1 1 

either end vibrating with, ^ being i. q. £-» , it and 

t 

its butt reaching its head, like as the fox rum in the road 
placing his hind tegs by the side of his fore legs (Jsh),] also 
not an adv., because it is not vague : (9) according to the 
KK, transmutation of the vowel of the £ [into Fath 

$ St t t 

after Kasr (DM)] ; one says <^.j ^-J , so that it is 
intrans., as 

t t S t 9 StS^> PStt t t A^3 x t S t St St sit 

<-J^ ff «J* J**" ***** * SJf?H yST* J J"f± J) 



C 113 ) 
[by Abu Khalid alKhariji, And I fear that they (his 
daughters) should be naked, if the damsels be appa- 
relled: so shall the eye of their husbands glance slight- 
ingly away from lean though high-born dames (DM)], 
but, when you pronounce the j* with Fath, it becomes 

i. q. j***» and l Ja* , and is trans, to one, like 

A * ho § / x // * / / / £/ sr> / a£#« s / sis 

y&si* i_j»» w t^s^ i*»*r * &jUa£. c .yf j \^$ $+ 

[by Inira alKais, -<4«rf / nofe in tear a sprightly mare, 
wliose face a spreading forelock has covered (Jsh)], 

#/ A , si 

or, more commonly, i. q. Sj«*$" ^ta^f , so that it is trans. 

£S J ^ Ax B S S S 

to two, as &*». Jjj^ k->jM»f [432] ; but, according to us, 
this belongs to the cat. of quasi-passivity [432], [for] one 

Bs '/ / A £»" B JA • / 

gays &£*«& v.?*^ ^y*^ Iclot/ied him with the garment, 
and he wore it, whence ako the verse, though the obj. is 

& /hi S S A.-3 / / 

suppressed (ML), i.e. b|y| ^l^saM ^S wear (gar- 

# / S //A/ St 

ments) and VLa. lg#j-* l***" A/w clothed (with beauty) 
(DM). 

§ 434. The trebly trans, vs. (M, IA, Sh) are of 
three kinds (M), [the first two of which] comprise seven 
vs. (IA, Sh): (1) transported by the Hamza from the 

sssi 

doubly trans., which consists of two vs. (M), ^M and 
^f (M, IA, Sh), transported by the Hamza from the 

S s is <S s §Ss , , 

doubly trans. JLe and «^ [440] (IA, Sh), as f;** ojj ^c 

* * SB *Ss is if 

&1L&U jgafrf knew 'Amr to be departing and \<fi> t^Jti- ^ 



( 114 ) 

* ti 
L^kM Khalid thought Bakr to be thy brother, and having 

a third obj. added to them by the Hamza of transport 

wheu prefixed to tlicin, namely what was an ag. before 

* f US #A / («A/ **/ti£ 

the prefixion of the Hamza, as 1211am Jj*<= fi*i} \a^A 
J made Zaid to know % Amr to be departing and W&- us-^l 
u£ls»-f \fe I made Khalid to think Bakr to be thy brother 

A S// set AJ>y / tit titiO s S / I / 

(IA), e.g. f&** uw!>«*». *#**f &Uf #&# U3tf II. 162. 
Tints shall God make them to see their works to be regrets for 
them (Sh) : the [four] following predicaments of the two objs. 
of pi* and ^ hold good for the 2nd and 3rd objs. of 
*M and £$ ; (a) they are orig. inch, and enunc. [440], 

# w/ *S/ fhf S A/A? 

as Lj£ Sy* lt*ij ca**l*f , the 2nd and 3rd objs. being 
orig. f& sy& ; (b) the op. may be neutralized in rela- 

' sif" / sttii 9/fth* 

tion to them [444], as in the saying &1M U-*l*| iSyi\ 

uWVj £* Blessing, or Prosperity^ Ood has made us 

" ?. , " K '~ 

to knotty is with the magnates, iSySS an inch, and 

otfU| £* an adv. in the position of the enunc. having 
been objs., orig. fW\ £-« &>*M &Uf U«J*f j (c) the op. may 
be suspended from them [445], as f$ ))**! 1^-3 «-**M 
1 made Zaid to know, assuredly 'Amr is standing j and (d) 
both or either of them may be suppressed because of 

# A/ ■» l\t si 

indication [443], as ft**} «*■****' I have made Zaid to 



( H5 ) 
know aaid in reply to " Hast thou made any one to know 

fh/ * ti/ S A /si 4 *t, 

'Amr to be standing?," and \^& |u>j) \s~AA , i. c. Ui£ , 

4 mt 4 1*/ J> A /tti * mt **./ ' 

or Ui6 It^j ws-**M , i. e. Uit» tj*« , said in the same case : 
/ / 

when, however, ^) and ^1* are trans, to one obj. before 

»/ • /A« • X / •• 

the Hainza, as when ^ is i. q. yo>\ and fl* i. q. lJ^c 
[442], they beeouis doubly <ran«, after the Ilanm, as 

£i\/ #A,» * Ax? 

f^«* fjj j ct-J^I / showed Zaid, or mtufe Zairf to see, l Amr 

S3 / Ar» # A/ .P A/A£ 

and JjsoM f^.j o**l*l / informed Zaid of the truth ; 

j>St>^ / /i / 
[(thus) &Uj ui"t;« U> IV. 106. By means of what God hath 

' //Z/ */*$/ 

taught thee meaus \-&f- (K, B), and is not from SajjM 

.PA As 

i. q. J*J| , else it would require three objs. (B) ; ] the 

/ 

/ / 

2nd of these two objs. is like the 2nd obj. of t-J and 

/hi /A #Ar ^ « /«$ 

^gia*! , as in LftjJ |t>£J c^do^f , in that it cannot be an 
enunc. to the 1st, so that you do not say ^^si I «jjj , like as 

5/a Sa^ 

you do not say ffrjo ojj , and is allowed to bo suppressed 
with or without the 1st, or to be retained while the 1st is 
suppressed, even though there be no indication of that 

4 h/hi J> A / A? 

[63, 443], as ts-»*M / gave information and ut~xLa*f } e.g. 

S&r&S / Ki A / 35 c / 

Juf^ j^Iaef ^+ Uti XCII. 5. [/f«rf as for him that 
liatli rendered {obedience uuto God), and shunned (sin) 



4 h/ & A/hi 



(B)], where both are suppressed, l^ij u>**k| Unformed 

£AS 9 A / A? •A// /Sy • A* / h / // 

Zaid and |t*i) u^jJa*! , e. g. ^^ «-&> t-^ 3 */. t-i^«J^ 



( 116 ) 
XCIII. 5. [And assuredly (thou,) thy Lord shall gioe 
unto thee, the J -being inceptive (604) (K, B), corrob. of 
the purport of the prop. (K), prefixed to the enunc. (B), the 

t A • • A? // 

inch, being suppressed, iu full uij~ \s**jMy (K, B), (victory 
fyc. in the present world and the recompense laid up for 
the future), and thou shaft be satisfied (K)], where the 2nd 

is suppressed and the 1st retained, and j 35 ^' ct~*M 

#/» .P A / A? 2 / 

/ marie known the truth and Ufi>^o ut^La*f , e. g. j*a. 

• Ax S*A A/O J>A* ' 

oj ^* &}3=JI fjjtas*j IX. 29. {Until they give the tribute 
(unto you) from a (compliant) hand (K, B), i. e. sub' 
missively (B)], where the 2nd is retained and the let 
suppressed (IA): (2) [on*g\] trans, [by its own means] to 

one obj., [but] made to follow the same course as u>**M 
because of its agreement therewith in sense, and conse- 
quently made trans, in the same way as it, which consists 
of five vs. (M); [for] the remaining [five vs. trebly trans. 
(IA)] are (I A, Sh) such as are made to imply [433] the 

sense of the fM and ^1 [first] mentioned [above] ; namely 

(Sh) l2|" (M, IA, Sh), as 

a • •A." A i /A f St* */ s(Ki tt/, # ax a A t&* 

«*jj| Jifcl jAa. \j+*') UT * &LJ J^ UuJ ci-»AA>U 

(IA), by AlA'sha praising Kais Ibn Ma'dikarib, And 1 
have been informed that Jiais — nor have 1 proven him 
became of what they have asserted (the v-J denoting 
cause), since I know ]£ais to be the best &c. before 
their informing me thereof— is the best of the people of 



( H7 ) 
AlYaman, where the 1st obj. is the pro-ag., the «w of the 
1st pars. (J), ly (M, IA, Sh), as 

' ' ' £ ' ' ' 

(IA), by Ziyad, J«?as informed that Zur*a {and folly is 
hideous like its name 6Msuu ) was addressing to me un* 
wonted sallies in the way of poems, where the prop. £<*$> 
jJ! in the place of an ace. supplies the place of the 3rd 

// a? 

obj- (J), ^ (M, IA, Sh,) as 
,00.30 A U^. i_Xl*> y.Jiy % tio ^ypJ !<->f uXjJ* U. 

(I A), by a man of the Banii Xilab, And what harm will 
happen unto thee, when thou art informed that I am con- 
tinually ailing, and thy husband is absent one day, in 
that thou shouldst visit me, i. e. in thy visiting me ?, 

or Nor does any harm happen unto thee (J), y$&. 
(M, IA, Sh), as 

/ » 9% / A A? A S h/tUt £ • • sA^sx" A • S> f«u S / 

lfiU%«! ^a*> ^^tof -• usJUi'ti * &»y* fi**M i|o**w ui^a^. 

(IA), by Al'Awwain Ibn 'Ukba Ibn Ka'b Ibn Zuhair, 
And I was informed that my beloved Laila the Saudd 
of AlQhamim (the name of a place in AlHijaz, where she 
was wont to abide) was ill; wherefore I arrived from my 

t S r 

family in Egypt visiting her (J), and ****»• (M, IA, Sh), 

as 



( 118 ) 
* 

S^t/hiO yA/ / St S StKatS Ay/ / »i A * / A*Ayy AS 

(M, IA), by AlHfuith Ibn Hilliza (M, EM) alYash- 
kuri (EM, J), Or if ye refuse what ye are asked 
for, then of whom have ye been told that he has pre' 
eminence over us ?, where the «y of the 2nd pers. pi. 

is the 1st obj., and the prop. jJl &i supplies the place of 
the 3rd (J)j these five (IA, Sh) vs. are like the trebly, 

not like the doubly, trans. ^1 (IA) ; [they] are orig. 
trans, to two objs., to the 1st by their own means and 

A / A <v/a£ A.PA A? 

to the 2nd by means of the \~> or ^ , as *$>U«.b {&u\ 

A W/A? hsttlii 3/y " ' ' 

f&U*J> ^2>U>! Hi II. 31. Inform thou them of theirnames. 

A Put* 

And when he informed them of their names, J*> ,Jy*V 
VI. 144. Tell ye me of some knowledge, i. e. knoion matter, 

S (A Ay A / hfitmss 

and fft&^f uiA*? ** f$iJ. XV. 51. ^rarf te« thou them 

' ' $ ' ' 

of the guests of 'Abraham, though thep. is sometimes sup- 
pressed, as LXVI 3. [23] (Sh) : (3) trans, to two objs. 

*A/ ii^ /•/ J> A / A J 

and to the extended adv. [66], as ky &Mf ii^* i^LM 

• A/A«« ' $Ay /// 

j.^Jf I gave l Abd Allah a garment to-day and tJJJ Jjy*. 

//aSj-* • A2#«"° tl*'* 9 /A/ 

&WJf V j£JJ &ll{ ^ Zairf roiierf 'Abd Allah of the gar- 
ment to-night, though some GG disallow extension of the 
adv. in the case of the vs. possessed of two objs. 

§ 435. The trails, and inlrans. are equal in governing 
in the ace. [432] the four objs. beside the direct obj. 



( 119 ) 

aud also such of their coordinates [19] as are governed 

in the ace. by means of the v. : [so that] like as you 

* * * 
govern those in the ace. by means of such as ■—»/■£ , 

l*«*" , and -M , so do you govern them in the ace. by 

• • • • 9* 

means of such as t-^Su and ^>f . 



CH AFTER VI. 



THE PASSIVE. 



§ 436. The pass. v. is that which dispenses with its 
ag., the olj. being put into the place thereof and made 
the subject, while the v. is made to deviate from the 

mould of J*> to J*> (M). The pro-ag. is that of which 
• 

the ag. is suppressed, while it is put into the place there- 
of, its op. being altered to the fashion of J«i or J*&>, or 

it Us t * $ Ax f fi 

J&&* (Sh). Say that \->y*> [in ^.j v>** Zaid was beaten 

(I)] is a j?re£ v. pass., [literally whose ag. is not named,] 

not that it is constructed, [i. e. attributed (DM),] to 

that whereof the ag. is not named, because this is pro- 
s'*/ 
lix and obscure; and that (I, ML) its nom. (ML) ^HJ 

(I) is a pro-ag.) not that it is the obj. of that whereof 
the ag. is not named, because this is obscure aud pro- 
lix and applies correctly to (I, ML) the ace. (ML) 

f ,H 6 f A $ Ay * HP 

U2>jO (I) in Ui&)L> ch} i J Ae ^ Zaid was given a dirham 
(I, ML with the var. t^o ), [and besides] the pro-ag. is 
sometimes not an obj. [438] (Sh). The ag. is suppressed 
[and the v. attributed to the direct obj. or what occupies 
its place (L)] j the initial of the v. is pronounced with 
Damm unrestrictedly, [i. e. whether the v. be pret. or aor. 
(IA),] and the penultimate with Kast in the pret. and 



( 121 ) 

Fatb in the aor. (L, IA, Sh), as J-" j from J*»j and ^5=^. 
from ,<=»**£ (IA), this being what is meant by the alfcera- 
tion of the v. to J*» or Jjtib , and not these two measures, 

for these are possible only in the tril. v. (Sh) ; and [after- 
wards (Sh)] the direct obj. is put into the place of the ag. 
[in having the v. attributed to it (Sh)], and receives all its 
predicaments [20-23], so that it becomes a nom. [after 
having been an ace, an essential after having been a com- 
plement (Sh)],and necessarily posterior to the v. (I A, Sh) 
after having been allowed to precede it (Sh), and may not be 

suppressed : thus JiU y#L JjJ A most excellent gift was 

r*f /A / $ Ay f ' 

given was orig. Jfo rf*- **ij J 1 * Zaid gave a most $c, 
the ag. o-ij having been suppressed, and the direct obj. 

m, /Ay t <»' -»A f 

JiU jxa* put in its place; and when J*J J-& ^ is said, 

.»/ J>H y 

JjU y{A. is not a prepos. obj., but an inch., the enunc. of 
which is the subsequent j)rop. Jjy , i. e. ^> J& , the 
obj. that stands m the place of the ag. being a latent proa. ; 
and you may not suppress J3l> ^jL f so as to say J^» 
(IA). When [the pret. of (L)] the pass. v. is a tril. 
uusound in the £ (L, IA), as JG and £t> , it Js dealt 
with as already mentioned, then lightened by elision 
of the vowel of its lJ , to which the vowel of the £ 

is transported, so that J#> and £# are said, orig. Jf 



i 122 > 

and £*£ , the Kasra being deemed too heavy upon the 
unsound letter following a Damma, though some lighten 
by eliding the vowel of the £ , and say Jy> and %y. (L), 
for more fully] three modes have been heard in its i-i , 

(1) pure Kasr, as J*-" and ($> , (which is the chastest 
dial. (,l),j e. g. 

jor/g-. ^>%s» , the rowel of the » being transferred 
to the ,. after the latter has been deprived of its 
own vowel, /<, a certain /lO) wrapper, fern, as well as 
masc, was ivoven wilfThoo looofs when it was being woven ,* 
it dashes against the thorns and is not pierced (J)}, 

(2) pure Damni, as Jf and £f. , [which is the worst 
tlvd. (J),] that of the Banu Dubair and Banu Fak'as, who 
[however) are [said to bel among the chaste speakers 
of the Banu Asad, e. g. 

u&^X&G sy> btut osxl $ \s*d La& £**£ J^ 1 } &•*!) 

t 9 

\{\) aaid to be by Uu'bn, ("rig. £*> , the Kasra upon the 

$ being deemed too boavy and therefore elided, and the 
,«. then conversed into y . because quiescent and preceded 
by a Damma, Would thai— and will a " would thaf pro* 
lit aught ? — would thai youth were sold and that I bought, 

A/ a /itt 

rho 2nd -•*' beiug \\\ the nom as og. of ^ab , because 



i in ) 

the word va^rf is intended, and the 3rd being corrob. 
of the 1st and having no sul>. or pred. of its own 
(J)], (3) Ishmam, which is the utterance of the i~J witu 
a vowel between Damm and Kasr, [i.e. with a small pre- 
ceding portion of the Damma and a large subsequent 
portion of the Kasra, whence the ^ becomes clear, 

A/ 

which (pronunciation) the Readers name p^ (J),] and 
is apparent only in pronunciation) not in writing, [which 
dial, conies next to the dial, of Kasr in chasteness 

(J),] e. g. Ju*> ,^1 -fU-, U. ; tJ/U ^1 J*;! l>, Ja5 ; 

iUf XL 46., read among the Seven withlshmani in Ja* 
and ja^*, And it was said, earth, swallow up Iky walui, 
and, heaven, cease : and the water was abated. When 
[the pret. of] the pass. tril. v. unsound in the £ is attri- 
buted to a [mobile] pron. of the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd pers., 
you must, according to IM, pronounce the t-i with Kasr 

S A 

or Ishniam, if the unsound letter be ^ , as «^%*«. , not 

S A » ' 

with Damm uw— , lest it be confouuded with the ad. 

voice, which always has Damm [403], as J***! u^**«* / 
offered the slave for sale, and with Damm or Ishmam, if 

St, / , f A* 

the unsound letter be « , as J-** l* \s**> TIiou hast 

/ A 

been sold, slave, not with Kasr uz~*j , lest it be con- 
founded with the act. voice, which always has Kasr, as 

r A £ <" S A 

\~>yA\ ca-jw I sold the garment; according to others, how- 



( 124 ) 
ever, these modes are preferable, but not necessary, Damm 
•with the y and Kasr with the ^g being on the contrary 
allowable. The same license as to Damm, Kasr, or Ish- 
mam, that holds good for the ui of £> , holds good for 

S f 

the i-3 of the reduplicated, such as u--^ , so that you 

S a s 

say k--=>» or u-**- or pronounce with Ishmam (IA). No 
other letter beside the initial of the pret.pass. has Damm, 
unless its initial be an aug. «&> or a conj. Hamza (L): 
when the initial is (L, IA) an aug. wsj (L), [i. e.] the «y 
of quasi-passivity (IA), the second as well as the first 

' * ** r / A y / /m 99 

has Damm (L, I A), as ^f^ from p-f*±> , y*& from 

y~& , and J* jij from Ji&Z (IA) : and when the initial 
is a conj. Hamza, the first and third have Damm (L, IA), 

f H9fi9 / 9ti9 / 9 A9 , A f A • //A 

as ^jlaaXwl , y&S , and $&&] from ^Ja&LtA , ^>JSf i and 

// / A 

^UaJf ; and the same license as to Damm, Kasr, or Ish- 
mam, that holds good for the t-i of £ W , holds good in 
the p<m. for the letter next before the £ of every v. on 

• /•A • ••A 

the measure of J***! orJ*a»l that is unsound in the 

s / A • •* 

* , like X&A and ki&f (IA), [for] when an unsound 
letter comes next after the third, the same lightening is 
necessary as for Ja» and £# (L), so that three modes are 

, A , ^ 

allowable in the uu and J , Kasr (IA), as #£M and iJ*a»f 



( 125 ) . 

* S> A t * *h» 

(L, IA), orig, y£M and oyu! , the Kasra being deemed 
too heavy upon an unsound letter after a Damma, and the 
Damma being therefore elided, and the Kasra transferred 

to its place (L), and Damm, as (IA) ;j^M and 6fi\ 
(L, IA), said by him that lightens the tril. by eliding 

the vowel of its £, and says Jf and £y> (L), and 
Ishniam ; and the Hamza is vocalized with a vowel like 
that of the «y and £ (IA). The pass, may be con- 
structed to any obj. [438] except the 2nd obj. [439] in 

the cat. of o**l* , the 3rd in the cat. of ^^Ae\ , and 

in/ t » 

the causative and concomitate objs. ; you say «j£J «--*>** 

^•A * A^» J>*s t ' 

Zaid was beaten, i-**rpS \ f>*t >*•»• Friday was journeyed 

* / A^ / 

on, .Uewuj* jfu* Two parasangs were journeyed, and 

§ t $A / t 

OJuki jjw ^juw £Tarrf journeying was journeyed (M). 

§ 437. The. predicament of the obj. that becomes 
pro-ag. is the same as that of the ag. • so that like as 
the v. puts only one ag. into the nom., so it puts only 
one obj. into the nom. Consequently (IA) if the v. 
have two or more objs., [and be constructed to one (M), 
you make (this) one the pro-ag., and (IA)] the re3t are 

governed in the ace. [as before (M)], as Ufco ojj ^MA 
Zaid was given a dirham (M, IA), tijlku* i_£*£.f JUs Thy 

"' £** /A * *A/X $ A/ • A* 

brother was known to be departing, j^Wf j#L \p* jjj ^Uf 



Zaid was made to know l Amr to be the best of men (M), 

y ?A»*> / /{ /A ^«^/«/ # y *A y i Ay y 9 

and X)\o ,j9 >£-»M' »»Uf &**»H »•*■>. loJiJ-i \>^o j»^ v_>^«3 

*/ ' / s y t f 

Zaid was beaten with severe beating on Friday before the 
governor in his house (IA). 

§ 438. According to critical judges (Sh), when a 
direct obj. [governed without a p. (M)] is found (M, I A) 
in the sentence (M) after the pass, v., as well as an inf. 
n., adv., and prep, and gen. (IA), the direct obj. must 
be made pro-ag. [in preference to anything else, because 

# Ay J> /\ y A? 

it is sometimes logically an ag. — for in l^j ^^i^\ 

lyjjo I gave Zaid a dinar Zaid is a recipient, and in \->b& 

tj** *H) Zaid fought with '-Amr the act proceeds from 
Zaid and 'Amr, and therefore they share in producing 
the act, so that some even allow this obj. to have its ep. 

in the nom. as ep. of a logical nom., like !»** jj » ^xlo 

* y A»« 

J&bJI Zaid fought with the ignorant 'Amr (Sli) — as 

^jj o^3 jjj ^^ (437) (I A),] and (IA, Sh) nothing else 
may be (M, IA, Sh) made the subject (M) [and thus] 
substituted, [as pro-ag.,] for the direct obj., while it exists 

A' - S ,h,a , t 

(IA, Sh). You say dh?j ^JS J^l £*<* The property was 

j * A / ,- ~^ y < J 

delivered to Zaid and &»U j***^ »— «jlia*j ^L Five hundred 

4 f ■' / y 

t y/l A y 

were reached by thy gift', and do not put JUM and u j***^ 

t ■ Ay y / r» t * 

&U into the ace, makiug jj) ^t and ui/Ub*? the sub- 



i 127 ) 

, ,hJ* Ax * * t s m> s s s S 

jects, and saying JUI jj^ Jl (io and i_X>lLa*j £k 

* £ ' ' s * 

X • A / • •*.*» $ Ax x J 

&U ****** , like as you say JUf ±>\ £** Zaid was 

• x A x x Jm/ x x ui.P 

gwe« tf/ie property aud &L <— »^ i-S^Ua* £b Thy gift 
was made to reach Jive hundred : but if you iutend to 
restrict yourself to the mention of the person to whom 
the delivery is made and of that which is made to reach, 

you say lW.^ ^1 (Jo Delivery was made to Zaid or Zaid 

was the person delivered to and l-£$u<2*j £1> Thy gift was 

' ' ' **, t * 

made to reach. In like manner you do not say lu»J.j <—>;** 
§ * 4 n s ..'*■' A '" **' ^ A *° * '* ' 

Jj.lJ-2- *->y° nor &**a=J! **i nor ;juVJ fUt , but put him 

' * / * 

into the nom. and them into the ace. (M). Such is the 

doctrine of the BB except Akh (I A, Sh) ; aud they hold 
that such instances to the contrary as have been trans- 
mitted are anomalous or otherwise explicable (IA). The 
KK hold that the direct obj., while extant, may be 
replaced, whether it precede or follow, by something 

As 4 s 4 A s s S 4 s 4 A s f/iss S 

else, as 1^.3 ■*£**<& «— >y& \—>y& or L>J>i£ \—>y° \^i) «— >y& , 

x ^ * ' 

and similarly with the rest; and they (IA), the opponents 
[of the former doctrine] (Sh), adduce as proofs the read- 

s s Ax \s X X #»/ X A .P 

ing of Abu Ja'far ^jj—Jo lytf U> LjS ^j 1 ?^ XLV. 13. 

* s X 

(IA, Sh) In order that what thvy have been earning, i. e. [the 
good, or the evil, or (1>)] the requital, [not indeed the inf. n., 
because attribution to it, especially with the direct ob;., 
is weak, but what is given in requital (B),l may be requited 



( 128 ) 
unto a people (K, B), aud 



/Aacf a warner appointed for me from the enemies, by 
means of whom I was preserved from the mischief when 
flying abroad, in both of which exs. the prep, and gen. are 
made pro-ag., and the direct obj. i8 left in the ace. (Sh), 
and the saying [of Ru'ba (J)] 

[where >l^W^ in the place of a nom. is pro-ag. of 

,A.P ' ' £ m • Si <»•* yA<« J>i-o /. j A^ 

*«, and the o. f. is Jo** W /ULJt* &U| .^ J ? (y% e 
^ ' $ * * ' x 

attainment of) eminence has not been made an object of 

anxiety to any but a noble-minded personage, nor has any 

but the possessor of tight direction healed the possessor of 

error of his error; but it is replied that this is a case of 

anomaly or poetic license (J)] . And Akh holds that, wheo 

the direct obj. is preceded by another [obj.], either may 

be made pro-ag., as !uw.j ^UiJf J i_ >yo or <±i), but that 

otherwise the direct obj. must be made pro-ag. as v_ >yi 

2 ^ i Ay <At ' 

♦|,jJJ ^ jjj not 1^3 (IA). When there is no direct 
obj., the adv. [of time or place (Sh)], the prep, aud gen., 
or the «>/. ». is made pro-ag. (IA, Sh): [for] the rest of 
the objs. are equal in precedence, when they occur 
together ia the sentence, as regards correctness of COn- 
strut tion to whichever of them you please; you say 



( 129 ) 

5a«* / ti th S A*> /«/ * t 6 t A h>" A/ m 3hS 

was treated with intense contempt on Friday be/ore the 
governor, if you make the prep, together with theg-en. the 

^•A j> r>*> *h, 

subject; while you may make &**»M ff„, or any other, 
the subject, and leave the rest in the ace. (M) : but in the 
case of each it is stipulated that it be suitable for being 
pro-ag., as Sx»ssJl f,^> )*** and ojo^. \^>y& V^ an( * 
**i}i >• Zaid was passed by* whereas the aplastic adv., 

r t t t 

i. e. such as keeps to the ace., like fit** wben it means 
at the daybreak of a particular day, and i^Sisk* , is not 

t -»A ' t » 

suitable, and therefore you do not say l5uJ.« ^fk?- or 
$**- <~+f) [18], lest you exclude them from their settled 
adherence to the ace. [64] ; nor are the aplastic inf. ns., 
like Sil\ oU* [41], which may not be made nom. for the 
reason given above in the case of the adv. j nor is such 
an adv., or inf. n., or prep, aud gen., as does not afford 

i Kr t 

a material [25] sense, so that you do not say esJ»j #<* 

§ A * f * t t 9 ' 

nor t^yc ^yi nor )\o ^ j^h-t because that does 

t t t 

not afford a material sense (IA). Exs. of the inf. n. are 

% * / 4 * ht S(fl t 9 t t 

iJA.f. &3B& yyd\ J j>£» |k>U LXIX. 13. And when one 

* 9t s 9 A // 

single blast shall be blown in the trump, and &$ ^ac «*» 

§ A t t A A /A." • 9 A • ' x , 

iji. 6mL\ ^ II. 173., [i.e. ybJf ^ /^, since tie fe 



( 13Q ) 

t A S i" tt fit tt fi /Ki 

not self 'trans., nor is s iS &i\ ta**i. q. &$j> valid, but 8&M 
(K, B),] i. e. U ^«* , s^Ji* being a met. forthe »«/". »., -4«tf to 
whomsoever some remission shall be made from his brother'. 

2 t tt t 

exs. of the adv. are X J^-*) ft*° Ramadan was fasted in, 

* t tt * a ^ / t to 

or kept as a fast, orig. ^J^*) ,_f^ «•'** » an< i (j - ^ 

t s *i t /i 

lX»U| The/quarter before thee was sat in; for that -Uf 
is one of the plastic advs. that may be made nom. is 
proved by the saying [of Labid (EM)] 

tfi tit tfiK t t t th<" t At fiS% t t lit A t Us*-" t A. ft* 

m tfiAt t 

where £*l t^&L is a smos/. for UJ% which is in the nom. 

' t» 

asaniwcA., [(or) is enunc. of a suppressed inch. Ua> (EM, 

A t AyA<" t 

BS), the jjrop. being expos, of ^Aa.^aJ| Uf* (EM),] and 
jJ! u- wiB," is the enunc. of thewicA. [^ ], the cop. being 

£*ii t 

the /won. in 6j\ , [which relates to Uf (EM, N), And 

t 
she became (448) so terrified that each of the two places of 

danger, she was thinking that it was meet for dread, the 

quarter behind her and the quarter before her, or (they were) 

the quarter $c. (N)] : and an ex. of the [prep, and] gen. 

tA ■ A / AB t At mS A A t A t 

is t$JU iii.it V Jj* Jf Jj^J Ay VI. 69. And if it 

' # ' z 

ransom with all ransoming, it shall not be accepted from, 

IgJU being in the position of a nom., [the v. being 



( 131 ) 

attributed to it, not to the pron. of Jo* Jf , which is 

D 

in the ace. as an «*«/". n. (K, B)] j because if a latent pron. 

A / AJ? sA 

were supplied in ia-jj as pro-ag. t l$JU being then in the 
position of an aec, that jprora. would relate to Jj* Jf , 
which is an accident, it, i. e. all ransoming, shall not be 
accepted from it, whereas accidents are not accepted, but 

$ A / /A t /US / 1 

only substances, [while in J±e t^JU ia.£i Vj II. 45. 

A / ' 

the JiA* is the random, iVbr ransom be accepted from it 

«/«J AM* 

(K, B);] but if **».£> be taken in the sense of J*«i , it 

shall not be agreed to from it, that will be right (Sh). 

§ 439. With two different objs. (M), [i.e.] in the 

cat. of J*A [432] (IA), either the 1st or 2nd obj. may be 

f i9 § A/ f S 

made pro-ag. (M, I A), as &«*. i*ij ^^-m*" Zaid was clad with 

is* s«a/ ' in, , i\f 

a coat or &*». !u>j) ^ coat teas put on Zaid, and jj** ^^ktff 

U2> o '.4»w was gitrcn a dirham or *B> wi Ij** A dirham 

teas given to 'Amr (IA), though it is better to make 
what is logically an ag. the subject, namely the recipient 
and the wearer (M) ; unless ambiguity would result from 

making the 2nd the pro-ag., as in !>** !t*£J us-**ia*f / gottt 
* Amr to Zaid, in which case the 1st must be made pro* 

a t>t 4 s* / aI 

agp., as !>** t*A5 us" 3 *' ^^ was presented with 'Amr, and 
not the 2nd, lest ambiguity result,' because either of them 
might be recipient, contrary to the 1st case ; but the EK 



(132 ) 
hold that, when the 1st obj. is det. and the 2nd indet, the 
1st must he made pro-ag., and the 2nd may not be, as 

J»/A $A/ f a! **t </A 

l&yS d^j tS Iacf , and not IlJjj f 2 ^ • When the 2nd of 
two objs. is orig. an enunc, as in the cat. of ^j& [440], 
or when the v. is ^ra7z«, to three ofi^s., like g$ and 
its sisters [434], the general opinion is that the 1st obj., 
and not the 2nd in the eat. of ^ , nor the 2nd or 3rd 
in that of fW [436], must be made the prO'Og., as ^ 
UiS 043 2o*rf was thought to be standing, not J6 fi±£j , 
and t*-;*— • l-^*«/ "^ij fkt ^airf toaw made to know thy 
horse to be saddled, not fc*.j«** i_ C-^s fjj£ nor cX-j* fjj j 
-)«m : but IM and some others hold that the 1st oi/. in 
the cats, of ^^ and fM need not always be made the 
pro-ag., but that the condition is [only] that there be no 

§ ~s * H/ a p * Kt , A t 

ambiguity; so that you say f% lo^j ^ and k*ij JLsf 

1 A P t fit* ' * 

^ t-Xw^i 77<^ / JO r*e was made known to Zaid to be 
saddled, [which Z apparently allows,] some even allowing 

i /A P / ftf lit 

-y~» i-&»f \iH) ? whereas if ambiguity result, the 1st 

«» A* & P 

must be made pro~ag., so that you do not say fujj J& 
yp* , if 'Amr be the 2nd obj., Zaid was thought to be 
1 Amr y nor l2lioL# jJtL fuij J*! Zaid was made to know 
KhUlid to be departing. 



CHAPTER VII. 



THE MENTAL AND THE TRANSMUTATIVE OR 
FACTITIVE VERBS. 



§ 440. J2> and its sisters form a division of the vs. 
that annul inchoation. They are of two kinds, mental 
and transmutative [or factitive] (IA). The mental vs. are 
£(1) such as indicate certainty, of which IM mentions 5 

(IA),] J } [not from j] (Sh)], ^ [noti. q. J^'(Sh)], 

aa>« [not i. q. ^'f or 0*2* (Sb), £;0 (IM, Sh) in an 

insignificant rffaZ. (Sh),and ^«J (IM, Sh) i. q. L\ (IA, Sh), 

which keeps to the imp. (IM, Sh), and (2) such as indicate 

probability, of which IM mentions 8 (IA)], Jk>*, ^ 

[not i. q. ^ (Sh)], l~L, f) (M, IM, Sh), I*' (IM), 

!»=». [not i, q. *«s> (Sh)], J*». [like o££*f (IM)], and 

A s 

c^-S> , which keeps to the imp. (IM, Sh), when they are in 
the sense of knowledge of the thing as being of a certain 
quality, as Uj>T cJtLf ts^+U I Ar«ew tf% brother to bege- 
nerous, f j1 ^ &Xilj / believed him to be, or regarded him 



»ti/ J fi yj 



as, liberal, and I&&=J| fo f jjj ia>^ I found, or discov- 
crerf, Zot«? fo fe scornful. They are prefixed to the prop, 
of the iwc/t. and enunc, when the intention is to make it 
proceed upon douht or certainty j and they put both terms 



( 134 ) 
into the ace. as ohjs. [533], though hoth still retain their 
original conditions and circumstances (M). [Thus] they 
are trans, to two objs. (IA, Sh), of which the 1st is orig. 
an inch, and the 2nd an cnunc. (Sh): whereas other 

$ Ay / P * 

mental vs. are in trans., as l>£J ^*a. Zaid teas cowardly ; 

* A/ a a • 

pr £ra?2s. to one oi/., as Jijo) ift-^f / disliked Zaid (IA). 
The following are c«. of the [mental (Sh)] «s. (IA, Sh) 
denoting certainty: — the saying [of Khidash Ibn Zuhaic 
(J)] 

t S B A a*/ A?./ #•/ / a A t uB // t<t yi-o a hit 

SO^;. f S>;#!; &J;ba# % s'jt> J* ;aT| &U| oo!^ 

[/ A;«tw God to fo *ne greatest of everything in resource, 
hecause what He wills is, and what He wills not is not, 
and the most numerous of them in hosts (J)]; though 
sometimes, [but rarely (J),] it is used in the sense of 

.ifc , as lw y> 5{ J^ Ivj.*** &>^ji *§jf LXX. 6. 7. Ferilij 
they think it to be fur ; and We know it to be nigh, 
[which combines the two usages (J)]: 

A ; / /M/ t asthma * ,h^3 sSK t 

* t 

strips A w *° Bt s /rt/ 

Jf y i; 3,-M ^*l ; ^ lXaIJ 

tt ' ' %. 

(IA) ■/ &»e*« tf'ee to #e */<e one thai lavishes kindness} 
wherefore the incentives of desire and hope sped icith me 
to thee ; though sometimes, but rarely, it occurs in the 

stiasaaa*t/is 

$ense of opinion, as (J) \sJJ*i* .a^UL: ^\i LX. 10„ 
And if ye deem them to be believers (Sh, J): VII. 100. 



f 135 ) 

[525] (TA) [and] J ; il y& MM oJL* S^iaJ LXXIIL 20. 

* * * 

(Sli) Ye shall find the recompense of it icilh God to be 
better than the goods of the present life, jfc being .a 

A s ,st 

rorrob. [135], or a distinctive [pron.], because ^* J**f 
is like the det., and for that reason refuses the art. 
[166] (B): 

* * »»x/A,o je • A^> 3 • A /»fO/ /i>.^ • A/«^>3 /A<« x .» 

jjua. stiJO UbUXtfJ .U $ LaxXiti .»# b t&gaH .e'jM ut*>\J 

(IA, Sh) Thou hast been known to be faithful to the com- 
pact, l Unca: therefore be thou tin grudgingly envied; 
for to be ungrudgingly envied for faithfulness is praise- 
worth u, where e>)*3 governs two objs. in the ace, the 1st 
being the uu of the 2nd pers. sing, masc, which is the 
proktg. (J); though generally gf) is trans, to one obj. 

s s -P A X • 

by means of the ^> , as \<±£> ks-^o I knew such a thing; 

A» J ftt it 

while in &> ffUj>\ Nj X. 17. A T or would lie have ac- 
(juaintt'd 1/on therewith it is trans, to (Sh, J) one ofy'. (J), 
the iȣ and - (Sh), by means of the Hamza of transport 
(Sh, J), and to one by means of the ,_> (J) : the saying 
[of Ziyiid Ibn Sayyar (FA, J)] 

A/»^x £ * 2 f° A f A /t /!»*/. /«/ AiX> /»/ AS//- 

t ' * f X * f * t ' 

(I A, Sh) Know thou the medicine of the soul to be the sub- 
jugation of its foe; wherefore strive thou to the utter- 
most with subtlety in the practice of idles and duplicity^ 



( ISC ) 

AC// A'A 

where *i« , i. q. *M , [and aplastic, not being used sate 
in the imp. (J),] governs two objs. in the ace. (FA, J); 
though generally it is trans, to ^ and its conj. (Sh, FA, 
J), which supply the place of its two objs. (J), as 

/A^> A fn?at / A . ^ / 3 ? / « J / Sf A." * 9 t AS// 

/// // */ / 

(Sh), by Sariya Ibn Zunaira, iTwow iAow, O Apostle of 
God, that thou art . overtaking me, and that a threat 
from thee is like the seizing by the hand (SM, Jsh), whence 

tit / Sw/sAuis'3/ £S AS 5 ? AS// * *•*/ 

' 5 ' $ / / / • 

[by Zuhair (FA),] .4nflJ / soirf, Know thou that the game 

m f 

has carelessness ; and, if thou neglect not it, i.e. this &*f°) 

/ 

precept, verily thou wilt be the killer thereof (FA, J): 

/ / l\f<o £// 

whereas, if it be i. q. »»->U»3nJ| JU3 Learn thou arithmetic 

* V 
and the like, it is trans, to one [06/.], and is plastic ; and 

the difference between them is that this is a command to 
acquire knowledge in the future through diligent prose* 
cution of the means thereto, while the former is a com- 
mand to acquire it in the present by means of what is 
mentioned (J>. The following are ess. of those denoting 

t ti * A/ 3 A 

probability: — c^M fjjj ia-ii I fancied Zaid to be thy 

/ 
/ / s • 

brother (IA) : J&> and Jtb are alike in governing two 
objs. in the ace, as 

X ff * 3 1 A." X O f » C / / // ,».» A si * * 

J Jib &~saJ| .cf. &i JI*b£ # ^U# *tf$ J -*,*; oJ** 



( 137 ) 
[by AnNSbigha adhDhubySnl,] And my tents have 
alighted in an inaccessible height, wlierein the pastor of 
the beasts of burden is fancied to be a bird, or having 

A * it 

their place supplied by ^ or ^1 and its con]., as 

£$$ .* * * "teJf Jf J(a»f » # i^w>U Aasm «2>iA3U uuj*a» 
* / t % i ' ? ' 

by the Hudhall (BS) Abu Dhu'aib (Jsh), So tfwtf / have 
lingered after them in a weary life: but I think that 
I am overtaking, following them (DM, Jsh) ; sometimes 
it denotes certainty, as in the saying [of AnNaniir Ibn 
Taulab asSahSbl (J, Jsh)] 

(IA) 'JTAe women so /air *Aa£ £Aey raced not the aid of 
ornaments called me their paternal uncle, while I knew 
myself [446] to have a name. {What! shall the name 
be discarded,) and I not called thereby, when it is my frst 

name?, which is rare (J): !)}$** ^y^f k i-XUs^ ^Sy 
XVII. 104. And verily I think thee, O Pharaoh, fo be out* 
cast from good (Sh); sometimes it denotes certainty, as 
«J1 1?| &llf ^ UU V J\f^>l IX. 119. (IA) And they 
ftraezo <Aa£ there was no taking refuge from the wrath of 
God save in supplicating Him for pardon (8) ; [thus] it may 
be interpreted in ^oKM ^ &U&V ^ XXVIII. 38. 
as denoting certainty, And verily I know him to be, or 
am sure that he is, of the liars, like 



( 136 > 

S / *h<B u sAtO *£* ft 3 t» A -»a£ 5 * A.P/ * A*/ 

(K), by Duraid Ibn AsSimma, .4ra«? I said to them, make 
ye sure of [the coming of (N)] #00 thousand [horsemen 
(N)] completely armed, the chiefs of whom will be clad in 
the Persian coat of chain-mail, another ex. whereof is 

p#j j»tt# ^f ^yisu ^JA\ II. 43. (T, N) H'ho expect, 

or Amoto _/br certain, that they must meet their Lord, 

where the codex of Ibn Mas*ud has ^y^H (K, B); and 

it is as though ^^\ , resembling knowledge in prepon- 
derance, were unrestrictedly applied thereto, because the 
sense of expectation is implied; says Aus Ibn Hajar 

J) »/ * S 1" / t>t / f * * 9&i Ul *ti° t It/ A ■» 29b /hit 

Then I discharged it, making sure of the expectation that 
it would be penetrating what was between the heads of the 

ribs next the belly, reaching the vitals (B): B^wsw V 

t>9* 3 s 

J3 Syi* XXIV. 1 1. Account ye it not to be an evil for you 
(Sh); sometimes it denotes certainty, like the saying [of 
LabSd(J)] 

/ • Ah • • 9 tl*°* *"&iO 9 K * 

ft //*{ JH/HM' f t # // 

lEtf ^1 i^Jf U to! bJ> ; 

[JT knew with ce> -odnty piety and generosity to be most 
goodly merchandise as regards profit when man becomes . 
heavy in death (J)] : the saying [of Abu Dhu'aib (J)] 



( 139 ) 

&? J^' ***** J**r J* 

h*S0 /«/ /A A^» S h/ * in/ 

JgsaJU u/j*^ JscJf «&-£*£ Jl» 

(I A) And if thou think me to be such that I was wont to 
be characterized by folly among you, verily I have bought 
sense after quitting thee in exchange for folly, where **j 
occurs in the sense of opinion, and for that reason go- 
veros two objs, in the ace, the 2nd being the prop, of ^ 
in the place of an ace. as tbe 2nd obj., which [construc- 
tion] is rare (J), its governing two ns. being confined to 
poetry (BS), [and] 

/ / 3 / A / ^AS' /S A • O & ft K / A • tt 

LwO i_*oj ><* ^*JI l*il # £**»> uwJj Isul& JLX^gj 

(Sh), by Abh Umayya alHanafl, #/*e thought me to be an 

old man, I not being an old man. The old man is only 

he that crawls along with crawling (Jsh), [also] an ex. of 

t // 
the rare [construction] (ML) ; generally **j is trans, to 

a? 32 

[ ^1 or (Sh)] yjf and its conj. (Sh, ML), which supply 

the place of its two objs. (J), as ^ ^1 !^af ^ji^Jf **j 

I ***w LXIV. 7. They which have disbelieved have asserted 
[below] that they shall not be raised from the dead and 

jJt o***5 **} [below] (Sh); it does not occur otherwise 

l\mtt 

in the Revelation [see XXVIII. 62. in §443], and £** 

S> 

AS 

is like it in this [construction] (ML); **yi is assertion (K, 
B, BS) of knowledge (K, B), truly or falsely (BS), whence 



( 140 ) 



the saying of the Prophet wJjCIf «jJo« Ij**} C 2 °] 0^)» 
and [for that reason (B)] is trans, to two objs., [like 

*A A 

pWI, as 





S* y 


J** 


Ay 
t*9 




s*y 


-r Ay 


* / 


A y 


AJA? Ayy 


* *y 



(K), by Jarir, And that he that has lived, Umm Malik, 
dies; nor do I assert thee to be in a place of separation 
from that (N),] the two objs. being, however, replaced [in 

A ? 

LXI V. 7.] by ^1 and its annexure (K, B) ; it is gener- 
ally used in what is false, as LXIY. 7., sometimes in 
what is true, as in the saying of Abu Talib addressing 
the Apostle 

y 5s Sy y fit y * A y t »/« i y *&i y A y yy ««/// 

y ' * y 

^nd /Aow Aarf summoned me, and asserted that thou art a 
faithful counsellor; and assuredly thou hast spoken truth 
and been there trustworthy and the saying of Kuthayyir 

£3y // y «8y f 3«" * A y f '/•/ ■» ASyy <uS» A /// A yy 

^frarf «Ae Aos asserted that I have altered since I was with 
hei : but who is he, O ( Jzza, that alters not (BS) : the 
saying [of AnNu'man Ibn Basblr asSahabl (J)] 



y yAyAy^ Ph* // 



JUS J yJS^ Jy*\ 4**Z Ui 

r f * y 

A *A«o y P y /*;»« yS <y 

^j*l| ^ ^ ^jjf UiCI, 



( 141 ) 
(IA) Then think thou not the friend to be thy partner 
in affluence ; but the frimd is thy partner in destitution, 

where OJ*j occurs in the sense of opinion, and for that 

reason governs two objs. in the ace. • this is frequent, but 

its occurrence in the sense of i^^a. with Fath of the 

*- , in which case it is trans, to one [oJ/.], is rare, as 

, ,h*> S A s s 

JUI kSAiiJrf / numbered the cattle (J): the saying [of 
Tarolm Ibn Abi Mukbil (J)] 

* 2 S # hs S A &si 3 t s si lis si 3 hi 3 A J A f 

/ / Ji ' <S 

[ Fcr% / teas icorc^ ft) £Am& (J, Jsh), or believe (Jah), *45» 
K Amr to be a trustworthy man, until misfortunes befel us one 
day, where it occurs in the sense of opinion (J) or belief 
(Jsh), and therefore governs two objs. in the ace. ; this 

is frequent, its occurrence in the sense of ii-as trans, to 

hi" s hs 3 A s s 

one (obj.) being rare, as &U| u»x> ^^aaa., i. e . I directed 

■P s s s 

my course to the House of Qod by pilgrimage (J)] : )JUi^. 

# S I A 2*> 0S hS s $•& SS r»ss*4*> 

ISUI >*a.yi oL* ffr ^.JJl &XJ1U! XLIIL 18. And they 
have believed the angels, who are the servants of the 

h* 3s,h 

Compassionate, to be females, [i.e. pSywucf (Sh); IM 

sss ' C S 

restricts J**- by its being i. q. <****! , in order to exclude 

s 

\y* s $ i.q. )if° (below), a transmutative, not a mental v. 
(IA)] : and the saying [of Abu Hammam asSalull (J)] 

s s %sh^ Ass 3 / s st hie his 



( 142 ) 

(I A, Sh) Then I said, Protect thou me, Abu Malik; and 
if not, then think thou me to be a perishing man (J), [or] 

A * & 9 ttt 

believe thou me (Sh); •— «i> i.q. ^jlfc is, contrary to **j 

*Stt 

and fl«? , generally trans, to two plain oljs., as in this 
verse, and seldom governs ^ and its conj., so that H 

9 ft # ht s i A • 

even says that ^ I Jjj ^1 ^*£> is a solecism ; [the cor- 

htt u»£ At • // J3i£ 

rect expression is not is^l*j ^J>\ ^& or J.** &>! , hut 

* A// A/ t tt S bt 

usJbJ ^i*3> or J*» &*S> , the attached pron. being affixed 
to it, as says Abii Dahbal alJumahi 

; , / /»' S J 3 J>/ St t & t$ A*A SyAr" *,. 

ouT -ujJ! ,»! &o &I * »^a*> j.^1 j^l» tj*f ^^a> 

V ' i ' ' ' ' 

CD), i q- \£y** an d lS 5 ^*^"' ' ^ ec ^ ow i or flo^, ye we 
to 6e a man of you that has lost his he-camel, and that has 
a compact of companionship. Verily the compact, its 
obligation is great (T), whence too the saying of 'Urwa 
Ibn Udayya 

/ m SK<" t *% S A / t t 

p sti& hth<& mt t A t J> KtKZ 



Oy0( i*y^l •*&" j*^ tsJLji'l 

t t ' * 

St t Shi* ht P h tt A * 

t t / t t 

p Ztt m t h fihiO At * h t t 

yj&S ^U^J/j ^ ^UJ ^J*d 



f # q. Jjrf and ^y*** ^ , When I find the heat of love 
to be in my liver, 1 advance towards the water-skin 



( 143 ) 
of the people, laving myself with cold water. Beckon, 
or Account, thou me to have cooled with the cold water 
only tlie outside thereof} for who is a match for a fire 
that burns upon the bowels f (D);] but he forgets the 
saying [addressed to ( Umar Ibn AlKha$tab by two 
whole brothers, to whom he had adjudged nothing while 
awarding a third to the two uterine brothers (DM),] 

s S * ' /£ 3 £ A • 

I^Ua- ^Jf Ubf ^jl w~2> Suppose, or Orant, thou that our 
father was a he-ass, [and make thou us to share by reason 
of tKe relationship of our mother (DM),] and the like 

3 i 

(ML), [for] the occurrence of the uncontracted ^\ and 
its conj. supplying the place of the two obj's. [is allowable, 

U/ArO ^A* * s s f / / •? 3 S A / 

though] rare, like ^f J J&* 1^ JS Ubf ^f ^ 
Grant, or Suppose, thou that our father was a stone cast 

into the sea (J); it is an imp. from ^^^ [aor.~\ v--^, 
orig. He gave without a return, afterwards extended, so 

• / fine * / * *f f 

that they say i-*f^ *M! l J^ s> ) [below], i.e. ,5*!*^, 
which is reducible to the 1st sense, because the meaning 
is God make me to become a gift in thy ransom!) says 
'TJkaiba alAsadi 

* / si* t\e s s / s s * / * A ss s £3* /A #/ 

Then grant, or suppose, or hold, thou it to be a nation 
that has perished unheeded. Tazid rules them, and Abu 
Yazid (T); [so that] it [still] contains, as it were, the 

sense of the imp. from w-*^ (D): i^-fc from &*2> is 



( H4 ) 

X x hfO f Ax A x 



likewise trans, to two objs., as JU| |i*j»j »_J& Qive thou 



Ax x th*> 



Zaid the property or tw.y JUJf u-J& Give <Ao« ife pro- 
perty to Zaid, and is common; but «_**&> from &ax&> is 

(* Ax Ax 

/raw*, to one, as li^ij «-r* a) 'Stowrf tfAow £w awe of Zaid, 
and is rare (J). The mental vs. are plastic and aplastic : 

A x ASxx Ax A 

tlie aplastic are u-^fc and J*2 i. q. JA , these two 
being used Only in the imp. ; the plastic are all the rest, 
these being used in the pret., aor., imp., act. part., pass. 

*,-XS*AxJ>AXx £ fi$ a * 

part., and inf. n., as l*5G> J^j \^JSSs» and ^tb\ and ^S» 

& x x£ * i»t S si $ .P A x $ Ax 

and ^U& Uf , UG iM u))** 21 * °^3 ^"^ ** suc ^ *^ a * **• 

X 

father is thought to be standing, where the 1st obj. becomes 

S* |»»X # Ax X IV X A .PA X 

worn, as the pro-ag., and Uil» |o^j uXUfc ** cs^cp* 

X X X X 

J wondered at thy thinking Zaid to be standing, with the 
same government and other predicaments as hold good for 
the pret. The transmutative (IA), [otherwise called] the 
factitive (Sh), vs. are also trans, to two objs. orig. inch. 

'S/ !*A x u> i" S AS x 

and enunc. : they are [ ;i-» , as tju^l ^xtaJl ctx^-o / twaefe 

XXX ?^// ^ xAx x x 

*Ae cfey to become an ewer (IA) ;] J.**- , as >U3> SUJUaoi 
UktL* XXV. 25. And make it to be as scattered atoms of 

xxx siuo /// 

o*ms£ seen in the rays of the sun ; [ t^&j , as &U| ^^a*^ 



XX Xm X 



vȣ| J3 (above), i. e. ^jA^ , 6?oa* ma&e me to become thy 

X X 

ransom! (IA);] **==J, [the cw in which is rod., as in 



( 145 ) 

ft *A$ Ass / A t, 

£*j (K), as SfiS &4* c^iiiaXJ XVIII. 76 Assuredly thou 

* ft 

wouldst have appointed a recompense to be for it (IA), 

thus read by Iba Kathir and the two BB (B)] ; Jisuf , 

ft th t t t /3 t t t *i 

[ J*X5| from Jaw , like £yl from £y , not from *=>»\ 
(K, B) according to the BB (B),] as *&f\ &*H <^b3\ } 
U*l£. IV. 124. And Qod took Abraham to be a friend $ 



imSy , [when made to imply the sense of fr*> (K, B, on 

II. 16),] as j«u J> -^j JJU*> *^a*> VSy) XVIII. 99. 

» ' * * 

And We will suffer some of them on that day to surge 

tumultously among others (IA, Sh), whence [too] tfffy 

t»» 

tojUSb ^ II. IB. And maketh, or causeth, them to be in 

* ' tl>» AJ> 

darkness, \prig. «yt*M2> ^ Jb , the two terms being put 

* tt 
into the ace. by i-Sy when prefixed (K),] aod 

/ A hiOs ft t A 2 t A sAs Sr A ft t w r& tt t tfh ttt 

} t 1 1 7" s 

(K, B), by 'Antara, ^»rf Aave / made to become the prey 
of the wild beasts / They seize him ; they gnaw the sym- 
metry of his fingers and the wrist (EM, N), and 

Mt*tt ' t t S/ fSbi/t 

hP t A SA»o / S A s A^>s A/A-a x ? 

(IA), by Fur'an Ibn AlA'raf, ,4nd / reared him until, 
token I rendered him, or made him to become, the com- 



rode of the people, and his mustache was independent of 

being wiped, i. e. he could wipe it himself, though, as 

/$ ***** 

some say (J), l^J is a d. s. to tbe 8 in &&y , I left him 

the comrade, because, though it is literally det., [as pre. to 

a det, it is logically indet., since (J)] he does not mean 



* wro * / a , 99a tt 



any + <f themselves, but merely Jl^yi* &*M b*» &*iy 

t t t t 7 

H * <!> W / /«/ A.Px &9t A/ 

(T, J); and o>, as (IA, Sh) !;ltf -CJLit a* J3^>^> V 

ftAw*^. II. 103. TAa* Mey mtg-A* render you, or cause 
you to fecome, after your believing, unbelievers, out of envy 
(Sh), [and] 

t 9 9 9t t A X x /A Ax «•» // A 9 t t t A*"> XX 

t 9 t lu* & 9 t 9 9 & tt 6 t & e° S 9 1 9 9 St* 

(IA), by 'Abd Allah Ibn AzZabir alAsadl, The newly 
befalling mishaps smote the women of the family of Harb 
with a certain quantity thereof, whereat they lamented 
with great lamentation; and it caused their black hairs to 
become white, and caused their white faces to become black 

(J), [though] tjl&* is [otherwise said to be] a d. s. to the 
pron. of the 2nd pers. pi., might cause you to apostatize 
as unbelievers (B). 



§ 441. ls-^I is used in the same way as us~Jli&; 
t 

# , A B * Ax 9 $ 

so that one says tSUoL* f jj j ei-^1 I thought Zaid to be 
t t 

> / *«/ tf 
departing, ^2>te \y+* ^1 / think *Amr to be going away, 



( li? ) 
and LJts. \^i ^y ^1 Where thinkest thou Bishr to be 
sitting f And in interrogation exclusively they say J>** 

s> /tip **/ p p/ # / p Ar p pti p p, n, stt 

$&*** I joj JyD , Ui>i3 s^c jyC! , and JyS fy i Jfl 

9 * f> p ?h, ■& p , M s* S pi 

IaILjL* \j+e , in the sense of ^J£> , as £*! i%*.f [below] 
and 

• J/ A / t i >a p p, ,,, , *,t , p , p 3 *> St 

u» » av ^loJf j^s ^yC** * ji j,« .^ J^-yi w 

As for the departure, it will be before the day after to- 
morrow. Then when thinkest thou the dwelling will 

unite us? (M). The property of Jl? , when followed by 

f h/ , , 
a prop., is that the latter should be imitated, as ojj JS 

i s KP §l\t if>/ P p,i 

ff lfr U yft Zaid said, K Amr is departing and ojj Jjjuf 

$**** Sayes* /Aow, Zaid is departing?, being, however, 

in the position of an ace. as obf. [1]: but J6' may be 

treated like ^Jb , putting the inch, and enunc. into the ace. 
as o5j*. The generality of the Arabs (IA), others than 

the Banu Sulaim (Sh), treat J6 like ^jk, [as regards 
the government of the two objs. iu the ace. (Sh),] only on 

9 Pf 

conditionthattheo.be [Jj& (Sli), aor. (IA) wirf.] 2nd 
per*, [sing. masc. (IA)], preceded by an interrog., and uot 
separated therefrom except by an adv., [prep and] gen., 
or obj., as 



XM ** y £fih*& J> ^y 



u—ti'j p*6 -f j * « a ,> . * u-^yi joijyf j^s? ^x* 



( 148 ) 

(IA, Sh), by Hudba (J, Jab) Ibn AlKhasbram at'Udhrl 
( Jsh), where it is contiguous (Sh), When thinkest thou the 
quick-pacing young she-camels will carry to me Umm 

Ksdm and Kasim? (J, Jsh), ISttai* fajj JfZ ;f«*M ^ 
(IA), 

f 9 A y /««^> 9 9/ hi /> h / ft / t >a 9 9t h9 / h/$ 

where it is separated by the adv. (Sh), After distance 
thinkest thou the dwelling voill bring together my union 
with them, or thinkest thou the distance to be ordained f 
(SM, Jsh), and 

t ft 9 hi / i 9h// u t9 / 9 9/ # &9$ 

// f # * 

(IA, Sh), by Kumait Ibn Zaid alAsadi (J), where it is sepa- 
rated by the obj. (Sh), Ignorant thinkest thou the Bonis 
Lu'ayy, i. e. Kuraish, to be, by the life of thy father, or 
feigning ignorance? (J): if, however, it [be other than 

* / 9 9/ 

an aor., as J«* , or be an aor. without a <&> , as Jyu ,. 

9 9/ / hi 

or be not preceded by an interrog,, as J& cx-»f , or 
(IA)] be separated [from the interrog.] by anything else 
(IA, Sb) than an adv. or [prep, and] gen. or reg. of its 
own, it does not govern two objs. in the aec, according to 
these [Arabs] (IA), [but] imitation is requisite (Sh), as 

S / A 9 $ h/ 9 9/ / fiti 

^U aiU tiJ) JJC u»iJ{i Dost thou say, Zaid is departing? 
(IA, Sh); whereas, when the conditions meutioned are 
combined, the inch, aud enunc. may be made ace. as objs. 

9 .0/ 

of Jjiu, or nom. by imitation (IA). But the Banfe 



( U9 ) 

* AS 

Sulaini (M, IA, Sh) make the whole cat. of irJS like 

$ Ay * ' ' 3 * 

\£sX&> (M) : [for they] treat J6 like Jb as regards the 
government of the two obj's. in the ace. without restriction 
(IA, Sh), i. e. whether the conditions mentioned be found 

sS A * / A* 

in it or not, as ti&k* Jo Ji' Think thou this one to be 
affectionate, whence the saying [of an Arab of the desert, 
who caught a \~~o and brought it to his wife (J, Jsb),J 

• .> ES • 

(IA), where J£ is treated like iJ jl& in government [not 
in sense (J)], She pronounced (and 1 was an intelligent 
man) this to be, by the life of Ood, one of the metamor- 



* «/ A 



phosed children of Israel, ^Sy^ being a dial. var. of 

J ft A ' 5 / 

JxMjwt (J } Jsh), because she believed the l_jU«^ to be 
metamorphosed children of Israel, or, as some say, in 

**/ S A9 

both, (S/ie thought (J); so that they allow \<±ij ut-JS 

* /«' J AJ 

iSUaiU , while others hold imitation to be necessary, e>JS 

s 
§ *A9 i At 

^UoJU ojj (Sh). 

fib* J» A -9 h f* A / 

§ 442, Except ut^*«a. , t~JL£» , c^-^j > [ aQ d u^a> ,] 
they have other meanings, according to which they do 
not exceed one obj. (M). ^ [from &Jfe» Suspicion (M)] 

i.q. j^t , as in ^jft*^ i-r^f ^ y& Uj LXXXL 24, 



* * * * 



( 150 ) 

[with tbe &> in the codex of 'Abd Allsb, and thus alter- 

natively read by the Apostle (K), i. e. *%U> (IA, K, B), 

is I ' 

from SJJb , Nor is he (Muhammad) by reason of what 

he announceth of the unseen obnoxious to suspicion (K, 

* A/ 2 Ax f f i f t $ 

B),] is trans, to one obj., [as Ijjj oJULla» JU ^ *v±* 
Property of mine was wanting; so I suspected Zaid (Sh)] : 
similarly J* i. q. lJ^« [is trans, to one ofy'. (IA)], as 

SA/ • .P/A/ • AJ /Si .P.» A A4s/a£ .HaV 

laa ^^bj v jjci^i ^y^ ^ ^yi.! 6ii\ } XVI. 80. 
.4nrf GW hath brought you forth from the bellies of your 
mothers, not knowing anything (IA, Sh) : and g\) from 
^(^ , as tiif J»- &fty.^ y>\ ^i) Abu Hanifa held, or 
believed, the lawfulness of such a thing (Sh) ; [and] £&) j 

i / A J .P JA /Ki 

[from &i^ ] i. q. £>j-flf1 /saw Aim [432] (M); [though] 
when ^y denotes seeing in sleep, inf. n. k^ , it is trans. 
to two objs., like the J* before [440] mentioned, as ^f 

*A • .» A? •£ ' '* 

Jj*a. j*a*| ^l^j XII. 36. [Verily I see, i.e. aaw, antmita- 
tion of a past state, myself (446) m sleep to be pressing 

A f » hi 

grapes (K, B),] the ^ being the 1st obj., and !;*£. y&e\ 
a pro/?, in the position of the 2nd obj., and similarly 

//J 0/ »/ $ 3// )a // 9*1*2 ft Si 

lTtff fcjlj ;t **; * ^Ib; ^Ji J^^ ^1 

• • A<« • / • »<"/ ^A3/« * * s t t it /A* A* •£ 



( 151 ; 

ft A A » A/ / f / A A/ S^/ /'$ t 

ihl ^Sy^ j* ji j\ # o,y ^^a. ^jjw ui jo! 

[by VAmr Ibn Ahmar alBabill (J),] the 8 and ,• , [which 

hl> ft 

is the sign of the pi. (J),] in f£>f^! being the 1st 06/., and 

/AJ 

^jS&j the 2nd (IA), Abu, Hanash makes me sleepless {at 
times,) and Talk and '■Ammar and Uthala (make me sleep- 
less) at times from -my anxiety about them; (in which 

verse there are two things to be avoided, curtailment 

*t£ 
from fltif not in the voe., and separation of the con. from 

fi/ *»* 
the coupled by means of the adv. &^l dependent upon 

/ »mt9 ' 

the suppressed enunc. ^fyfi ; ) and when I sleep, I see, 
or dream, them to be my travelling companions, until, when 
the night recedes and comes utterly to an end, behold, I am 
like Mm that runs for sweet water to drink towards mi- 
rage, and obtains not moisture to moisten his throat withal 

fi •A/ /// / /? p Kif m 

(J), [but not always, for] in U* y y^ i±*.f ut-^ Jf 

, t KS Shi* ff/Ki"/ /AS J*t fi 

^jjja.U ^ *&£) y***^) j i» « »» « » « j XII. 4. Verily I saw 
in a vision eleven stars and the sun and the moon. 1 saw 



» AS/ 



them bowing down to me m*i\) is from Vj>, not from 

$ /A* / /A.» A St,/ / 

**£)» [because of «-£b£> jo^aS? If XII. 5. Relate thou not 
*Ay vision and ,3^ J*J^ '*** ^"* 10 1- ^** ** '^ e * n * 
terpretaiion of my dream (B),] and ^\ *&£) is an incep- 
tion, [explanatory of their state, in which he saw them 
(B), in reply (1) to an assumed question "How sawest 



( 152 ) 
thou them?" (K),] not a reiteration (K,B): and tsasw i.q, 

* * t k<*> * tit J> A * * /j& S r° S A / * 

<±«t$- , as &UI iz~~*J <juf? s >' [440] (Sh) : and &UaJ| «l>i*».j 
/ found the stray she-camel, when you light upon it: 
[and for ^o , J*Z , <±e , and Jj». , #ww. to one obj., 
see §§. 440 and 467 :] and similarly s^>\ e-i;l / was 

shown, or taught, the thing, i.q. &y<v or &X*j* / teas 

j * * * t i / 
made to see, or know, it, as in U£*IL. Ujt 3 II. 122. [-4«rf 

show, or teach, Thou us our places of devotion in the pil- 

t, 
grimage (K, B), transported (by the Hamza) (K) from ^ 

i. q. yai} He saw or «-i^* He knew, on which account it 

does not exceed two objs. (in the act. voice and one in 

j /»< P h/ s .p .»•? 
the pass.) (K, B)] : and "MoU f-Sij u>' Jf® Sayestthou, 

Fer% Zaid is departing, i.e. Speakestthou that? 

§ 443. One of their peculiarities is that, though you 
may restrict yourself to one of the two objs. in such as 

^ y*£ and wa-i^l , where the two objs. are diverse, 

^/« * A x A J 

saying 1*2^ ls^I**! without mentioning to whom you 

' !#Ax J> A x AS 

gave it, and Id*} c^a^I without mentioning what you 
gave him, you may not [restrict yourself to one of 

the two objs. in the cat. of e^iia (K on XXVIII. 62.), 

2 A/ • J> A x < /*< 

and] say !uw.j o**-*^ or ISUaU , because of the loss of 
what you have constructed your narrative upon. But 



( m ) 

hah/ / ? 

you may omit both objs. together iu either cat., as **iii&j 

h 3*fl & f 

jy*J\ ^b XLV1II. 12. And ye thought with the thinking 

Ass A s /* • As 

of evil and the prov. Jssu. £— •*>. ^ Whoso hears, wilt 
think (M). According to the correct doctrine, [how- 
ever] (IA), in this cat. the two objs., or one of them, 
may be suppressed wheu indicated, but not otherwise: 

/■ Si^ J t*// 2 / A# 

thus both are suppressed in (IA, Sh) ^ji^l ^y" ^ 

t S Sh/ I, ShS 

^y**'f £*f XXVIII. 62. Where are Mine associates, 
they (that) ye were wont to think (to be associates) ?, i. e< 

siwss S hSs S Sh/ / // « Shi h/f 

s\$yb -gy+t'p } [ -6) requiring two objs., like i_X*ej! J^ 

n Sm//S hS'Sii S ( 

£*f (440) (K)], or rather JlS'^ f&\ , ^1 and its conj. 



A,P /S SS ** 



supplying the place of the two objs., as in ^** ,3/ Uj 

Smt//S hS hStii hSh// / 3i£o SS/i*// T 

t\Sfi £# ^\ ^3 j*iM ff\**2> VI. 91. (Sh) And We 
see not witli you your mediators, as to whom ye thought 
that they were in lordship over you partners with God 
(B), [and] 

P A ss *»ss £ s AXS fi // <a S ^Sp a? • m £ 

/ £ s s £ s * f 

[by Kumait Ibn Zaid alAsadi, Oh. tfic authority of what 
scripture, or in virtue, of what usage, deemest thou the love 

of them to be a shame unto me, and accountest thou? (J)], 

i,/ / at h»as * h // 
i. e. jJ* I/* •$ » »» u. M m aru j , the two ofy>. being sup- 
pressed, because indicated by what precedes them (IA); 

tit «!/ / A / • • 

and one is suppressed iu (IA, Sh) £H j***** 53 * V) III. 175. 



( 154 ). 

m t a AP,A s 

[166], i. e. £H y*> fG^sw , And let not them that are nig- 
gardly of what God hath vouchsafed them of His bounty 
account {their niggardliness) to be good for them, the 1st 
oh), being suppressed [in this reading, because indicated 

• P / A/ • P 

by ^fsBJo (K, B),] and the distinctive pron. [ y& (K)] 
and 2nd obj. retained, and (Sh) 

/AW^ w • Ph*° , A, (U P/A , vt P / // A,, A ,,, 

[by 'Antara, By God, £/wk Aos£ alighted — and imagine 
thou not aught else (to be betiding) —in respect of me (J), 
i. e. of my heart (EM), in the place of alighting, the <_> 

P/A, 

being i. q. J> , of the beloved, the honored (J)], i. e. Xtf£ 

Us'J j , [the 2nd 06;. kot^ being suppressed, because indt- 

cated by the situation (J, Jsh)] : but without indication 

[suppression is aot allowable in the case of both (objs.) 

or one; so that, when meaning U56 (o^j ^JdSb (IA),] 

you do not say, [according to the soundest (view) (Sh),] 
p a, , p a , 

oJJJb [or o**** , restricting yourself thereto (Sh),] nor 

' *A, P A, , PA, 

(IA, Sh), as all agree (Sh), WJ cs-Ufe (IA) [or] & J* 

$A, <* ", * A' * * n, P A , ' 

Id*) (Sh), or U>(* uxiAb (I A) or Uit* isxJLs, omitting 
the 1st and 2nd obj. respectively (Sh). As for the saying 

* , P A/ , , , 

of the Arabs i_51J ua-Ub [40] I thought thai; wJfto is a 

PA,, 

dem. to thinking, as though they said merely i&JXb \ 

PA,, 

and you. say *«> c&~tfi& I thought about him, when yon 



( 1N> ) 

make him the location of your thought, like as you say 
$ jjf ^ ci-J-»Jk I thought in the house ; but if you make 
the >_-> red., as in &*# ^S\ [503], it is not allowable to 
stop speaking thereat. 

§ 444. Another [peculiarity of the mental vs.] is 
that, when they precede, they are made to govern, but, 
when intermediate or last, tbey may be either made to 
govern or neutralized, as 

/ • * ft/ 

f// h*>/ shU^a 9 A *ii\ro f 



(M) by Munazil Ibn Rabi'a satirizing Ru'ba Ibn al'Ajjaj, 
Wlvat ! with poems of Ike Rajaz metre, son of baseness, 
dost thou threaten me, whereas in taking vengeance on an 
enemy by means of poems of the Rajaz metre, I have 
fancied, are baseness and impotence f (Jsh). The mental 
vs. have three states, being made to govern, being neutral- 
ized, and beiug suspeuded [445]. Being made to govern 
is their governing the two objs. ; and is necessary wheu 
they precede the latter and are not followed by a suspen- 

sory, as UJU tojj ui~IL»i& / thought Zaid to be learned, 
and allowable when they inteivene between them, as 

f t 9 */ f *** 

U)U o-M-k \<Hs Zaid I thought to be learned, or come 
after them both, as et~»~*J& UJU lijjj Zaid to be learned 
J thought (Sh). Neutralization is the annulment of their 



( 156 ) 
government, [literally and ideally (445), not because of a 
preventive (IA), when the v. is intermediate or last (Sh),] 

4 r*S S tit * $ fts 

as (IA, Sh) -j£ ia*iifc> t*j>j Zaid, 1 thought, was- stand- 
ing, where u^JLaIz? has no iufluence upon J& li^j literally 

* Iks * i s §As ' 

or ideally (IA), [and] is^Uto ^JU oj^ Zaid was learned, 
1 thought (Sh). That is not found in the rest of the vs. 
(M) : neutralization and suspension are peculiar to the 
plastic mental [vs.}, and hold good for the aor. #c, as 
much as for the pret, % but do not occur in their aplastic 
sisters or in the transmutative vs. (rA). Neutralization 
is allowable in [these (IA)] plastic [mental (Sh)] vs. 
[elsewhere than in the beginning, i. e. (I A)] in the middle, 

§ *, a ns t ins i *,, in, 

[as f>6 u^Jiifc ajj. (IA),] or at the end, [as f$ wijj 

ut~ui& (IA)]. In the middle to make [them], govern 
is better, [as some say (IA),] than neutralization, while 
some say that tho two are equal j and at the end neutral- 
ization is better (IA, Sh) than making [them] to govern 
(Sh). But if they precede, neutralization is disallowed 

Jw < Iks a Iks s 

by the BB; so that you do not say JS ^j i&JLite , but 

nt 9 lis a As s 

must make [the v.] to govern, as Ui£ Ijjj l=-J-U*> , any 
supposed instance of such neutralization being explained 
by subaudition of the pron. of the case, as in 

t its a sit** st ss sf&ss a is lit a amy a nf 

Jj Jl» uGU UjoJ Jli-I Uj * l&^p* fSi ^j! J*}j j^jt 

[by Ka'b Ibn Zuhair, I hope and faintly expect that her 
love may (572, 720) approach; but I fancy not {the case 



< 157 ) 
to be this), a bestowal of favor will be in our possession 
from thee, an enallage (1) from the 3rd to the 2nd pers, 

(J)], i. e. &Jla.f , the 8 being the pron. of the case and 

the 1st obj., and iJI LujJ being a prop, in the position of 
the 2nd obj., so that there is no neutralization [and no 
suspension (J)], or by supplying the J of inception, as in 

f-P A • • 5j • £ A mP * * / 

lS*^" uT* )^° lS* 3 * us ^°' i-*!^ 

t s$A*° /Hi" » / t A f / mi 

'ft ' / 

[by one of the Banu Fazara, Thus was I trained to good 
breeding, so ihat it became a part of my nature that I per- 
ceived, [assuii'lly) the mainstay of the character was good 

breeding (J)], i. e. ill >_£UJ, a case of suspension, not of 

neutralization, [and, as some say, (and the BS allows,) 

tut tt 
in the former verse, i. e lijjU , which is thus a case of 

suspension, though some disallow the J here, because it 
denotes corroboration of affirmation, and is therefore 
incompatible with the negation (J)]. The KK, however, 
followed by Abu Bakr azZabldl and others, hold that it 
is allowable to neutralize the preceding [«.] ; so that they 
do not need to explain away the two verses. Neutraliza- 
tion is not obligatory, but allowable; and therefore wher* 
ever neutralization is allowable, making to govern is 
allowable, whereas suspension is necessary (IA). 

§ 445. Another [peculiarity of the mental »«.] is 
that they are suspended (M)v_ Suspension is the annul- 



( Io8 ) 

mcnt of the government literally, but not ideally, because 
of (IA, Sli) a preveutive (IA), [i. e.] the iuterveutiou of 
what the head of the sentence belongs to, namely one of 
10 tilings, between them and their two regs. (Sh), as 

J6* jjy t~>JJJ& / thought, assuredly Zaid is standing, 

$ m/ ih/s S A/ • 

where J$ <±i$ is not governed by i&JJJfo literally, 
because the J prevents that, but is in the position of au 
ace, since, if you coupled to it, you would use the ace, 

f t A 9 #A / / 4 I*/ i */' 9 A/ t 9 f,/ , 

as ISUaIU Sy*&) *>£ 1-w.y is-*A.ii& , so that ca^fcik governs 

$<•/< A// 

JG vjj.y ideally, but not literally (IA). Tho plastic mental 
[vs.] must be suspended before (1) the J of inception, [as 

(Sh) -4nrf assured/// they knew, verily he that hath pur- 
chased it in exchange for the Book of God hath not in 
the life to come any portion of good, the (2nd) J being 

9 , 

the J of inception, which has suspended 1^*1* from 
government (B)] : (2) the J [of the carrel. (Sh)] of the 

$«• £ / 9sr 9 ft s - A^V J> A / 

jath, as i*j3 j- 4 ^ o~k , [i. e. g\ 6ii\^ cmi* , /knew, 
by God,) assuredly Zaid would stand, and 

,9 , • » * ' ' ' 'f"° 3 £ s & / %■/* 9 A , A .»•• 

* * %. ' ' "y * ' 

3h), by Labid, And assured^ I /tave known, (by God,) 
•trely my fate will come; verily the fates, their arrows do 
ot miss, the (2nd) J being the J of the correl, of au 



( 159 } 

oath supplied, and the two props, of the oath and correl. 
being together in the position of an ace. to the suspended 
v. (SM)] : (3) an interrog., [(a) p. (Sh), prefixed to one 

of the two objs. (IA), as )y+e pi ;tiiJ| ^ tJJJf ia~*1* 
I knew whether Zaid was in the house, or 'Amr and 

, t , t / § / a$ § fi a? a f 

..jrf J U ojuu J v^^f ^ot .f^ XXL 109. And I 
Ar«ou; «o£ whether near or distant what ye are threatened 
with be; (b) n., (a) an enc/t. or enunc. (Sh), one of the 
two objs. beiag an interrog. n. (IA), as XVIII. 11. (I), 



/ * IS f £ suifi <M 2/h ft* 



b|iic i^w! Uj| »*1*aJj XX. 74. -4«d assuredly ye shall 

know which of us is severer in punishment, and u»*i-e 

f**A\ iJL* I knew when the journey was or would be, (b) 
post, to the inch, or enunc. (Sh), one of the two objs. 

i a/ n s si J> n , 

being pre. to an interrog. n. (IA), as i*jj ** y1 u»*U 

/ Anew whose father was Zaid and * •£ el &suuc c>»JLs 

• *• • " ' ' ' 

i_£j£«« / Anew? on the morning of what day thy journey 

would be or was, or .(c) a complemeut, as ^»tiM •**£*« j 
^^laij w-^lSi-. ^1 \yte* XXVI. 228. 4/wJ ^ey which 
have done wrong shall know with what a translating they 
shall be translated, ^1 being governed in the ace. as an 
inf. n.. (see below) by what follows it, constructively 

y n-o ii * 9 /lit 

V^**' iS' ii)^**i > not D y wnat precedes it^ because the 
head of the sentence belongs to the interrog,., which is, 
therefore, not governed by what precedes it (Sh)] : (4) 



( lfiO ) 

/ / 3 A/ «./*( * / A / A •• 

the neg. U, [as ^f^H sVib U ta-JU jJU XXI. 66. 
Assuredly thou hast known, these speak not (Sh)]: (5) 
the neg. ^ [ in the correl. of the oath, as &M!j ux*fe 

$>£. «A, A * ' ' . 

Jl> i*i3 uj' I knew, by God, Zaidwas not standing (Sh), 

t S »JA / A • 5 *•./ 

(and) as 1LJS Iff J&J J ^yJ2£ ; XVII. 54. ^nrf «Aaff 
/Af'nft, #« Aa«?e raorf tarried in the present life save a /itffe, 
the objection that this is not a case of suspension, because 
the conditiou of suspension is that, when the suspensory 
is suppressed, the op. should prevail over what follows 
it, and should therefore govern two objs. in the ace, 
whereas in the text, if you suppressed the suspensory 

A , £ S * A.P A / 

A , ^yJkj would not prevail over -J&J , since oue does 

A.»A / • S-f t / 

not say J&*J i^?^)* beiug perhaps opposed to what 
is almost unanimously accepted, namely, that this condi- 
tion is i "»t prescribed in suspension, as is testified by the 
GG's exemplification of suspension by means of this text 
and the like thereof (I A)] : (6) the neg. V (IA, Sh) in the 

§lt t J t 3 *» i tts * it^t 9 A / 

correl. of the oath, as yr* ^ $J>\ ^ ±i) V *MU u^de 

* * * * 

I knew, by Ood, Zaid was not : n the house, nor t, Amr : 

S^/ A*/ $xA 9ittt A 5 A / 

ti\ J*l, as JQ &*» «JW ^>il u)'; XXL 111. And I 
know not, peradventure it is a trial, or probation, for you : 

Ax 

(8) the cond. <) , as 

i y 6i JS JLH s\f o! ; l t«A. tf iy p ly»l ^ ***, 



( lfil J 

[by Hatini atTa'l (Mb), And the peoples have knottm, if 
Hatim atTa'l had desired abundance of property, he would 
have had affluence (Jsh)]: (9) the ^1 in whose prcd. is 

§ r*t/ f A/- 3 J A * i. 

the J [521], as *>&J lo-ij ^ cwk I knew, verily Zaid 
teas standing, mentioned by many of the Westerns : 
whereas apparently the suspensory is only the J , not 

yjf , except that IKhz relates that JS j jj \ ^1 uwAs 

£ <sj ' * ' 

with Kasr [in ^t] is allowable notwithstanding the 

absence of the J , and that this is the opinion of S ; and 
according to this the suspensory is ^1 : (10) the enun- 
ciatory f , declared by some, who attribute to it the text 

x S A/ • A tit AJ3« Sfin*3 t til/f>t ■> As/i$ k* ktt A/2 

A/ 

XXXVI. 30. 31., construing J to bo enunciatory, 
governed in the ace. by lS.£la;f ? and the prop, to supply 

A/y 

the place of the two objs. of l^> , //at'« they not known f 
How mam; have We destroyed before them, of the gene- 
rations, {with the doom) that they should not return unto 

them !, f^I being in full *$5b , as though JUaiX-,1/ b 

' S ' s /• /■ 

ari/A extermination were said j and this is correct, 

though j» f need not be enunciatory, but may be in- 
terrog., known how many We have destroyed fyc.f, 
which is corroborated by the reading of Ibn Mas'ud 

liXlaj ^ whom We have destroyed : whereas Fr allows 



ff to be governed in the ucc. by I^;i , which is an iuad- 
v 



( 1G2 ) 

Ay 

vertencc, [because J is not governed by an op. before 
it (K),] whether it be construed to be enunciatory or 
interrog., [because it is orig. inter rog. (K)] ; while S 

Si A/ 

says that ^ and its two regs. are a subst, for J , which is 
dubious, because, if f be construed to be a reg. of !^> 5 
then the objection advanced against Fr must hold good, 

A / 

vid. the exclusion of J from its quality of priority, 

and, if it be construed to be a reg. of UXlal f then 

UJCl2>f must prevail over j»$>l [152], whereas it is not 
correct to say We have destroyed the non-existence of 
returning ; but his saying will be rectified by its meaning 

A / 

them to be a subst. for J and what follows it, [according 
to the sense, not according to the letter, meaning Have 
they not known the frequency of Our destroying the gene- 
rations before them, their being not about to return unto 

them (K),] for l^jj is made to prevail in sense over ^ 
and its conj., Have they not known how many We have 
destroyed §c, have they not known thai they shall not 
return §c? (Sh). The prop, that the op. is suspended 
from being in the position of an ace. [1] (Sh, ML) to 
that suspended op., you may couple to its place with the 
ace. ( Sh) ; [so that] the ace. appears in the appos., as 

J& A f I /*•• %ht A • S A <•/ 

^5"*' ** u-£to )*£y i>e} ^j* ut-Sj* I knew V)ho Zaid 
was, and something eke than that of his affairs (ML) : 
Kuthayyir says 







(, 163 


) 






ftfuO f sit 

UCJf U I'jc 






ins tt 








t~s 


<- * 


^ 



[^;it/ / used «o£ &> know before loving ' Azza what weep- 
ing was, nor the torments of the heart till she departed 
(SM), cited as evidence by IU (ML)], with eyUs^.. in 



/Sh*3 , 



the ace. (Sh, ML) as coupled to the place of tCjJf U (Sh), 
because the government of the suspended is annulled 
as to the letter, not as to the place (SM); but you 
may assert that l£Jj is an obj. aiid U red., [iu which 
case there is no suspension (DM)]; or that the o. f. is 
tiJ.xsf.^m ^j! I/, nor {knoio) the torments, a coupling 
of props., [in which case the ace. does not appear in tho 
appos. (DM)] ; or that the ^ belongs to the d. s. [to the 

«t> in us-**" (DM)], and cyU^.^* is the sub. of V , i. e. 
And J used not to know before loving 'Asset, when the 
case was that no torments for the heart were existing, 
what weeping was (ML). For this reason that is named 
suspension, because the op. is neutralized as to the letter, 
but is op. as to the place ; so that it is an inop. op., and is 
therefore named "suspended" by derivation from the 
"suspended" woman [Kur. IV. 128], who is neither 
married nor divorced (Sh), as 

A A<> / / /I/ *f }// «{ A A s A$ f s S t h f 



( 1W ) 
(K) Is it aught but a slate of favor, or a divorce, or a 
being out of favor, or, between that, a suspension? (N). 
Suspension does not occur in any other [vs.] (M): [sec 
also what IA says in §. 44-4]. Suspension, [however,] is 

not confined to [mental vs. of] the cat. of J& ; but is 
allowable in every mental v., [i. e. every v. indicative of 
an idea subsisting in the mind, as A* , )*& , $*» , t-iv* 
(DM)] : and therefore this prop, [that the v. is suspended 
from governing (DM)] is in the position of (1) an obj. 
fettered by the prep., [i. e. that the v. is trans, to by 

means of the prep. (498) (DM),] as #&p-t^ U I )/&**. Jjf 

_u A 

£i&. v* VII. 183. [And have they not reflected {upon 
the fact that) there is not in their companion Muhnmmad 
any diabolical possession?, U being ncg., and the prop., 
in the position of an ace, being a reg. of \^^i. in ac- 

A • 5 * ' 

cordauce with the sense of ^ , i. e. *3-p>t*> &a- f^* ^ 

f • S f * / - t , 

(DM),] XVIII. 18. [(1), i.e. And lei him observe the answer 

m *o » Us /• 3? t si h/ 

of this interrogation (DM),] and ^-.oi] j.y. ^b\ ^ }"**ȣ 
LI. 12. They inquire lohen the day of reckoning tcill be; 
because one says *£* c^y^ and &kc »sJL«, and &a* .«.«jtaJ , 
but here they are suspended by the inlerrog. [or by tho 
neg. 1+ (DM)] from reaching the obj. literally, whilst 
ideally they are seckh.g it in accordance witli the sense 

f st A * S A st 

of that p.: (2) the unfettered obj., as u£^?f ^* u^y 



f lea ) 
I knew who was thy father, because you say u^y 

:**/ y* I Av ££ yy A 

' S<^l) j and hence Ug«) ^^ ^f gy LI Sees/ /Aoz* ho/ 

M>/m£ lightning is here?, because tbo visual ^f^ anil tlic 
rest of the vs. of the senses are trans, to only one, by 

y y 

common consent, except £* w attached to a concrete n., 

i/l\f * Ay S A y ' 

as ly»£ Ijjj i»-»»*<* / heard Zuid read, or reading, in 
which case it is said to lie fraws. to two, the 2nd being 
the prop., and to one, the prop, being" a </. s., [which is 
the truth (DM),] whereas, when attached to something 
heard, it is trans, to one by common consent, as L. 41. 
[432]: (3) the two objs., as XX. 74. [above], XVIII. 
11. [1], and XXVI. 228., [the prop. ^y&H in this text 
being in the position of the two cLjs., not in that of the 
2nd only with ^ as 1st oh-}. (DM),] because ^1 is an 

y J/«y 

unrestricted oh}, to ^-i&H [see above], not a direct ohj. 

to J** , while the whole verbal prop, is in the position 
of an ace. to the v. of knowledge, [supplying the place of 
its two objs. (DM),] whence 

S-P • yfl / w £y A // */ A / ££ /Ay J/A/ J 

y y / jj y js 

[Ziaz7« sAa// /mow st'/mi a &££ .vAe A«s incurred, and 
what a creditor for exacting payment is her creditor! 

mi 

( Jsh)], the 1st ^f being governed in the ace. upon the 
same principle as in XXVI. 228., [i. c. by the v. after it,] 
except that it is a direct, not an unrestricted ohj., and the 
2nd being in the nom. a;., au inch., while what follows it, 



( 166 ) 

[t. e. l^i;* (DM),] is the enunc, and know being sus- 
pended from the two coupled verbal and nominal props. 
(ML) by the interrog. in both of them (DM). 

§ 446. Another [peculiarity of the mental vs.] is 
that you [may] unify in them the prons. of the ag. and 

pbj,, as IaIIaU ,_5*£*k / knew myself lo be departing, 



SoS ^Uj uXa*^ Thou perceivedst thyself lo have 
done such a thing, and l**&* $) He regarded himself 
as great (M). [Thus] Jlsi- in £>l ^1*^5 [440] governs 
two prons., the & and the ,_g , denoting one thing, i. e. 
the speaker, Ayhich is peculiar to the mental vs. (J): 

r. I\ t t t 

[see also other exs. in £M ^.-^ *i (I) and XII. 36. 

' * k. , * tit, 

(442)]. The Arabs, however, treat &<* ^* and ci.'JJi» 
in the same way, [because tlu'y are the upps. of cyo^.« 
(AAz),] saying ^y^*^ aud ,j^Jp : Jirau Al'Aud says 

*• A *• .P • * A /P 5 " J> A • A^S • A • * f h ** 

j»)L, U € U JW U* ; * ^sP*** ji?)** j* J J* *iit 
[.^sswraWy / /t«t?e got from two rival loives (may I want 
myself!, i. e. perish /) a«d /rom Ma/ trouble which I 
undergo from them a place of retreat! (AAz)], But 
that is not allowable in other vs. ; so that you do not say 

ja// y / lit * tit * A / * 

^J^kA or ^XXiyb , but ^2*4* \&~+te I upbraided myself 

' S t*t t lit s * 

and l-X—Ju w^j"* 77iou beatest thyself. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



THE NON-ATTRIBUTIVE VERBS. 



§ 447. These are ^JS , $*a , g*£>S , | _ s — •! , LS »^f , 

J 1 *, «^, J'5 u , c * u > «-**! u i ^ u » r ,L> u ' 

and **d [24]. They are prefixed to the inch, and enunc. 
in the same way as the mental vs., save that they put the 
inch, into the moot., [the first nominativization, which was 
by reason of inehoation, passing away, and being suc- 
ceeded by nominativization by reason of them (J),] and 
the enunc. into the ace. (M). The nom. is named their 
sub. [properly, and their ag. tropically {Sh), the ag. being 
properly the inf. n. of\he pred. pre. to the sub., so that 

? r*s % A/ / / sA*> A/ 9 / / ss 

UiS kh's .tf means ^Ui] ^ ijjj r Ua %^Ji (J)] ; and 
the ace. their jprerf. [properly, and their o§?'. tropically 
(Sh)]. They are [of three kinds (Sh),] (1) such as gov- 
ern thus unconditionally ; which are [eight (Sh),] ^tf, 

35/ •• • A £ //A? / hi- / * s As 

JH> , «yb , ^^t , ^>f , j _ s *«*f , ; U , and j~»J : (2) 
such as must be preceded by [a p. of] negation, [literally 
or constructively (IA),] or quasi-negation, i. e. prohibi- 
tion or deprecation, [in order to govern thus (IA)] j which 
are four, Jlj , c >> , sjf* , and i_<i»f , as (IA, Sh) tfj 
uJ***^"* u>y^ ^* ^^O. But they shall not cease to be 



( 1fi8 ) 

diverse, XX. 93. [414] (Sh), Cis jjjj jf J U z^tf / m , 
rao£ m/st^ to 6e standing, where the negation is ///., XII. 
85. [454], where the negation is constructive, i.e. V 

St/it 

■O $ • • *P / A t AsA*o t t A// // Am . / 

»xm JILo &JU«*is ei * »J{ jS'lJ jy» I/, j*£ Uj 

' t t t . / 

[Friend, or My friend, make thou ready for death / nor 
cease to be mindful of death, for forgetfulness thereof is 

/* t fi<& t / £ 

a manifest error (J)], and £M lS *M k W [59] (IA); pro- 

' ' ■> ft 3 St 

vided further that Jl} be pret. of J))j , the prel. of J^. 
being an intrans. att. v. in the senso of going away and 

A tt t St si tsi*<*>t t I 3 -<= J> AJ> /i-« 3 

removal, as ^j l^y ^f jf)^h ^Ij****'' -i-X«*** &Mf ^ 

/ ' ' z 

ht A • J A t St t hi h ttt 

Hosu >* jc*! >-. U$C-*-! ^f IXIIj XXXV. 39. Fer% 
Gorf withholdeth the heavens and the earth from passing 

away : and I swear that, if they should- pass away, not any 

s t 
should withhold them after Him, and the pret. of Jjjj a 

t 

ft s , in., t t 

trans, att. v. in the seuse of jU aor. }**j , as <J*>j J|j 

ts a t A .»/£ • 

.Us j** •* tela Zaid separated his sheep from the goats 
of such a one (Sh) : (3) such as must be preceded by the 
[adverbial (IA)] infinitival U [that acts as a subst. for the 
adv. of time (Sh), in order to govern thus (IA)]; which 

t * 8 • 3 f> J> t I Z"t l S ^» t Kit 

is Jl> , as l&> i»~o U_8/yi5-»y^b JL*)\) XIX. 32., 
- - . ' tt* 

Si t // /»* 

i. e. Uaw lS"*'.? 1 ^ **** » ^■ n ^ en 3°^ ne< ^ upon me prayer and 



( 1W ) 

almsgiving while, or so long us, I .shall continue to be livings 
I.e. during the period of my continuance alive (I A, Sli), 
whereas in isajps^o uJjj *lo Zaid continued well ba^sa^ 

4 A/ / * f A f f> t 

is a d. s., not a pred., as likewise in ^Ktj p' 1 - 5 **• uj* us-**» c 

* '' ' 

lasuaa^ I wondered that Zaid continued well,th'\9 U beiug 

• • A 9 A /• 

infinitival, [but] not adverbial, i.e. &*!^o ^ »^«km: 
tacu««fl I wondered at his continuing well (Sh). These 

• A/ • • 

tw. are (1) plastic, i. e« all except ^j-^ and pfo ; (2) 
aplastic, i.e. j^i and Jo . The non-pret. of the plastic 
governs like the pret.: i.e. the aor., as J^*yi ^^.j 
}i*a$£> *X^lc II. 137. And the Apostle be a witness against 

A A.o , it S S 

you; the imp., as la-JiM* ' *ju1 •* fyy IV. 134. i?e j/e con- 
stant in executing jtisticc and Ij^*- ^ Balsas*. lyy* 
XVII. 53. J5e »/fi sto«M or iron; the net. part., as 

* •*/ / r / sfi*= A* A t Ss * / 

[where the sub. of UilT is ji pron. allowably latent fu 
it, equivalent to j2> , And not every one that displays joy- 
fulness of countenance is thy brother, when thou dost not 
find him to be a helper of thee (J)] ; and likewise the inf. 
7i. People differ as to whether the non-ait. ^ has an 



( no ) 

inf. n., or not : the correct [view] is that it has an inf. n. 
[governing as. it governs (J)], as 

* s * h/t s H /St,// s/Hio hf * t Is t ht 

[By open-handedness and forbearance does the youth 
become a chief among his people.' and thy being tbe doer 
of it is easy unto thee, where tbe inf. n. of the non-att. 

AS is pre. to its sub., the \J> of allocution, which is there- 
fore in the position of a gen,, and in that of a nom. in 
two (different) relations (J)]. Such of them, however, 

as are aplastic, i. e. j»!l> and ^^1 , and such as require 
negation or the like thereof as a condition [of their go- 

vernmeut], i. e. J!} and its sisters, are not used in the 

imp. and inf. n. By att. is meant what contents itself 

with its nom.', and by nonatt. what does not content 

itself with its nom, but needs the ace. also (IA). The 

non-att. vs. indicate accident, [and not only time] (BS) : 

• t • 
their non-attributiveness is merely that, while ^>yb is a 

sentence when it has received its nom., these do not 
become a sentence until they receive the ace. with the 
nom. (M). All these vs. may be used attributively, 
except $Jf» , JJ j aor. J|}j , and *-aI • for these are 

■* ' ' A t 

used only as non-att. : exs. of the att. are yi ^jS J. 

»r**A-» J\ *)&** *r** H. 28 0. And if there be an indi- 

* t ' * 

gent debtor, let there be a grant of delay until a time of 



( 171 ) 

' * * ' A-o , . A *, 

plenty, i. e. ^ ^ , XI. 109. [90 J, ami *U| ^biw 
^ysaA-A? ^jas,.^ t^r*** 3 c?*^ XXX - 16' Where fore ye. 
shall extol the perfection of God when ye enter upon the 
time of evening and when yc enter upon the time of morn- 
ing (IA). 

§ 448. S mentions only ^ , $*o , |.|oU, and «~a1 , 
addiug "and such vs. as are like them, namely such as 
cannot dispense with the pred." Among such as may be 
coordinated with them are ^S , ot* , S\±l , and —1^ : and 
/la. has occurred in the sense of $»o in tlie saying of the 
Arabs i—CCa-ls*. ysss^s? U [24] WAotf Aw become thy 



wanl?\ and similar to it is ii.s2 in the saying of the Arab 

$/A / • £€/ \ / // 13/ .P/sA • y y A? 

of tbe desert &>^=w t$»tf «yd.** ^^Xa. £>yi£ o»S>j| ^ 
made his broad knife sharp and pointed, so thai it became 
as though it were a javelin (M). 

§ 449. The sub. and pred. are (1) both del.: (a) if 
the person addressed know one of them, but not the 
other, the known is the sub., and the uuknown the pred,, 

A f 'i $A • , , 

as ype la.( joj ^JS said to him that knows Zaid, but 
not his brotherhood to 'Amr, and !^.j y^e. fA ^JS to 

him that knows 'Amr's brother, but not that his name 
is Zaid ; (b) if he know them both, but not the relation 
of one to the other, then, (a) if one be more det., it should 



( 172 ) 

f fyht" i fly y y 

be made the sub., as *ft«M <H) ^ Zaid was the stander 
said to him that has heard of Zaid and of a man standing, 
so that he has a mental conception of each of them, but 



S ****** y y 



does not know that one is the other, though JlSJ| ^ 
S lW.J is allowable rarely ; [according, then, to the preferable 
(construction), the pron. is not made a pred. to what is 

f ntHtO y y $fiy 

below it in determinateness, so that you say J$i\ ^ a^j 
Zaid, he was the stander to him that knows them both, 

s £ s i*th-o y y 5 st 

not 81jI J l*M JS &>j Zaid, t/te stander was he (DM, 
with ys> , however, both here and below)] ; (b) but if one 

h / yi §*y y y 

be noc more det., you have an option, as ^** t»»f jjj IT 

* A • A • *$ y \ * 

or ft*AJ yj* 6 f*\ '> ( c ) such as I»i2> , however, [i. e. every 
dem. conjoined with the instrument of premonition (DM),] 
is excepted from [the rule in (a) as to] the two dissimilar 
in degree [of determinateness], for it must be the sub., 
because of the [p. of] premonition attached to it, [since 
the instrument of premonition requires priority (DM),] 

y y 2 • > / y Ay /I y y 

as uikM l«i-2> yjtf and 1^] '^ u)^> except with the 
pron., for, while the chastest in the cat. of the inch, is to 
make the pron. the inch, and prefix the [p. of] pretnoni- 

y yi y Si y I 

tion to it, as So Uj \Jb , though l»J IJ& has been heard 
rarely, that is not feasible in the cat. of the annuller, 
because the pron. is attached to the op., so that the [p. 
of] premonition cannot be prefixed to it, [but is prefixed 



( 173 ) 

/I * ss 

to tlie dem. occurriug as a pred., as !iia> u^SS (DM)] ; (d) 

mini 

and they assign to ^ and ^ renderable by an inf. n. 
made det. [by prothesis (MA, DM), whether pre. to a 
pron. or anything else (MA),] the predicament of the 
pron. [in not being made a pred. to what is below it (in 
determinateness), according to the preferable (construc- 
tion) (DM),] because, like the pron., it is not qualifiable, 

on which account the Seven read ^1 V| *^s»- J& U 

J>X z 

iyS XLV. 24. Not aught save that they said [$c] was 

* * Ik $ 3 Ax x x x x X ,, 

their argument and SJd ^1 Mf iUyi «—>!*». ^S Li 

XXVII. 57. Then not aught saw Mo« they said [4*c] 

s ^ 
was the answer of his people, and the nom. [in &»a>. and 

^ x 
t_,!ya. (DM)] is weak, as making the pron. a ^rerf. to 

what is below it in detertmnateness is weak, [Jike ^JS ojj 

8Uf JtSJf (DM)] : (2) both indet. : if each have a permis- 

sive for being made sub., you have an option as to which 

a^ A $a x , , 

you will make sub., and which pred., as J^j ^* y^L Ss 

Ax A 3/ * ' 

5/** uJ - * '/" -^ ^ e #w <Ao» Zizirf «>a* a worse than l Amr 

* ' A x A £ x Ax A s*Axxx 

or the converse [ ^^* ^ j£ ii-ij ^ f^. ^tf (DM)] ; 

^ ' J* ' 

but if the permissive belong to one of them only, you 

fitkiO Ax A $A X X X 

make it the sa&., as afjM «ii; ^* ^L ^iS : (3) dissimi- 
lar: the det. is then sub., and the intfef. pred., [which 
is the rule of speech, as in the cat. of indication (M),] as 



( 17i ) 

S« MS ilk/ S * 0hS § ~s / / 

u56 ^3 u>^ » not *^ e con verse [ fuoj ^S ^tf (DM)] ; 
except in case of exigency, like 

* S /*r" A § A/ 4 S / / S / S S £s&S° /A/ 

[by AlKutamI (M), Tarry thou before the separation, 
Duba'a ,• nor let (in) a place of tarrying be on thy part 
the farewell (Jsh)] and 

Sir's/ )///// ^ */ • A/ A 4/ / Zi'Pr 

[by IJassan Dan Thiibit, As though wine from Bait Has 
(a town in Syria), whereof honey and water were the 
admixture ( Jsh) : these sayings and the verse of the Book 

J> / Ajs • SP / / § K / 2 A • • A/ /$ / / & / 

/ ' jS ' £ 

(M), by Klridash Ibn Zuhair, For verily thou wilt not care 
after a year, whether a gazelle (was, whethei-) it was, thy 
mother, or an ass, i.e. whether thou wast born of a slave 

9a/ 

mother, or not (SM, Jsh), where, however, ^^fe is sub. 

ft / / 

to yjtf suppressed, expounded by the ^J$ mentioned, or 
is an inch., whether a gazelle, it was, #c, though the for- 
mer is preferable, because the interrog. Hamza is more 
appropriate to the verbal than to the nominal prop., and 
in either case the sub. of ^ is a pron. relating to it, 

while in the latter case the evidence is in i_X*J ^JS , the 
pron. of the indet. being here held by S to be indet. (ML), 
are instances of conversion, which security from ambi- 
guity encourage? (M)] : aud as for the reading of Ibn 



( 175 ) 
*Ainir in XXVI. 197., [where there is no exigency (DM),] 

A S/ Stf 

if you make ♦£> att, the J depends upon it, [ *^ being 

a d. s. (B),] '&jJ is its ag., and **U> ^1 a subst. for &>f , 
And was there not for them a sign, that the learned #c?, 
or an enunc. to a suppressed ^ , (which was) that 8pc. ; 
and if you make it non-att., its sub. is the pron. of the 
case, &*l*i y>1 an wm?A., &>l its enunc, and the />rop. the 

y s $sm Ass 

pred. of yjtf [167], or «il is its sw&., ^ its pred., and 
&*!*;> jv>( a subst. or enunc. of a suppressed [ ^ ] } ^ w j 
was «o< ,/br #iem a sign, that fyc, or {which was) that 

i"" ■»' 'A' A J 

#c?; but Zj's allowing &jf to be its sub. and &*Jsu J 
its pred., And was not a sign for them that fyc, is refuted 
by what we have mentioned, [the indet., occurring as a 
sub., and the det. as a pred. (K),] though it is urged that 

the indet. has become particularized by *gf (ML), so as 
to be approximately det. (DM). The pred. occurs as a 
single term, and as a prop, in its [various] divisions (M). 
This prop, must be enunciatory, what has been trans- 
mitted to the contrary being paraphrased [34], as 

fiU-O &3A.U JO ,JO) * ^./^ fj^k .c'/j 

* ? ' ' S SS S ' , f * 

{And be thou reminding me of the noble deeds that I have 
done; and behave thou coyly with the coy behaviour of a 
noble dame skilled in handiwork (Jah)], i.e. ^Juuyjj 
(ML). In Ka'b's saying 



( 170 ) 

a * • 

j* r^ &• 



/ A / («<» A • • 

9 9 h t • A • * A? t * l& 



It having been, or 77taif Aas 6een, diluted, a d. s. [80] or 
^p. to —fyi [74], «?«7A water possessed of exceeding cold- 
ness, of water of a bend in a valley, limpid, in a wide 
pebbly watercourse, that has become in the forenoon such 

* aS 

that it is chilled by the north wind, iJ f^\ may be non- 
att. [452], the prop, after it beiug a pred., and the y red. t 
prefixed by assimilating the enunciative [1] to the cir- 
cumstantial prop. : this construction, however, is allowed 
only by Abu -IHasan and the KK, followed by IM, who 
asserts that it is common on two conditions, that the op. 

* * /Ay 

of the pred. be ^JS or j-xl , and that the pred. be made 
aff. by means of Vl , like 

9 / A / 9 / i»Ar» I % t 9 A • 99/ • £ //A f / / 

JVof a?^ man ftas feen aught 6u£ such that his manner of 
dying has been decreed ; but the periods of death vary and 

p f A»« S<" '«/ 9*** t * / / £ 9 A s /«/ 

iVo* o tifting* is aught 6«< such that in it is learning by 
example, whenever the eye of the intelligent contemplates 
it, and rare in other cases, like 

9h S i" 9' S *° / f 9 K9 / 9/tii/ 9 / ($/ • 9 /*/ f /f 9 / / 



( H7 ) 
And they were men bestowing gifts ; but they have become 
such that the commonest of what they give thee is the 
sidelong glance of hate, in accordance with which is the 

saying of Ka'b (BS). In S^oll gy^J ' JZ J %\ U. 
282. Unless it be merchandise present the ace. is read [by 
'Asim in S^taaJ , as the pred., the sub. being a pron. (relat- 
ing to the pred.) (B),] constructively Sjl»#l ^^G ^1 V\ 
Sj*M&. SjtsJ, like 

UJL&f k-'i'iy 13 Uji ^tf (of * U/U> ^jJU; Ja> ^wf ^ji* 

(K, B), i.e. Uj£,*jaH ^tf (31, [51anti .^sad, verily ye 
shall know our prowess, when it, i.e. the day, shall be a 
day dark, having stars, the sun being obscured by the 
dust of the conflict, hateful (N)]. In XXVI. 197. [167] 

^C may be made fern, while &>l is put into the ace., 

And was not that the learned Sfc. a sign unto them?, like 

** *$ s h»*tb a */ lit a* 
iyS ^1 Iff {%&& ^ ft f VI. 23. Then not aught save 

that they shall say \$c."[ will be the issue of their unbelief, 

» * A f 

I jH» yjf being made fern, because the pred. iafem,, like 
\JU\ i&Jtf yj* [182], whence the verse of LabXd 

. x a * A A x Ss / x *A J!'' *'" ft H ft * ** 

tQ*\tiS\ ubO^c ^ (o( &*« * Sot* ts~M*j Ifl*^ ^jxOti 

[Then he (the wild he-ass) coenl towards the water, and 

made them (the she-asses) to go before, lest they should 

7 



( 178 ) 

lag behind ; and the making of them to go before was a 

custom of his, when they lagged behind : (or here) the v. 
* / 1 f •* s as 

is made fern., ut~»tfj , because by -luji'l he means iuaJu , 

or, as some say, (because) femininizatiou and masculiniza- 

tion of the inf. n. have been transmitted from the Arabs, as 

/.PA • • f A'i A ' s Ai 

i_X>^o j^i*^-^! or ^XJCxa.y Thy beating hurt me (EM)]. 

s s ss ASSsaZ A 3 ss s s 

In vuttfti tgl *$i»U*1 isJUhi XXVI. 3. ^wt^ti. is cor- 
rect as pratf. to the JJ^f , because the o. f is l$J f ^UaS 
i>M , the ,3^t being interpolated to explain the position 
of the submission, and the sentence left in its o. f, And 

S l\$ A s s * 

their necks shall become submissive thereto, like j£>! is-**S>o 

n t ssa^ 

'&+\+jAS The people of AlYatnama are gone, as though 

' A £ , a£ 

the Ji&l had not been mentioned ; or because the ^tusf 

are qualified by submission, which belongs to rational 

* at 
beings, like XII. 4. [442] ; or because the JjlM are the 

chiefs and leaders, likened to the necks, just as they are 
called j*^ ^ ea( k> i^V forelocks, and ^<J-0 breasts, 
as in 

/ w/Ah*) s As s As 'Ass 

S A t *>>" SS A A * 

• • • * f * * 

[by Uram Kais adDabblya (T), Many an assembly, where- 
in thou h.ii sufficed the absent by speaking for them, in 



V 1?9 ) 
a congress of the foremost of the people, witnessed by 

mr° s $ A* ,mt 

many (N),] or multitudes, ^Ulf ^* \** ^^ being 
said of a legion of them, their chiefs, or multitudes, 
shall fyc. (K). In £M U ^>Sy [454] l«J>£5a* lataXJU are 

preds. of ^>S according to the better opinion that plu- 
rality of preds. is allowable in this cat. (J). 

§ 450. ^JS is (t) non-att., as already mentioned: (2) 
att. (M, IA), i.q. ^ , oy y , [ ^ , «u>^, Ji*» , ^ , 

*/* / f '3' *{ t St mtltt" tt 

Jy » r'° > >**" » ^ » or fche like ( J )J» as *** w J "^ ^ 

euerai happened, jjW ^i>*Jf TAe predestined comes to 

9 S tt tt * ' 

pass, j^y^ u/ II. 111. -Be thou. And it is (M), i.e. 

a » \ ,t a j> aj> 

i£a*sba» oL>j^-! Come i/toK into existence. And it cometh 
into existence (K, B), [aud] £M ^UiJl JS fof [432] 

(J): (3) red. (M, IA), as f^j ^tf rfliii 1. ^1 Verify 

A/ 2 / a t s 

of the most excellent of them teas Zaid, fi ^ ^j fly* 

A tttttx" shp**a J A St t A •// 



jj\ [below], and >*» &UXJ( i_^^=cJ| v-^b &*tot» «yijJ» 

*" • S t t 

A99A t t A • J Ax A/ / 

^IJU ^jlJ" ja-^ J ^»a* ^jXj Fatima, the daughter of 

t s 

AlKhurshuh bore the perfect ones of the Bants 'Abs: there 
was not found the like of them (M): according to IU , 
and IM it is red. between two inseparables, like the 
inch, and enunc., the v. and its nom., the con/, and con- 
junct, and the ep. and qualified: but its redundance is- 



( 180 ) 
regular only between U and the v. of wonder, as ^ U 

/ Ss* A * /A S *i 

ft)** ** J* ^ft J3bw accurate was [481] tfAe knowledge 
of them that have preceded/; and elsewhere is only mat- 
ter of hearsay : [this, however, requires consideration,, 
because in the Taudlh and A and elsewhere it is expli- 
citly declared to be regular in all but the prep, and gen. 
(J):] it has been heard between the v. and its nom., like 

£jf &«&l» «i*jJj [above] ; and the ep. and qualified, like 
the saying [of AlFarazdak (J)] 

/ » * n * * f>t t s a •/ y * a ft 

\TJien how will be thy state, toAera *Aow shaltpass by an 
abode of a people and of generous neighbours of oursf; 

though some say that ^ is not red. here, because the 
red. does not govern, whereas it is op., the j being its 
sub. and W its pred., and the jwop. ( \y tf Ul ) either a 
1st cp. of tJtfr* , the 2nd being fSf , or a par. between 
the «p. and qualified, neighbours that belonged to «*, or 
(£/*ey belonged to us), generous; so that the saying 

u>>a^« ^Xf | Ubd| &JLsJ( cite ^* 

/• • / / 

# A • * • Ax / •* *** 

%mf linnrl «tf JtW ' <Ulh ^J 

should be cited instead, Jn £Ae pavilions of the highest 
Paradise, which have become due to them there through 



( 181 ) 
labour recompensed (J)]j and anomalously between the 
prep, and gen.., like 



f hiO / S / stn° / * / / 



<_Afi\ 6« r ~J\ J$ J* * ^U f> ^t ^ »f>~ 

[ 7%e cMe/s o/" /Ae sons <j/" ^6a jBofer mount, orig. ^l***** , 
wpon *Ae branded Arab steeds (J, Jsh)] : it is red. gener- 
ally in the pret., but anomalously in the aor. in the say- 
ing of the mother of 'Akll son of Abu Talib 

JsXt JUi ^t fof * JxJ &*U ^JG o3\ 

(IA) Thou shall be illustrious, excellent, whenever a moist 
north-wind shall blow, meaning for ever, where it is red. 
between the inch, and enunc. ; and none of its sisters is 
red. (J) : (4) that which contains the pron. of the case. 

§ A/ ** x / A * 

The text wJS 6* ,J$ ^J L. 36. For him that hath an 

attentive heart admits of all four (M) : [for] ^15* may be 
non-att., all., or red., wliich is of weakest authority, in 

(&) such as L. 36. and JU SS ^ jjj , [i. e. every con- 
struction with the adv. after the annulling v., and a nom. 
n. after the adv. (DM)] ; the adv. depending upon it, if 

•A A 

it be aft., and upon a suppressed jfj&uwf in the nom. 
[as enunc. of the n. following (DM),] if it be red., in the 
acc, [a.Bpred. of ^JS (DM),] if it be non-alt., unless the 

•A A 

non-att. contain the pron. of the case, the ^f>»Ju*.f being 
then in the nom. as enunc. of the inch., [and the prop, 
the pred. of JS (DM)] : (b) ^ayC* &*jU ^tf ijur ybuG 



( 182 ) 
XXVII. 52. Then look thou, how the issue of their device 
was, except that the non-att. does not contain the pron. 
of the case, because of the interrog., [the pron. of the 
case being expounded only by an enunciatory prop. 
(DM),] and precedence of the pred., [the pron. of the 
case requiring the whole of its exponent to follow it, 

/ A/ 

whereas here i-*a$* , (which would be) part of the expo- 

• A/ 

nent, i. e. the enunc, precedes (DM)] ; (-AaT being a d. $., 
if iJ$ be att., a pred., if it be non-att., and an enunc., if 
it be red. : (c) XLII. 50. 51. [418.. A.], the pred., if it be 

non-att., being either >**** , [and the sub. dlff SJbu A 
(DM),] or l*p-y by suppression of a pre. n., [i. e. jlawf f J 

«• • A • Ay * »t § h, * , , Hi * # 

or -ftsut ^ (DM)] : (d) US i*e) J* *il flP% ere m,^ 

<• * ' ' 

Zairf standing?-, the praJ., if ^tf be raon-a#., being 

either UjG , and ^ an arfw. to it, or ^e! , and USG a 

* r" t AS 

d. s. ; while, if it be att., UJG is a d. s., and ^>f an adv. 
to it or ^ ; and, if red., [ ^.f is the enunc, and (DM)] 
UiG is a d. s. (ML) to the covert pron. [26] in it (DM). 
The non-att. (BS) ^W has (M, BS) two senses, (1) attri- 
butability of its pred. to its sw&. in past time, as i**j ^S 
'>*** £««* was poor; (2) mutation of its sub. from one 
quality to another (BS), the sense of jUo [451] (M), as 



( 183 ) 

* At * /M tiShf/ 3/n* ?t*/t a / // 3 / »/ a/o S */ 

&ilS M^3' t***) &iX+ /Uffi> utJIXJ Uj Jl«saJf ifr***>j 

LVI. 5-7, -4wrf tfAe mountains shall be crumbled with vehe- 
ment crumbling, and become scattered dust, and ye shall 

A / / / AJ>A / 

become three sorts, i. e. i-^jLos and *>y*>y , whence tlio 
/ / 
^JS in the verse [of Ka'b] 

3 sf/i^l& /S // // &// // S A/ 9 // A / / 

"/ £ ' fit 

A / / 

i. e. «y \la , Tlie promises of ' Urteb have become for her 
a proverb ; nor are her promises aught but falsehoods (BS), 
[and,] as is said, in 

/ 9 99 £ / Ik / / */ A / A<*> // /Mt/ £ /A,*/ A/ /»/«/ 

(M) /« o desolate trackless waste; and the riding- camels 
were in rapidity of pace as though the?/ were the Katd 
birds of the hard and rugged ground when their eggs 
have become young birds towards which they walk rapidly 
(Jsh). The yj of ^S is elided, [allowably, uot neces- 
sarily (IA),] in the apoc. of the aor., [contrary to analogy 
(IA), by assimilation to the unsound letters (B on IV. 
44.), for lightness, on account of frequency of usage 

/ A 9A>°/ 9 / A// 

(IA), as ^M?r*JS j-uOJ; XVI. 121. And was not of 

// / 

«J • S $ A// 

the polytheists and t*»> 4-51 J« XIX. 20. Nor have I been 
a harlot (Sh)]; provided that it be not followed by a 
quiescent, [according to S (IA), the suppression not being 

allowable in SyfS ^ii\ ^ J XCVIII. 1. They which 



( 184 ) 
disbelieved were not, because of the presence of the quies- 
cent (Sh), though Y allows that, and \yfS ^J$\ t-C» J 
is anomalously read (IA)] ; nor by an attached pron., [by 
common consent (IA),] the suppression not being allow- 
able in the saying of Muhammad [to 'Umar respecting 

»»*/ /A f ktt sw/S i\t* Jits tf A 

Ibn Sayyad (IA)] && V d) &4* M~Z J* &*&. J 

Ax * * /A t " - * 

&1X» J \J3 y>£- U» [163] If he be he, thou wilt not be 
made to prevail over him; and if he be not he, there will 
be no good to thee in slaying him (IA, Sh), because of the 

a tt a 

presence of the pron. (Sh), so that you do not say &£> ^f 

*», a / * 

and && Mf j . 114 apparently makes no distinction in that 

£ f / A / 

[respect] between the non-att. and att. ^S : and ^ j 

/A tS $• * f *' * 

tgicLdj &i-a- uC IV. 44. ^(«rf «/" Mere fie a good deed, 
He will double the recompense of it is read [by Ibn 
Kathlr and Nafi' (B)], where it is att. (IA). 



§ 451. $** signifies (M, IA) transition (M), [i. e.] 
mutation from one quality [or place] to another (IA); 
and is so used in two ways, [non-aet. and ate.,] the 1st 

0/ t * K> f*>t 8 / S sl\eO , / 

being [exemplified in] l*}*- yj^lj <*** jaW }* The 
poor became rich, and the clay pottery, and the 2nd [in] 
.*** It j^j j*e Zaid went, or proceeded, to i Amr i whence 

Jf «V1 JJ ^t« ^ JT Every living thing & tending to 
annihilation (M). 



( 18b ) 

• / AjE y a£ • A $ 

§ 452. £**<?f, 4^-^lj and LS sa*«l (M, IA) (1) con- 
nect the purport of the prop, with the specific times, 
morning, evening, and the forenoon, after the method of 
yjtf , [being thus non-att.] (M) ; [and] mean that the sub. 
is qualified by the pred. iu the morning, evening, and 
forenoon, respectively (IA) : (2) import the meaning of 

tt hi 

entering upon these times, like j$&! He entered upon the 

tthi 

time of noon in the summer season and ^A He entered 
upon the third part of the night commencing from the 

m A Si 

end of twilight, being thus att. ; [(thus) in jJ] is^ia* 

/ AJ t S^ Ax X x x 

(449) ^£53*0] may be att., i. q. ^fa^J] d-j'^ ^ J^o , the 

prop, after it being a d. s., and the ^ the j of inception 
(80), that has entered upon the time of the forenoon whita 

m * t hit » x hi 

it is $c. (BS); in £J| l^sw^G (458) t;=w^f is att. (J); 
and] 'Abd aiWasi' Ibn Usama says 

X h*> S t t Si XXX Ax 

^yiM ^^ ^f jK*i ^5 

t ah t t hi Smth ZtO Sthi^o x 

t&iMk. ^gsa^f sLg£J{ &UUI lol 

And of mine actions is that I am good at hospitality, when 
the cold gray nighfs hoar-frost enters upon the forenoon : 

X X X / hi 

(3) arc i.q. j^> , [being thus again non-att.,] as £*-af 

S t § ht ft t ht 

Uii o^j and tjft«> ,js****' 2oirf became rich and became 

s t 

poor; 'Adi says 

P*S*>t t S«o A xa5/ 2 $ x 9 xx A.»3<£x Ax A? 5J 



( 186 ) 

77ien they became as though they were leaves that had 
become dry, and that the east wind and the west wind had 

a x ni 

whirled away (M) : [and] u>***#f in 

a //h-v f t Sr" t r fii" 2 tP«ft * tii s / a A t Ki 

[by Ka'b,] may be to restrict the attributability of the 
pred. to the sub. by the time of evening, Su'dd has become 
at evening in a land that not aught reaches save the noble, 

quick-paced, high-bred camels; or may be i. q. »*j)t«0, 
like 

9/SK>" sStii * tit/ ttu/f A t hi 

s9 * t f hi S/o /«// t hi 

°^ <J* LS 1 ^ iS^' K Q$* L^ 
t * 

[by An Nabigha adh Dhubyani] // has become a desert, 
and its people have become such that they have journeyed 
away : what marred Lubad has marred it (BS). 

§ 453. J& and *&A> mean (M, IA) (1) connection 
of the purport of the prop, with the specific times after 
the method of ^ (M), [i. e.] that the sub. is qualified 
by the pred. by day and by night respectively (IA): one 
says J*«£ J-& when he does by day, and J»-flj m-A> when 
he does by night ; a woman said 

9 / A i 1 ' A** 3 As h 9 Ht h^s 9 / A £ J 5; y xaS J§ y£ 

I pasture cattle % flfos//, iw/ gn/sr/ com %/ flight; and 



( 187 i 
death is more tolerable than some kinds of life (BS) : (2) 

' ' * S / *ti£l»o ha a / i / mJ> t / 

i. q. $* , whence the text Ji& J$i\> Jfcjcwf yiL> \j>t } 

S /h a aa a , ' ' i. 

\dy~+ «^a»^ XVI. 60. And when one of them is informed 
of the birth of the female, his face becometh black (M) : 

3 t / / 

[similarly] JJ& is i. q. yle in 

* ah/ hi ,o a f , $ i, * t a a a~/h h* $ / t *h* 

J^L** ...+ JSA b HjaIc Af # Ijaala^u /U>sbJ| & JJ&j Uy, 

/ f "t / / tt ' ' 

[by Ka'b,] On a day wherein the chameleon becomes burnt 
by the sun. as though the exposed part of him were baked 
by the sun (BS). 

§ 454. Such as have iu their beginnings the neg. t [pro* 

hibitive, or deprecatory,] p. have one sense, perpetuity of 

1 1 t 
the act by its ag, in his time (M) : [for] Ji j U and its 

sisters signify the inseparability of the pred. from the sub. 

<* t iht t t t 
according to what the case requires, as K=J*a i*jj Jf j U 

/ /hi i A t / / / 

Zaid has not ceased to be laughing and Jf jjf ^j*« Jlj U 

ii/h/h<e 
^jjA***'! 'Amr has not ceased to be blue-eyed (IA). It is 

' m / hr° / ti 

said that in «*M ,c*M k W [59] be intends benediction, 
but imprecates ruin upon it [the dwelling] : the reply, 

^ / h^ 

however, is that he guards himself first by saying t5 *M ; 

/ / * 

and that J<) and its sisters require the attributability of 

the pred. to the sub. in accordance only with the current 

m /a iht / / / 

custom in the case of the like thereof, as ,J*a>. *t) Jlj U 
Zaid has not ceased to pray j for it means Since the act of 



( 188 ) 

praying became feasible on his part, he lias not omitted it 

in its appointed times, not Since he was created, he has 

•ot a ased to pray night and day, without remission (BS). 

J'3 ** » r)* *"•> ■'us** *"* > u - i *'' *•*> an ^, in most cases, 
'/) ^, [<«*) ^ (EM),] i.e. ^ U [or J|) (EM)], 
are used only in denial, as in the saying of Al A'sha 

A S A' S AX 3 / • ./ A li / t /fi •£ 

*jj J fo! ^a=w U6 * UjJl* j.y* If UO! bf 

O my father, cease thou not to be besides us; for verily 
we are in well-being when thou ceasesl not to be beside us 
(D). The precedence of negation is absolutely made a 
condition of the government of -$ , Jlj , &c., only 
because they are neg., and, when a neg. is prefixed to 

**s 9 As * s s § hs 

them, become off., so that UitS ojj J|j U means «*£> 

^eu Lx> J$ : and like negation are prohibition and 

' ** f 

pi-ayer by means of V exclusively ; which resemble nega- 
tion because the object of them is omission, and nega- 
tion denotes that (J). Since [then] in them negation 
is prefixed to negation, they follow the course of ^JS in 

* * 2 i A/ ft • 

being off. ; so that U*i. Mf i*ij Jlj U is not allowable, 
and Dhu -rRumma is taxed with error in saying 



( 18» ) 

i8 • A/ # / /S 5 

[88] (M), the sense being ^»I*»J , and 'idJX* Iff a void 

exc, which is forbidden in affirmation, so that you make 

Vl red., Long-bodied she-camels that cease not, i. e. that 

continue, to be made to kneel down in abasement, [or 
hunger (Jsh)], or wherewith we traverse a desert region 
(DM). The neg. is [sometimes] suppressed (M, IA); 
[as] says the wife of Saliin Ibn Kuhfaa [al'Ambarl (T)] 

J*a. *£». ^J* l$i* Ji** U t$J # l&O^j cwU^t j)Us* Jfo 

f * ' / * 

[ Cords twisted of two strands, which I will make ready, 
shall (not) cease to be for them, so long as a he-camel of 
them shall walk upon his foot (T)], and Imra alKais 

[ Then said I, By the oath of God (655), /atf// (not) cease 
to (>e silting near thee, even though they sever my head 
beside thee and my joints (Jsl»)], and [another] 

bt St 3 / t t ^S / / J> s A t $ s\ s 

SJyZi ^j^ uXllgJ us-» u=>. U £**yj uXiw 

TTiow s/*a/£ (wo/) ct'a*c /o /*<?«/*, w img- aw //tow */ia// /t'yg, 
of one perishing, until thou be it, and the Revelation 

(Ju»^. yoJ jXiu &UG XII. 85. By Ood, thou wilt (not) 
cease to remember Joseph (M) : regularly, [however,] only 
after the oath, [aud when the v. is an am;, and the neg. 

V exclusively (J)], like XII. 85., [i.e. S yUo V , the neg. 
p. being suppressed, because it cannot be confounded with 



( 190 ) 
affirmation, since, if it were ajf., the J and ^ would be 
indispensable (K)] ; and anomalously without the oath, 
like the saying [of Khidash Ibn Zahair (J)] 

t fififtifi&fOh* A/ pii,o f s$. , s/t\i/ 

fOASM ISloJuU &Uf J ^ 3 3L> * ^M» SU\ Jjf U of. 

i.e. c j>! V, [.^neT / «Aatf («o£) cease, «?Ai/« Ood preserves 
my people, through the praise of Ood to be possessor of a 
girdle, to be master of a gallant steed (J)]. 

§ 455. A& means Remained and Continued (IA): 
„!o U fixes the time for the act in l«*J^ cu~«o U «Ja.| 
1 sAaW «< *o long as, or eoMe, //*<we continuest to be sitting, 

f Sit St* 

as though you said uX-»y^ pl^o during the continuance 

of thy sitting, like fsJJI J^L »-*wf and ^l=i| fl iJu 
[65]; and for that reason it needs to be adjoined to a 
sentence, because it is an adv., [so -that] it cannot dis- 
pense with what happens in it 

§ 456. j-^ means negation of the purport of the 

suit** r*s § A/ f n/ 

prop, in the present; you say JU\ U>£ i*j»j j-jJ Zaidis 

* ? r*f § A/ /A/ 

not standing now, but not Id* U>6 ^j j-J (M) : [or] 
w hen used unrestrictedly, it denotes negation of the pre- 

(! ,./ ! «/ ' Ax 

sent, as Uit* i**} J**^ 2a*<* ** not standing, i.e. now; 
but when restricted by a time, it is in accordance there- 



( 131 ) 
with, as ?<** l*$G <H) j»i? Zaid will not be » 
to-rmrrow. ^ and its sisters are all vs. by common 

- Ay 

consent, except j~*J , which the majority hold to he a 
v., but F in one of his two sayings and Abu Bakr Ibn 
Shukair hold to be a p. (LA) : what proves it to be really 
a v. is that the prons, and quiescent «*> of femininization 

, A/- J> '*<° ' ' 

are affixed to it. Its o. /. is «-ftJ , like #**M **?<> The 

9 / / 

he-camel had the disease termed <±i*e [707] (M). The 

/A/ * 

Banu Tamim give J***) the predicament of U in being 

2 x A/ 

made i»op. when the negation is infringed by Vf , as ^j~*S 
uCm»» H V( t_^Aloff 2%c perfume is not aught 5u£ wi 
(ML). 

§ 457. As regards precedence of the pred. these vs. 
are of two kinds: (1) in those that have U at the begin- 
ning the pred. precedes the sub., but not the v.; (2) in 
the rest the pred. precedes the sub. and the v. (M). If 
the pred. of any of these vs., plastic or aplastic, be not 
necessarily prior or posterior to the sub., as in ^ ^ 
tgAa-Utf ^lijJJ In live house was its owner, where the sub. 
may not precede the pred., lest the pron. relate to a [word] 

posterior literally and in natural order, and in ^f .tf 

/ '' 

^JU*^ My brother was my companion, where Jus » may 

not precede, if it is to be pred., because that would not 



( 1!>2 ) 
be known, the inflection being uuapparent, it may inter- 
vene between tbe v. and sub. : the Kur'an says tSaw Jfj 

*AJl,«£jf ^ai CUl* XXX. 46. And incumbent upon Us 
ft 
was the helping of the believers (IA); [and] this verse [of 

Ka'b] 

S sb-t thtutOt uitti*>9St-t t si t 9tt tt 

^4nrf i» whose valley a valiant man confident in his own 
valour, having his weapons and worn-out garments cast 

It ttl^> t ti 

away, devoured, ceases not to be, is like iJl 1 -J**f b 1/J 

t 

[59] in the intervention of the pred. (BS). It has been 

t At 

disputed, however, whether the pred. of j~jJ [458] or 

t / 

Jo may precede its sub. ; but the correct [view] is that 

it may: says the poet [As Samau'al Ibn 'Adiyil (T, J) 

alGhassani the Jew (J)] 

t Stt % t 0l»t t t t\tt SSAtt St t Z.*> A / A f 

[Question thou, if thou be ignorant, the people concerning 
us and concerning them ; for a knower and an ignorant 
are -not equal (T, J)] ; and the [other] poet 

/tm>t a /h^* t i»<c ss St #t$t9i\ttt a /h , t 

i>y3Mj *a**»M ^Ob iO'lJJ « Ht^kL* o^lo U fLxxli { _^»Jb> If 
t t t 1 1 t t ' t 

[Life has no delicioumess, so long as its pleasures continue 

to be troubled bij the remembrance of death and decrepi- 

<\ t t 
tude, though, since it may be said that the sub. of is^-»!tJ 

# t 3 / t 

is a pron. relating to the pleasures, 6«akk+ its pred., and 



( 193 ) 
tflJJ prolog, of &«aix» , so that it is a case of contest, 

• t ^t it 9 99 2/ 

j»f J and &>fi*i* contesting £>f JJ , which is governed by 
the 2nd and pronominally expressed in the 1st, not of 
precedence of the pred. before the sub. y because that 

* St 9 twt& 

involves separation of the op. &*aii* from the reg. j$ob 

99 St ' ' ' 

by means of an extraneous (word) S3] jJ , it is better to 
cite the saying of the poet 

9 A t A t m 9 t t t t r 

* ti 9ht t 9 tt* m<a t \t 

]l±>\ &U U*^) Ui**J ^liJl J$» 

So long as he that I have confided in shall continue to be 
regardful of mine affection, he will be the one that I shall 

never be desirous of forsaking, where &>ls*. the pred. of 

, t 

ft A / t y 

[•to precedes its sub. ^* (J)]. The pred. of j.Jo may not 

t t t 

precede the U , but may precede plo alone, so that you 

ist t t # <•/ t t 9 t l\£ t 

say i*j»3 f»fo UjIS U u£jm*>| 1/ I shall not accompany thee 
so long as Zaid continues to be standing, like as you say 

t A fit lit t t 9 t A S t 

ts^Jf tt*i3 ** t-^J 33 "*! ^ ^ 4" c> *° ^ on # a * ^ i0M speakest 

to Zaid. According to IM the pred. may not precede the 

t 
neg. U , whether negation be a condition of government, 

t t t 
as in J!) '•♦ and its sisters, or not; so that you do not say 

^•3 \$) ** ^^ » though IK and An Nahhas allow it, nor 

i A/ t / t # mt 

***3 u)^ *"* **'** » tuou o h some a ^low it : and he implies 

t 

1 a 



( 194 ) 

that when the neg. is something else\than U the preee* 
dence is allowable, as k*£j J# ^ ^^ an d yj% f* &&**<• 

$A, ' ' 

o** , though some disallow it ; and that the pred. may 
precede the «?. alone when the neg. is U , as JU LiG U 

jjj au ^ ^3 u>^ ^** ^ » though some disallow it (IA). 

' A ' 

«-J has been contrariwise held to be of the 1st kind; 

but the [rule] first [mentioned] jis the correct one (M) : 

/■ A/ 

the GG dispute whether the pred. of ^j-ri may precede 
it; the KK with Mb, Zj, IS, and most of the moderns 
including IM, disallowing, and F, [Z,] and Ibn Burhan 
allowiug, it, while S is declared by some to have allowed, 
and by some to have disallowed, it : nor has anything 
been transmitted from the Arabs where its pred. appears 

A fin / # J> A/ / A/ A %t t ft/ /? 

to precede it ; but in ^ l^^o* j~d ^yb r ^ Iff XI. 
11. Now surely on the day that it shall come to them it 
shall not be averted from them the reg, of its pred. appears 

A %, ,ht 

to precede it (IA) : hence it is argued that, since fQ&t j»y. 

* S A ' t A/ ' ' ' 

is governed by [b)y** (IA)] the pred. [of j~d (K), and 

J A/ 

precedes «•*£* (IA),] whereas the reg., [being a follower 
of the op. (K),] precedes only where the op. precedes, 
the pred. of j>*d may precede j-aJ (K, IA). In uiJfii 
£JJ J*f [597] JT is governed in the ccc. by kswU , an 
instance where the reg. of the pred. precedes [another 
sister of] Jf (SM). 



( 195 ) 

§ 458. According to IM ^Jf and its sisters may not 
be immediately followed by the reg. of the pred. wben 
neither an adv. nor prep, and g-en. This comprises two 
eases: — (1) that the reg. alone should precede the sub., 

S / S S S ' 

the pred. itself being posterior to the sub., as i_X«Uk ^tf 
UJ"f fcJij » w Weh is disallowed by the BB, but allowed by the 
K.K : (2) that the reg. and pred. should precede the sub., 
and the reg. precede the pred., as ojj H**l uX»l*b .tf , 
which is disallowed by S, but allowed by some of the 
BB, It is deducible from his language that the pred. and 
reg. may precede the sub. when the pred. precedes the 

reg. ; because then ^ is not immediately followed by 
the reg. of its pred, as »^.) lX#UL> Ufl ^tf jgewtf wa* 
eating thy food : and this is not disallowed by the BB (IA). 
If the reg. be an adv. or prep, and gen. (IA, Sh), it may 

be put immediately after ^ (IA), [so that] ^JS may be 
separated from its two regs. by the reg. of its reg. (Sh), 
according to the BB and KK (IA), without dispute (Sh), as 

tS^S/ts*/' ft 

l*jyu Jjj i-foi* ^ Zaid was staying with thee and ^ 

tjif^ a^j t-X*» Zosid kkw wishing for thee (I A), as is 

' ' «/* «*• 

proved by CXU. 4. [404], wfcM being sub. of ^ and 

Vff its prerf. (Sh). S makes a d'atiuction as regards priority 
or posteriority of the adv. between the non-essential and 
the predicative; approving of priority when it is predica> 



( 196 ) 

/ h JA / ) / f / / / j 

tive, like t-XL* ^y&. j^f lg*» ^tf U Not any one better 
than thou has been in it, and posteriority when it is non- 

/ / h & A • 4 /% f* / 

essential, like tyg \-&* 1^. k*a*f ^tf U Not any one 
Aas Secw 6eWer //tan thou in it: and adds that the people 

0SP DJ>/ lit/ 

of rudeness [the Arabs of the desert] read \*<f$ ^i fo 

9/2 9/ 

jo>! Sl CXII. 4. (M), the adv. being orig. posterior as 

fat * t 

adjunct of J jaf (B). Instances where ^J$ and its sisters 
are apparently followed immediately by the reg. of the 
pred., [such reg. not being an adv. or prep, and #e». 
(J),] are to be explained by holding that ^ [or its 
sister} contains a latent pron., the pron. of the case: thus 

ft// ih/ss//// 

the saying £lf oiUa [1], apparently like d^j *-&b&° ^ 

Jf\ , [which is allowed by the KK, because the reg. of 

/ 

the reg. is in their opinion a reg. of the op., not extraneous 
to it, but disallowed by the BB, because in their opinion 
the reg. of the reg. is not a reg. of the op., but extraneous 
to it, so that separation of the op. from its reg. by an 
extraneous (word) results (J),] is explained by the hypo- 

thesis of a latent pron., the pron. of the case, in ^S , 

which is its sub., the subsequent prop, of &ia* inch, and 

* at/ »*S ' ,%/ 

jj* enunc. being the p^tf., and J&bf the oi;'. of o»* , 

/ / £■ 

so that yjtf is not separated from its sub. by the reg. of 
the pred., because its sub. is understood before the reg. j 



( 1^7 ) 
and the saying [of Huuiaid Ibn Tlmur alArkat (J)] 

^L^Jf JUS ^iJ! J/ j-*!) 



apparently like jj) Hff lXiUIo ^jW, [(or rather) ^ 
i*i3 JA>. uC«Uk , which is allowed by the KK and 
some of the BB, namely IS, F, and IU («JT),] is also 
explained [by the majority of the BB (J)] through sub- 
audition of the pron. of the case as sub. of j*^J , [lest 
there result what has been before mentioned, and preced- 
ence of the verbal pred. of j-*d before its sub. (457), 
which is disallowed (J),] ^yJJ Jf being governed in the 
ace. by JU3, which with its ag. ^/l**J\ is the pred. 

of j»d (Ik), And they, the guests, ate so many dates 
that they entered upon the time of morning, while date- 
stones were rising above their place of lodging in the 
night, although (the case) was not that the beggarly 
wretches were throwing away all of the date-stones (J). 



CHAPTER IX. 



THE VERBS OF APPROPINQUATION. 



§ 459. The vs. of app. are 6$, ^/ , lX£j1 , 

/ f x/A/A • / • • * * % /A? //J / t s 

i5****> i3V^' ^' 3^' J 1 *' LiJt ' •***'» *■***» 
v-^JB , and J#2> (Sb). Thej are a division of the annul- 
ling vs. It is not disputed that they are vs., except ^g** 
(IA), which [correctly (I A)] is a v., [as is proved by the 
attachment of the usj of the ag. and its sisters to it, as 

/ A • / AJ>A / • S«// 

ui^A-is, Ju u i« ff t ^*r** (IA),] not a p. [of hope, like 
J^i (J), absolutely (ML),] as held by Th and IS (IA, 
ML), nor when attached to the ace. pron., as in uXU ttjl b 
£J? [169] , as held by S according to Sf (ML). AH, how- 
ever, imagines gf- to be only gf- Fit with Tanwln, a 
n. not a ». ; but he is mistaken, the saying of AlA'sha 

Ax Ax • " A S* A*x A 

J-*^- «*** ^ uJ- ^ J*i c)^ 



Utfj UHo ^ J s yB» 
If he say, They are of the Banu 'Abd Shams, may- 
hap that will be, and it will be being cited by lexico- 
logists as an ex. of it (Sh). They [are named vs. of 
app., though they do not all denote app., but (IA)] 



( 199 ) 
indicate (1) [the sub.'a (Sb)] app. [to the pred. (Sh)], 

i. e. otf , ^>/ , lX£>)\ ; (2) [the speaker's (Sh)] hope 

t * * f fsKt A 

[for the pred. (Sh)], i. e. ^v* , gf* , and J 1 ^' ; (3) 
[the sub.'s (Sh)] commencement [of the pred., which are 
numerous, seven being here mentioned, so that the vs. 
of this cat. are completed to 13, like those in the cat. of 
JS (Sb)], i.e. J~., J**, Jif, 31*, UJI (IA,Sh), 
w-^2), and J$la> (Sh): therefore naming them vs. of 
app. is a sort of synecdoche (IA). They govern like 
^S ; and, were not their pred. distinguished by predica- 

ments not belonging to ^ and its sisters, they would 
not be separated by a cat. to themselves (Sh). They [are 
prefixed to the inch, and enunc; and (IA)] put the inch. 
into the nom. [as their sub. (IA)], and the enunc. into 
the [position of an (IA)] ace. (IA, Sh) as their pred. (IA). 

Their pra£. is a verbal prop, j and ba**** in Lxu**^ ,%&« 
jUUlfl^ J^^ XXXVIII. 32. And he began to cut off 
with the sword the legs and the necks is not pred. of 

t ' * ' A<" 

\a!a , but an itt/I n. to a suppressed pred, i. e. ^****i, 

# A • 

bcu«* (ML). It is an aor. (IA, C, Sh) v., conjoined with 

A * • • 

[the infinitival (C)] yj! or denuded of it (C, Sh), as ^**s 

btf * hf A ? Af£' 

*C^».^ ^ f£>) XVII. 8. May be your Lord will have 

s A a *at>s a ?, 

mercy upon you and s^i. *€%; ol£» XXIV. 35. Whose 



( 200 ) 
oil well-nigh giveth light of itself (Sh) : rarely a [single 

(C)] n. [after ^g*** and cfS (IA)], as in the saying [of 
Ru'ba Ibn AI'Ajjaj (Jsb)] 

f Mf * A// u A / AJ> • •««<» 5 J> A • «,« / A/A# 

[Thou hast abounded in railing, persisting with cease- 
less persistence. Do not thou abound; for verity I, may 
be 1 shall be abstaining from hearkening to thy speech 

w bf f 9 <&t 

(J)] and £H f& J\ u*i* [409] (IA,C); or a nominal 
prop., as in 

9 t tf/fif /A?A«« • A/ 9 A •*<» 9 9t f A/ • A •• 

^jS l#Jj« ;t/Vf yj* * JA€~ ^1 ^y* e>J«a. oSj 
/• < ' * 

[TAe young she-camel of the two sons of Suhail having 

begun to be so jaded that her place of pasturing is near to 

the camel-saddles (T, Jsh)] ; or pret. v., as in the saying of 

//A? *9 A * A? A / A / A/ •' .P.0 3,0 / , , , 

Ibn 'Abbas J-;l E >»» ^1 ^aw ^ to| Ja.yi J*s*» 

Vy«^ 2%en /Ac man set about, when he was not able to go 
forth, sending a message or messenger (C) : and has not 
been heard as an adv., prep, and gen., nominal prop., or 

verbal prop, without the aor., -when pred. of ,j*»** or otf 

(IA). The nom. of the pred. of otf and its sisters, except 

^jc , must be a pron. [relating to the sub. (DM)], as 

9 at §*• f * s si a a, *$ §n, ,, 

«yj*i ^i.) otf, not 8^1 <^j*£; whereas ^1 o^j ^m** 

, ^/ 9 9i * 9t 

pjHi or 8j>t ,.j«i is allowable, so that the pred. governs 
the connected, [i. e. n. pre. to the pron. of the sub. (DM),] 



( 201 ) 
in the nom., though not the extraneous, as -f oj) -*** 

S t A S/is t ** M $// , , 

S^le jy** pfii, [save rarely, as £J| ^.^ ^^w: (below) 

' § tt 

(J)]: and e )* in the saying of Iludba [Ibn Khashram 

al'Udhri (N)] £»l v^' ^5-** [461] is not sub. of ^tf, 
but an inch., whose enunc. is the adv., the pro/), beino> 

' ' AxA 

pr<?d. of ^ , the su&. of which is the jpron. of i^->>flf ; 

A* m -9 A t t Ktt 

while ^y in £U is-k». tWj [467] is a subst. of iinpli- 

' «•// .PA* 

cation for the «■» of e^l**- , not ag. of ^i*^ (ML). 

t * ' • • a? 

The vs. of this cai. are not plastic, except otf" and i-££>f , 

• f H t t 2ft 

from which the aor. is used, as ^)> lfl — £ u);- 5 ^ XXII. 
7 1. TViey a>'e upon the point of laying violent hands and 

*• S' A / .? ,» ••A? 

£S ? i£* *-&~yi [466], and in the case of t~*~jl is the 
tense most frequently used, the use of the pret., though 
related by Khl and transmitted in poetry, as jJ\ Ji~ y » 
[466], being rare ; and the act. part., as 

' ' ' j> j> t „ ' 

[by Abu Sahui allludhall, i. e. ^f-y «=^te , And our 
land is on the point of becoming after the cheerful com- 
panion a haunt ofwild beasts, desolate (J)] and 

* <•<• •£ 3,0 5 lift fit S / •UK* /A/ #? .» .pS 

*w ui s &\> jt>j uxi. * ^ui j r b.yi f;d ^.1 oy r l 

• ft / t f. t t 

[by Kuthayyir Ibn 'Abd ArRabman, .4«d J was almosi 



( 202 ) 
dying of grief on the day of the combat of ArRijam, 
token verily I was certainly pledged to what I was on the 
point (of undergoing), i. e. determined not to flee from en~ 

n » si 

countering' what I expected in it, J»M usjy] being pred. of 
«yof • in the preceding verse, and the pred. of i*5tf , i. e. 
&*j! or &£>Ml , suppressed ; while Ibn Hisham mentions 
that some relate an inf. n. «-£l^if (J)]. The author of the 
Insaf, however, relates the use of the aor. i j^*i and act. 
part, ^j-t* from ^j-** , Jh the aor. of £fio } and Es the 
aor. of J**- • The vs. ^*^ , $£*A , and uC&^f are 
distinguished by being used non-attributively, as before 
mentioned, and attributively. The att. is what is attri- 
buted to yjl and the «., as f ^i ^ ^*& It may be that 
7te to^/ s&md, j^ti yjt 3*^*' ^ wos likely that he would 

//A/ « J / / AS 

come, and J**A ^ u<&jl JJ was wear at hand that he 

a i 

should do ; ^ and the v., in the position of a nam., being 

/./ * ' A/ A * fit 

ag. of cS «* , 3*/*"' » an( ^ ui "^' J and they being there- 
by enabled to dispense with the ace, which is their pred. 

A i 

This is when the v. after ^f is not followed by an expli- 
cit n. that may be governed in the nom. by it. But. 

§lis a S, A £ ft 

if it be so followed, as i*j) »fi ^ ^*» [below], the 

a£ 

explicit n. is governed in the nom. by the v. after ^ , 



hi 
(1) according to Shi, necessarily; ^f and what follows 

it being ag. to ^f* , which is alt. and has no pred. ; so 

/A3<« x St A i xx 

that in the «?«., j>£, and yfem. you say ^ J^ff ,.yL> ^f t5 **rf 

X J»A3««> J xA Ax» / J/ ' 

and ygpifS and cwf«fci$M j»^*», without putting &pron. 

hi ' 

in the v. [after ^1 ], because it governs the explicit n. 
after it in the nom.: (2) according to Mb, Sf, and F, 

• X A 2 

allowably: or by ,_$*»**, as its sub.; ^ and the v. being 
in the position of an ace. to ^j**-* , [as its pred.,} pre* 

A $ 

ceding the sub. ; and the ag. of the «•. after ^i being a 
pron. relating to the sub. of ,^-rf , allowed to relate to it 
though posterior, because it is prior in natural order; so 

•A3 /^ X .»X A ? XX X .PASrO J ,»x 

that you say ^Iv*^! Uj£> ^f ^^e and yy-HJfl ^^*i 

* x A A.O / A*/ 

and issfjAgH yj-Si, putting a jprora. in the y., because 
the explicit n. is not governed in the nom. by it, but by 

XX xx xxAx A 

^j--* (IA). The pred. of ,£;--» and jf£*»l must be con- 

A 5 X /Ax A £ S Ax XX ' 

joined with ,^1 , [as J*«e ^t <-V»3 ,5^ Mayhap Zaid 
u»7J «to and jia«J ^J *t**Jf iaJ3jl£.t 7%e s% was &'£e/y 

X X 

to r«« (Sh)]. The prea*. of t5 «"** is generally, [and 

A $ 

always in the Kur'an (IA),] conjoined with ^ , as XVII. 

AxA^ X ft/ A $ *1<*» X XX 

8. [and £&Jb Jk Jt &Uf ^^ V. 57. 2%«* may 60 
Gorf will bring vieton/ (IA)] ; and is [seldom according to 



( 20* ) 
6, only in poetry according to the majority of the BB 
(IA),] denuded of it, as 

shi t t at ~a at ai ait^a bt § t* tt 

tt t t & £ tt t 

(IA, Sh) May be comfort, God will bring it. Verily He 



every day has business among His creatures (J) and i y*^ 

ftf 9 A tlir& t t 

iff *~>^SS [461] (IA). ( j*»e is used in several ways 

A? 

(ML): [followed by ^ ,] it has two constructions (M): 

t 9t A f § lit t t 

(1) +jpi ^jf ojj ^mh : (a) according to the majority, 

a ft § Ht t t 

this is like ffk «*dj ^ ; which is deemed dubious, 
because the pred. is renderable by the inf. n., while the 
sub. is concrete, whereas accident is not identical with 
substance; but it is replied that a pre. n. is supplied 

t t Aco lit aii$ t t 

before the sub., i.e. ^USJf jjj y*\ | _ s ***, or pred., i.e. 

t S<° t t ilit t t ' * $ A t §At 

-UiUI L^s*\*a ^ ^f* , or that it is of thecal of J<±e ^ 

and fy° : (b) according to S and Mb (ML), ^^ is [a 

t 1 1 
v. trans. (ML),] equivalent to v-^S (M, ML) in sense 

and government (ML), having a 720m. and ace, save that 

a i 
its ace. must be ^jt with the v., renderable by the inf. n., 

taut n $ § hs t t t a a A** 4 nt t t t 

like z f*i. d >H) ^e i.q. E ;>»M *i) v; S ( M )j or 

a i a t at 

inlrans., equivalent to ^ ^* ^f , the prep, being sup- 

' A $ 

pressed by extension (ML) : it is best to make ^1 with 
its conj. a direct obj. by ellipse of the prep. t and the v. 



( 205 ) 

hi t tht hi t h t t 

before it att. ; S says that the ^ in Jj«& ^ us^**e is 

/ tht Af t ht t t tht hi t ht t 

equivalent to that in J*& ^jl *»>£ or J*& ^1 «t*yo , 

y /Ay A £ / t 

which proves that J*& ^ after ^j-*"* is not a pred.; 

and the truth is that the vs. of app. are coordinated with 
/ * hi 

JS when the v. after them is wo* conjoined with ^1 , not 

$ ht t 3t hi t t t t 

when it w(C): (2) i*i) fjiii ^ ^^e : here ^a-* is (a) 
att. (ML), equivalent to i_>j? , having only a mm., save 
that its nom. is yjl with the v., renderable by the inf. n. 

ihttPhthi t t 3 3 3 3 t 3t 

like iH) zftH ^ i £ M * i.q. **#*• v/ ( M ); ( D ) now * 

oft., a*} being its <m&., and his pron. in j»^Sj» , not in 

* / 
jyx* , unless indeed the two ops, be assumed to contest 
% ht * * 

o*. j , in which case the pron. may be in ^^ , the 2nd 

iht t 3t hi t t 

being made to govern : whereas in ^ ■**.) fja* ^J ^*jt 

£ «0 fhtihtththitt 

yi*i| and fj*« <±i) <~*yh ^ lS -** : it must be att., lest 
' hi ' a *> 

the conj. of ^jt be separated from its reg. [ ^loJI ^ 

t t 

*ht $ h, t t 

(DM) and] l^ws by the extraneous u*> j «t&. of ^g**z ; e. g. 

3 h t f 1 1 t St t tt ht hi t t 

fOj*3M Lli» uO^ l_Xaxu ^jt ^jm** XVII. 81. [.ft may fle 

Mai thy Lord will raise thee on the day of resurrection, 

aud station thee in a station extolled (K)] : IM, however, 

hi 
says that in his opinion it is always non-ait., but that ^f 

and its conj. supply the place of the two terms, as in 



( 2oe ) 

lyy^d ^t jMi\ lj+ma] XXIX, l. Have the people thought 
that they should be left?, since no one says that i_w»a. 
has here become excluded from its general rule: (3) 
pj*i <H) ^s****, which is nncommoD, as £ff «— 7^' i g** 
[461] : (4) Lit? ojj j^-**, which is more uncommon, as 

m / Ay A? ' * *A* .PA XJ>A»" X • 

£M xsjfSS and the prow. L^*| ^»^il| ^g*** [460] Pcr- 
Aaps the little cave may be calamities; correctly, however, 

*A? » S* s *i 

the prerf. is here suppressed, i.e. t*jil ^fi. and ^y"! 
Lito , [or rather ^jfe ^f and ^y"! ^1 (MA),] because 
that preserves the general usage, and because what is 
hoped for is his being abstaining, not the abstainer him- 
self: (5) f j***- *H) jj**** i which is very rare, as ^*ti 
Alt s^le [578] : and in these [(last) three usages (DM)] 

S / * ********* 

-«»* is indubitably non-att.: (6) ,«£****, fc-£t«*, SLuut, 
which is uncommon [169, 462] ; (7) ^S **ij lS - ** trans- 
mitted by Th, which is explained by its being non-att. t 
its 4 lib. being the pron. of the case, and the nominal prop, 
the pred. (ML). 

* * 

§ 460. otf has - a swft. and prarf., its prerf. being an 

S*h* %h* tf 

aor. tenderable by an act. part., as gf**t *H) otf Zaid 

* - a a • 

was on the point of going out: but 1*5 f uw^ U [409] 
has been transmitted according to the o. /., like ^^-we 



( 207 ) 

#»hi ah*ah/> 



L,£f ^yjf [459] (M). The pred. of otf is generally 

M a * * * * h/ k 

denuded of ^jf , as II. 66. £(1) and y$ otf U a*> g* 

hth h * a a a / * 

*$U jJ}» w^b EX. 118. -4/?er that the case (167) too* 

almost this) lAe Aeor/is o/ a pangf o/ //jsctw ttfere swerving 
(IA)] } and is [seldom according to IM, only in poetry 
according to the Andahlsians (IA),] conjoined With it, as 

aa* t h* * h * *t A ktt * * hi 4 ass iO * j 

tiy)i) &*l) y***- f<J>* of * «*ltf ^fi** yjt «MftA/f ta^jtf 1 

* * l ' ' ' 

(IA, Sh), by Mohammad Ibn Manadhir, the poet of AlBas* 
ra (DM), 7%e soul uf as Well-nigh expiring otfer him, when 
he became the stuffing of a mantle and wraps, i. e. enfolded 
in Ais grave-clothes (J), and ,_gXe* jwaa/f jJLjJ ^f uyjsT U 

VJ** u>' j-*^l cw^tf words of the Prophet / wctf not 
on the point of praying in the afternoon until the sun 
was about to set (I A). They say *stf £ wM .yC ** 

* f hi $ ' hi * * ht HlO f y 

oW jl UoM JsmJu.} **j (ML) £fe that acts deliberately 
succeed* or almost (succeeds), and he that acts precipitately 
fails or almost (fails), suppressing the pred. (DM). 



% 461. otf is applied to denote the app. of the act, as 

* v a /3 «*» t t 

ygaj, JmSS otf 2%e ostrich almost flies, because an ele- 
ment of flying is found in Mm, while ^ is applied to 
denote the delay of the act and its occurrence in future 
time; so that, when put after *>tf , it is inconsistent with 



{ 208 ) 

the sense of the latter, and a kind of contradiction results 

* * 
in the sentence : whereas ^g-** is applied to denote expec* 

tation, the like of which ^1 indicates ; so that the occur- 

A* 

rence of ^ after it imports corroboration of the sense. 
The Arabs have spoken a number of provs. in kitf , in all 
of which ^jf is omitted, as &+ ^^-i j*»*M otf The 

husband is almost a king and U*1) ^j** JxX*Jf otf Z%e 
wearer of sandals is almost a rider (D). In 

e t 9 // t/mt/ 9 Sf 3 A / ht &*> i AsAr« • > 

Vr**)* €>* 8i '^ c>^ * *** «Hi***< &&\ v/*' t^*** 
[Jfqgf te the trouble, which I have become in, it (459) will 
be such that behind it will be near relief (J)] lS -*>^ is assi* 

milated to <sl$ ; and in 

> «»<* • * ht t> ff i a * 

/ /«/ if X A»» * A * * A /■ 

be wa i l ^1 jjLjJf J Jo ** atf w>S 

[by Eu'ba Ibn Al'Ajjaj, A ruin, that has become o6liter-> 
ated after having been razed, has well-nigh vanished from 
length of wear and tear ( Jsb)] otf to ^*^ (M). 

t M/ hi s A t * s9h / f 

§ 462. The Arabs say (1) J*a> ^f is^am* and UX ^ q t 

S j> A / • x /A/ A £ 5 A^ • • / / * S A s / 

to iS j*4-»* , J**i ^ ^3 ^5**** and U«^ to ^jft*** , and 

,p A • y • A / • * h * * AJ>A X * 

»juc and U-ju«* g (M): is-***** ' (K), **£*»** is the <&) 



( 209 ) 
of Al#ijafc (K, B oh XLVIL 24.) : in j* r j ^-»j *> 

A 5 / f —t A $•>• s s A M A * S f /> A ? • • Aj> 

J .«** >i*j *-• it-J U. ^ t^ iyy£> J ^«a* r y 
i * * * * <» 

C IA A s S .Vs . 

^U l^a. (4 ji* XLIX. li. Ztftf rio< »teft mocAr <M »w» ; «< 
map be that they be better than they : nor women at women ; 
it may be that they be better than they Abd Allah reads 

.p .py A £ A • • 5 */ » i / ft / / it t 

ly^t ^t \y* and ^i ^1 yjA**** , 80 that ^g** has a 
pred., as in XL VII. 24. [below], whereas in the 1st read- 
ing it has none, as in II. 213. [464] (K): when a nom. 
pron. of the 1st or 2nd pers. or 3rd pers.pl. femAs attached 

to ^*<*£> as ts.«jUi»g j ut,%juu x j ULu«0 ? Juumc:, .yuuwtf ■ 

> A • X 

yjA****, its j- may be pronounced with Kasr or Fath, the) 

A A* f H tf 

Fath being better known (IA) : Nafi' reads ^t ***>*** J4J 
Jujy XL VII. 24; May ye then be expected, if ye receive 
authority ? with Kasr of the ^ (K, IA), which is strange 
(K); and the rest read with Fath (IA) : (2) J*a> ^f ^^e 

* /A/ ^xAs 

and U*i> and iy*«i (M) : the Banit Tainim do not affix 
the pron. (K, B), saying J*& ^f ^^ and fy*& (K): 
(3) J*£ u)1 <-&** to yjJW , J*ft> ^f 8U* to ^U* , 

• ^a£ a £ • • * * * , j 

and J**t ^f ,yU«* and UU* (M). [Similarly] ,^-i**, 
when preceded by a «., may contain a pron. relating td 
the preceding n., which is the dial, of Tamlm [?], or be 

denuded of it, which is the dial, of AlHijaz (IA): ^*>J 
* a 



( 210 ) 

* at hi t t iht 

ill f<fit yjf ^g*** *H) (1) contains a latent pron. [relating 

tit 
to Jjj , according to the dial, of Tamlm (IA), being non- 

t St hi 

att., with its sub. latent (ML), while pjv. ^f is in the 
position of an ace, by it ; so that in the f em., du., and pi., 

t ft h £ A t t 9 A f St A £ t t t thS t 

you say ffZ ^ u>*~* i*ia> , Uyu ^f U«** ^^H^ , 

.» *• a£ a^^ t suit t n ft hi t a 1 1 j» ts at 

Sy*fi yj! f j— * ^^y , and j*% ^jf yj**** wwf jigty 
(IA)] : (2) is devoid of pron., [according to the dial, of 

t St A £ 

AlHijaz (IA), being att. (ML),] while ff>. ^ is in the 

ih 

position of anom. by it (IA, ML); so that you say i**Jb 

t 
t ss *i t* t st hi // t*st hi t t t shSt 

St t hSt hi t t S t h ht 

\y*fi , and" yjoS* y)l us*** c^fu^f . But the other vs. 

t ht 1 1 1 thSt 

of this cat. must contain the pron., as yjUisuj JI*a. ^Ivijj/f 

t 1 1 

The two Zaids set about versifying, not J**. (IA). 

tthttt th S t ht t h 

§ 463. You say J*H ^ to ^ , J*& w^f to 

S ^A ■* /A? S h t h ' 

JoS* , and J** I ct>*>T and UoT . And some of the Arabs 

*** t . . . ' ' 



S h s 



say ka**** with Damm. 

§ 464. ,3**"* denotes the app. of the matter in the 

t h t hi sSii& * t 

way of hope and longing ; you say l J&>. ^ &Wf ^^ 

* t t 

uX^iy* May be Ood will heal thy sick, meaning that the 
t 

nearness of his recovery is hoped for from God, longed 



( 211 ) 

for : whereas >$S denotes its app. in the way of existence 

and realization; you say vj*' . r * ^ uwiitf 7%e sun 
mkw almost setting, meaning that its nearness to setting 
had become realized (M). R, [however,] contends that 
it denotes longing not for the approach of the pred., but 
for its realization absolutely (MA). It signifies [the 
speaker's] hope in the case of what is liked, and fear in the 

case of what is disliked, both combined in ly&j£> ^f t 5***^ 

hit it ttt %hs $3 A$ x // b*f 4ft* *9t %tit 

213. (ML), where the 1st ^g-e denotes hope (MA, DM), 
and the 2nd fear (MA), And it may be that ye dislike a 
thing, i. e. warring in the cause of God, pleasant as 
regards the recompense accruing from it, though appa- 
rently unpleasant, while it is good for you; and it may be 
that ye like a thing, i. e. fear of warring in the cause of 
God, while it is bad for you (DM). 

§ 465. It is said that otf , (1) when denied, is (a) of. 
(IH, ML) of the pred. (MA), as II. 66. [1] (ML), for 
they did the sacrifice (DM); or (b) in the past off., as 
II. 66, and in the future like other vs., as 

S ttit sSs at .9 A //»r« * t 

(IH), by Dim -rRumma, When desertion alters lovers, the 
constant passion of the looe of Mayya will not be near 



( 212 ) 

departing, the denied otf not importiug affirmation, but 
intensifying the negation of c >*> (Jsh): and, (2) when 

■e t. a > 

affirmed, is neg. [of the pred. (MA>], as Sy& ^y 

* *• * A y A$ s«*» y // * *// * 

i„&Jf Uuu^l ^gtiM yj* uCJyJ&J XVII. 75. -4n<* verily 
they well-nigh tempted thee away from, what We have 
revealed unto thee, [the sense being that they did not; 

w 9 A C*0 y y 

tempt thee away (DM),} and g\ j-&H clots' [(460), the 

* / Ay s *■ 

soul not having actually expired (Jsh)] : so that J*h otf 



J> / h/ A • • A/ 



means that Ae t&d no*, and J*k u*££ J that Ae <*«£ So. 
notorious is this that [Abu -l'Ali (Jsh)] alMa'arrl haa 
made a riddle of it, saying 

$ / Ay / / h yArf> y f £ A yfi 



*A* A y y 



°>*^ f 2 ^ tS 54 *" 1 uS* "O* 

y • ^ y y 

A / yAS A y W^/ * Ay A.P A>» y 

y y y ^ £ 

J 3> h*> y y y A y y « / «l Ay 

y y g 

(ML) grammarian of this age, what is. a ward thai was 
current in the tongues of Jurhum and Thamvd, that y 
when used in the form of denial, affirms, and, if qffirmea\ 
stands in the place of denial f (Jsh). Correctly, how- 
ever, it is like other vs. (IB, ML) in that, when denied, it 
is neg. [of app. to the pred. (MA)}, and, when affirmed* 
aft. [of app. to tho pred. (MA)]. For its meaning is app*. j 



( 213 ) 

and there is no doubt that J*a» otf means He became 
near to doings and J**t otf U He did not become near to 
doing. Its pred. is therefore perpetually denied:— (1) 

when otf is denied; because, when the app. of the act is 
denied, the realization of that act is inferentially denied, 

as m$ 1£ J 8 j^ ' ^.f fif XXIV. 40 [ fFAen he putteth 

*■ 
forth his hand, he is not near to seeing it, much less doth 

f t*it * 
he see it, like i>M tfe !of (K, B), i. e. trill not be near to 

£ 

departure, how then shall it depart? (K)], which is there- 
fore more intensive than he seeth it not, because he that 
sees not is sometimes near to seeing: (2) when the app. 
is affirmed; because predication of the nearness of the 
thing conventionally requires its non-realization, other- 
wise the predication would be of its realization, not of 
its app., since in conventional language it is not good 
to say of one that prayed he became near to praying, 
although he did not pray until he became near to praying. 

Nor is there any distinction in what we have mentioned 

* j> tt 

between ct$ and ofo : and II. 66., where they did do, 

since what is meant by the doing is sacrificing, and the 

text has already said Ufcjawui Then they sacrificed her, is 
a predication of their state in the beginning of the matter ; 
for at first they were far from sacrificing her, as is shown 
by their cavilling and reiterated questioning. But since 
the use of phrases like this is frequent in the case of htm 



( 2H ) 
as to whom app. to the act at first is denied, but who 
afterwards does it, this very v. [ otf U (DM)] is imagined 
to be the indicator of the realization of that very act; 
whereas it is not so, the realization of the act being under* 
stood only from another indication, as from tojssuii in 
the text (ML). 

a a 

§ 466. v-Xi^i means Hastens, because derived from 
the i-££* , j i i- e. the hastener to the thing (D). t-X£-y 
is used like ^^w! in its two constructions [459], and like 

// /« / »MV * a § h/ * h / hi 3 * 

otf ; as sjpt J *>) <-^^, ^3 i^ ^1 "-Xi^i, 

* A • § ht 3 3 

and s^su ujj j_X£»j (M): its pred. is [generally (IA, 

' A* 

Sh)] conjoined with ^ , [as 

J /Ax S 3 § / ht • iu a i 

'Lh$ J '&>y* j.U Jf ^ 

t* r * /• t ha * * *hs * 

£/a/ * /a hi 9 a* a a* 

t * hi * * h * // 4h * fa/ 

by 'Imran Ibn Hitt&n, ira ever^ ^ear sAaW /Aera 6e a «e& 
»m, £Aen an arising, and shalt thou announce death, nor 
be announced as deadt Until when shall this be, until 
when? For a day hastens to meet a night j they will 



( 215 ) 
drive on' death, come it to thee at even or at morn / (D), 
(and) as 

p f *$/ t /&f<> p a to , s> Ktt 

fy^ ; v yj\p\ J.M jjL. y ; 

p/ h/s $** a $ p * * t 

(IA, Sh) And if men were asked for dust, they would be 
on the point, when it was said, Give, of being disgusted 

A? 

and refusing (J)]; and ^1 is [seldom (IA)] suppressed, 
as 

tP *p 5 A/ SsaSsAs«,p 

(D, IA, Sh), by Umayya [Iba (Abi) .-sSalt (Jih)] ath 
Thakaft, He that has fled from his fate in battle, will be 
near to meeting it in one of his heedlessnesses (J, Jsh). 

t tt 
§ 467. <->/ [usually with Fatb of the; , though 

Kasr also has been transmitted (IA),] is like otf (M, IA), 

9 /A/ • /t 

according to IM (IA), as J*i» w_»/ (M). Its pred. is 

A $ 

generally denuded of ^t , the only construction mentioned 
by S, as 

P P * % A P * Ph>o * / * P P* P x • A P A*A.*> s ft 

^fyak hjJLa Stay f JG^jjAa. « vr** 8 ^ «y* •r^' v/ 

[by Kalhaba alYarbu c I, My heart was well-nigh melting 
from its violence of grief when the slanderers said, Bind 
is wroth with thee (J)] j and is [seldom (IA)] conjoined 
with it, as 



( 216 ) 

/S'O */ 4* t y A $A*> 9 , r » > 

LiaJl Jc Haw* j.U=>.yj ..j U&(L» 

• 5/y A 5 y* / AS A ••/ A // 

[on^. ^b*u (Sh), by Abu Zaid alAslaml, 2%e possessors 
of understandings gave them to drink a huge bucketful 
of bounty on account of their thirst and indigence, their 
necks being on the point of being cut off from extremity 
of destitution (J)]. The pred. of the vs. of commence* 

ment may not be conjoined with ^ (IA, Sh), because 

A 2 

of their incompatibility with ^ , what is intended by 

A i 

them being the present, while ^f denotes the future (IA), 
as 

s \9 9 Ks t * j> A/ / Kt* 

S <*> S i< '/»/ 9/Kit l>f 

[by Abu Hayya anNumahi, And indeed 1 began, when* 
ever I arose-^-my garment began (459) to weigh me down,, 
So that 1 stood up as stands up the sottish drinker (SM, Jsh}]« 

9 9 9 fS^t 9t hi 9 A * if 

5fAe« / toofc to questioning, and the traces to answering 
me: and in making excuse there is answering and ques* 



/»/< »/ * »/ / a • * /i 

MffS *•» J&w i£^jil# i^Kf 



( 21V ) 

/ know thee to have, begun oppressing him that we have, 
protected, 



» Ki 9 » *Kt 



/ commenced disclosing what was hidden, 

/•«<*= St t A/A*" S Si t h/ f 



/ se/ o&ok£ upbraiding the heart for obedience to passion, 
and 

P * fit t t A-o X A/ J* 2 »* A stbts t /bt*,*> t t t A t 

JFe trod the countries of the foes, and their souls began 
to expire before the slaughter. These two are the most 

t t 

unusiul of thews, of commencement; and jj&o the best 
known, and the one that occurs in the Revelation, namely 

• Ax / t t 

in two places, ^U^aacu Gialoj Vf I. 21. XX 119., i.e. 
And they began sewing one leaf upon another to cover 
themselves withal, where Abu -sSannnal al'Adawi reads 
tiiaLaj with F.-ith, a dial. var. transmitted by Akh, while 
there is a third dial. var. /j^is with «_,» pronounced with 
Kasr in place of the ui , and XXXVIII. 32. [459] (Sh) k 

s> t t > ' ' _ ' 

J*a. is (1) i. q. f*o anti !>f^> , being then intrans., as 

m A /• t A ft t S K& 

jjl us^lx^. ojj [459] ; (2) i. q. <s^-^\ , being then trans. 

•25 / 

to one obj. [442], as VI. 1. [177]; (3) i.q. ^ [440], 

2 t t /ii/ir" ttt ttf 

being than trans, to two objs., as ^£1/ jf$H $® J**- 



( 218 ) 
II. 20. Hath made for you the earth to become a bed, the 
making to become being now by deed, now by word or 
covenant (B on II. 20.). 



CHAPTER X. 



THE VERBS OF PRAISE AND BLAME. 



§ 468. The vs. of praise and blame are (1) *« and 
j-i (M, IH): (a) ^ and «-& are vs. (D, HM, IA), 
according to the majority of GG (IA), as proved by the 
affixion of the [quiescent (IA)] «w of femininization 
(HM, IA), but ns. according to some of the KK, among 
them Fr, who adduce the prefixion of the prep, in the 

«A/A>« * A » Mii< /I JPssArO ,A , , 

sayings )**M «»•& ^ $~A\ **> and oJJl **i> JJ> U, 

xA X A 

which is explainable, however, by making ft and «-*» 
regs. to a suppressed saying occurring as ep. to a sup- 
pressed qualified, which is the gen. governed by the p., 
not f** and j-*> , i. e. j»*i **» Jyi* #* ^ jju»H ^J 
o«M ilfoatf excellent is the journeying upon (an ass where- 
of it is said,) Most evil is the ass and &>£ J^iu jJj* ^ U 

*„A,«,A ' ' * * ' ' 

jJJ! «*j SAc is wof (a child whereof it is said,) Most 
excellent is the child ; and are aplastic, only their pret. be- 
ing used (IA); applied to denote [general (M) superlative 
(D)] praise and blame (D, M), as ^y* ^ ****? \y*&*\y 
vu^yj ^ Jyti\ **** XXH. 78. And trust in God. He 
is your protector : then most excellent is the Protector, and 



( 220 ) 

/ A • 2m ft A* t>f* 

most excellent is the Helper! and j^i) {*&!■ f^^*i 
olgJf XIII. 18. And iheir place of returning shall be 
Hell: and most evil is the resting-place ! (D) ; and having 
four dial, vats., J** their o. /., as 

A fin nZfkr" * *&•&/* 

/ / t * 

[by Tarafa (R),] Most excellent are the strivers in the 

/ Ax 

pious matter!, J*> with Fath or Kasr of the ui and 
quiescence of the £, and J*» with Kasr of both, as 
likewise has every v. or n. upon J*» , whose 2ud [rad.] 
is a guttural letter, like o^ and **»» (M): (b) >U is 
used like j-i (M, IH, I A), as VII. 176. [475] (M): (c) 
J*» , [original or transmuted from J** (R), (i. e.) 
formed from every tril. v., for the purpose of praising 

'A , \ 

or blaming (FA),] is treated like **J and «-i> (R, I A) 

in all their predicaments, as ^w; J*-fl *-*)& or J^-;J| |.U* 
•*i) or i*i3 %; > and, according to [R,] IM, and his son, 

§ a/ a 9 &•& ti* 

Oi) Ja-jM J* , while others declare that transmutation 

of f** > j€J- > i*" - to J** with Damm of the * is not 
allowable, because the Arabs, when using them in this 
way, preserved the Kaera of their £ , and did not trans- 

§ Ax ft £<«>** 

mute it into] Damm, so that we must say &.j J».yi jJ* 



( 221 ) 
(IA); provided that it be made to imply the sense of 
wonder, for which reason its ag. is often (a) governed 

A A$ 

in the gen. by the h-> , because it is i. q. & J**f , as 

as s»s a a 2 s \ % s e s s 

oj> j; cJ^la , i.e. &i cJji&l , (b) anarthrous, as «-XiJjf c y~ i *'y 

a* * * * * 

e s 

l**»^ IV. 71. [And how goodly are those as companions f, 

• A / s 

read also ^jj*"^ (K),] and 

S?/J> X xA^ AsfiAs°s AsS / /»/ sASs *s » Ass 

f s fi ' s 

[by Imra alKais, / sat for the sake of gazing at inland my 
companions, between JDSrij and AP Vdhaib, How far was 

s 

mine object of contemplation /, U being red. (EM)], (c) 
a pron. agreeing with what is before it, as ^fo^f ^^ 

/*// s9t slit f ' sA * 

**fy , i. e. U$*f\ U , which is not allowable in **> and 
J-i> [474] (II): (2) LsL in(Jm) (£L [476] (IH). 

§ 469. The ag. of f>u , ^ , [and 7L (IA),] is 

4 /is * ^5^ sh 

(1) [explicit (M)J (a) synarthrous, [as ^.j J^;J| **j, e.g. 

J 2 ^o sH s * AsA^ sS ' 

^a*J| fi) xjy^^ e*J VIII. 41. Most excellent is the Pro- 

S ' t s 

lis 

tector, and most excellentis the Helper ! (IA): Jf denoting 
the genus (D, IA) comprehensive by reason of community % 

s s /A Ar^S 

so that it is in the sense of the pi., as in ^ ^t**Jl/f A 
j-*i. CIII. 2. Fisr% man is in loss, i. e. Verily men are 
(D); properly, so that you praise the whole genus on 



( 222 ) 

account of Zaid, and then particularize Zaid by men- 
tion, thus praising him twice; or, according to some, 
tropically, as though you made Zaid the whole genus for 
hyperbole: but, as some say, knowledge (I A)] : (b) pre. to 

/ UShiOP f /A */ 

the synarthrous, [e.g. ^2aJ| )\o **il« XVI. 32. And 

most excellent is the mansion of the pious (IA)] : (2) 
pronominal, specified by (a) an indet. [after it (IA), 
homogeneous with it (D),] in the ace. (D, M, IH, IA) as a 

sp., e.g, XVIII. 48. [160] (D, IA), i. e. 1^ Jl*M ^ , 
it being made a pron., and expounded by the h;det. ace. 
homogeneous with it (D), 

A t » * fti tlliO h/ />A /• 

/ A>o .*,«• A«>/ AsArO Smt%t 

^1/J ^3 ilUlwf^ ^^tJt ^o /UU 



[By God, such that wojrf excellent is it, as though he 
said w rg/ug* or *Ae refuge, as a refuge is the Protector, 
i. e. Gorf, or By God, most excellent is it as a refuge — (it, 
i. e. the praised, is) the Protector — when the severity of 
the oppressive and the domination of the rancorous are 
dreaded (J)], 



htttuO • A S / £tt\* / A 



KjJI j«i> ^Jf 5 l r l j-i * V^ J J J*) ^f Jf* 

[My wife says, she being with me in a shouting, Such 
that most evil is he, i. e. man or the man, as a man (art 
thou); and verily I, such that most evil is, properly 

A • A 

ws^*mju , the \sj being elided for the metre, woman or the 



( 223 ) 

woman (am I), the particularized by blame, \s*j\ and 
Uf , being suppressed (J)], and VII. 176. [475] (IA); or 
(b) U [471], e.g. II. 273. [419] (IH). One should not 

t A / / A t yA y A y y A y s A ^iS/l/l 

say is-ao* ^» **» and o***t3 ** j«w } but J^yf #*» 

y A • y A • 

t>^x« j* -Mwrf excellent is the man, he that thou hast 

y Ay y n * 9 a £ ya /i 

praised and u^»*o ^ jcrn&H j~Z> , as says 'Amr Ibn 

yAyay * A ^A*o «!.»'/* Ay 9 AM>« •* 

Ma'dlkarib JUfj J^*«Jf i-kuJf oi* ^^ pyUf ^u 

J^i*— Jf JUta; excellent is the people, my people, on the 
occasion of the drawn sword and the begged property. 
The ag. may not be particular: and therefore one may 

§ Ay yA m t fii 'A 

not say i*e) **> or ^J* fS f& ; nor for the like reason 

' y $ y ' y 

9 9&*& y1 yA 9 9S 

Ja.yi |jjt> **J, because J^yt is here an ep. to te&, 

* y 

and the J in it denotes determination of demonstration 
and particularity (D). And after the ag. is [a n. in the 
nom., which is (M, IA)] the particularized (M, IH, IA) by 
praise or blame (M, IA); the sign of which is that it 
should be suitable for being made an inch, with the v. 
and its ag. as its enunc. (IA). The particularized seldom 

/A y a 9 * 3 «« yA i As 

precedes p*> and j-*i , as Je^f f*J *H) j the ag. 
being still synarthrous, or a pron. expouuded by what 
is after it, as in the saying of AlAkhtal [praising Bilal 
(Jsh)] 

y y yA / 9 y my Ay3 9A y y & y yA s & y y s 9 9$ 

IfcL ^ uX*i f*\ &Z, * fa* ^ ^^ ^ ^f 



( 224 ) 

(R) Abu Musd is thy grandsire. Then thy grandsire, 
most excellent is he as a grandsire ! And the chief of 
the clan is thy maternal uncle ; most excellent is he as a 
maternal uncle ! (J sh). 

§ 470. The explicit ag. and the sp., (1) [according 
to Mb, IS, F, IM, and his son (J),] may be combined 
[for corroboration (M),] as 



9 * S Zi*> /S * 



fall uC#( 0I3 of}J| **i» * Uas i_X«f a\ j jJu o,p 

,» ' * * * * 

(M, I A), by Jarlr (M), Provision thou thyself, i. e. Acquire 
good repute, with provisioning like the provisioning of thy 
father among us by justice and liberality .* for most excel- 
lent was the provisioning, the provisioning of thy father^ 
as provisioning (Jsh) and 

9 A BnZ/ SV&t-/ * A / PSSfi/ S A /A/*» /A / £ /AS-"/ 

[by Jarir, And the Taghlabis, most evil is the sire, their 
sire, as a sire; and their mother is small in the buttocks, 
one that wears her waist-wrapper so that her buttocks may 
be magnified thereby : whence it is deducible that the sp. 
of the explicit (ag.) need not precede the particularized, 

f * A/ /A / 

contrary to the sp. of the pron., as in iJI 1# ** ***i (469) 
(J)] : (2) according to S [and Sf (J)], may not be com- 
bined, [because the sp. is for removal of vagueness, and 
there is no vagueness when the ag. is explicit : they make 

Usi a corrob. d. s., or the combination a poetic license; 

• A £ A x 

and AH aays that there is a pron. in x y*> , U=i is a sp. 



{ iib ) 

posterior to the particularized Jaa&ff , and {&*& a subst. 
for the latter: while Mj may be further said to be a 

A £•• * A 

direct obj. to oft, and J&» a d. s. to it, though it is" 
indel., because the d.s, precedes the s. s. (J)] : (3) accord- 
ing to some, may be combined, if the sp. import a material 

sense additional to the ag. } as iJjJ t>«>l» J^>yi <»*■> ; but 

$ A/ £ * f » » S<e /A 

not otherwise, as J^j ^^ J^' f*> : [ ana " tm s » a 
declared by IU to be right (J)]. 

§ 471. U occurs after **> aad j-^, so that you 

* /A 3 / • a' ' 

say U **i or Ujw and U «««, as II. 273. [419] and 

*9 t iht t>tt tu" * * A 

(t fr "*>( & f^^*»! Um*a; II. 84. ikfosj? e»W «> it as a thing 
that they have sold their souls for, [that they should 
disbelieve}. There is a dispute about this U : some say 
that (IA) in II. 273. [and II. 84.] (M) the ag. of 

'A / A * 

**•» [(and) «-& (B)] is a [latent (IA)] pron., and U am 

A * 

indet., [i. q. t^ (B), neither conjunct nor qualified (M) 

£ ass A 

in Ujw (K), (but) qualified by \y^Ji>\ (B), governed in 
the ace. as (IA)] the sp. [469] (M, IA) of the ag. y i. e. 

* vh* *H s m ****** £A s y^A 

^ La£ ^xii (M) [and] £M f ; ^f L*£» ^ , the parti- 

' J> JA s A f * 

cularized by blame being S)f*i &\ (K) : others say that 

U is the ag., a det. n. [180] ; which is the doctrine of 
IEh, who ascribes it to S (IA). 
5 a 



( 220 ) 

, i A/ 4 A/ s>9m>e/t\ 

- § 472. The particularized [i*ij (1) in jjj J».yf f*> 
(ML)] is (a) [really (ML)] an inch., whose enunc. is the 
preceding prop., [as though the o./. were J^yf *** t*e) 
(M)]'; (b) [as allowed by many GG (ML),] enunc. of a 
[necessarily (IA, ML)] suppressed inch. (M, IH, IA, 

%hf *» § h/ a s A /A 

ML), i. e. 4*j>5 y 6 (M, IA), meaning i*j) c ji***Jf [29] ; 
(c) [as allowed by IU (ML),] an inch., whose enunc, is 

[necessarily (ML)] suppressed, i. e. j-^^***' i>dj ^> ^^)» 
which is refuted by the fact that the enunc. is not neces- 
sarily suppressed, unless something supply its place [29] 
(ML) : the 1st making one sentence, and the 2nd [and 3rd] 
two sentences (M): (2) in J^yt *** t*£j must be an inch. 

And in either case the cop. is generality or logical 

*' 
repetition of the inch., according as Jf denote the genua 

or knowledge [27] (ML). 

§ 473. When previously (D, IA) mentioned (D) [or] 
indicated (IA), [i.e.] when known (M, IH), the particu- 
larized is sometimes suppressed (D, M, IH, IA), the genus 
alone being mentioned, as ix*sdf **i i A+if*» o 3 taJ UUfc.. 
XXXVIII, 29. And We gave unto David-Solomon. Most 
excellent was the servant (Solomon)/, i.e. t*uJ| **J 
,£***-• , his name being suppressed because previously 



( 227 ) 
mentioned and known to the person addressed (D), [and] 

■»A/A/» /A fit a /A t t 3 

as ***M -»J f^ »U^ ; Uf XXXVIII. 43. 44. ftrty 
TFe found him to 6e patient. Most excellent was the 

a iS2 a a xa^> x a * «M 

servant {Job)!, i.e. ._>j£l t***M f*» (M, IH, I A), v^ 
being suppressed because indicated by what precedes it 

t S thi" tS f 

(IA), and ^o-aWf **i* LI. 48. Then most excellent are 

' ' a A s t a •A.-" , A * 

the Spreaders, (We)! (M, IH), i.e. ^si ^o&Uf fx£» 



(M). S declares that the sp. of the ag. of **■> and ««*> 
is not suppressed [87] (ML). 

§ 474. The v. is femininized, and the two ns. are dual- 

J A ftl\/l\*> /A tH 

izedand pluralized: you say «J^S> S|^»I| us^**» or *** 

attsto s/i a s *> ' i ' ' ' 

[21]; they say ^\ \^**j ^ftiJf &i& 7%w Ao«*e, www* 
, t •/ 

excellent is the dioelling/, since the tsk is the ^fo, like 

* SP A t t Ax 

tX«f ufrJW ^ [182] ; and Dhu -rRumina says 

ssfkto at St A /A Mtn /m .,, §,, n a am/ St i t St iSa si 

dJUM \)j) ut-**J ^jl| JUj # X^%a-» ilaxy JJoa« gja. jf 

Or'a she-camel well'bred, long-bodied, brood-backed, large 
in the supports of the bi-east — most excellent is the skiff 

t t /f t a £ *o ts tk 

of the desert!', aud you say i-SSfA id^fl f**'» <** 

£ r ' * ' t. 

* at & atm*> $Ktr is tfstSto ts ts 

\JZa\ Jta,yf , j^o* iMfc ^jCfw^if u^*jw and um*> 

& ' * r t , / - t 

tmt a tt a*it<u*> ,s /* 

tA* «yli> /UiJ| (M). The form of f*i and jJ* is 



( 228 ) 
made sing, with the du. aud pi. (HM): the pronominal 

•A / A 

ag. of *** and «•»& is «n#. [mosc. (R)], not du. or pf. 
(R, Sh) or jfem. (R), latent, not prominent, as **> 
»*j»j &*) or ^ftJ^yi ^ft^; or yj;^' %**■) and 

•/• ,» Wl* • ft S $• «• *A/ A^ § ./ S,»A««» /A 

U3; ** d*V u>^ v ' * ***** f" (* rP *H f* 

Jfoffl excellent as a man was Harimf Not a catastrophe 
befell, but he was a refuge for one affrighted by reason of it 

A/ P/ /A ^ • J>A 

(Sh) : so that they do not say ^i^) l **^ or Iffcj.^ f j**» 
or Mj*J uv«**J (R). 

§ 475. The particularized must be homogeneous 
with the ag. (M, IH) : and Ujbb \y.Sf ^.oM j.j3| U*-» /U 
VII. 176. and LXII. 5. [1] are by suppression of the 

A/A-= p,, 

pre. n., i. e. fj&\ J*<* , Evil as a similitude is (the simi' 
litude of) (lie people who have treated Our signs as lies f T 

J>A/A-° ft t / A 2 tn/ 

[or f.j«M JX» wlasuel >tw Evil as (possessors of)a 
similitude are the people (K),] and ^jdJJj j£« (M); while 
*ytlf J** /Im> JJyi^ is #Ae similitude of the people, (their 
similitude) is read (E, B) by AUahdarl (K), and the place 

, S A'A 

of ^liM may be [that of] a gen. as ep. to pj*H (M), the 
particularized by blame being suppressed (M, B), i.e. 
f$U jXoXJi r y&\ j£» j~Z? (M>. It must also be 



( 229 ) 

particular, Ja^j ^jl—^! **> not being allowed, unless 
you qualify it by what removes the ignorance (E). 

§ 476. i*jj fkifi. is said iu praising, and o-i) !ii*a» W 
in blaming, as 

(IA), by Kanza (T, J), mother of Shainla alMinkari (T), 
Now such that dearly loved is this (J) thing, i.e. beloved 
among things (T), are the people of the desert, save that, 
when Mayy is mentioned, she is not dearly loved (J), 
w^ , [meaning f i**. b^an* f*o (M),] is ong\ •-*■*». (M, 
B, IA), like kijk (R), the ^ having been [made quies- 
cent and (J)] incorporated into the «_> : if !o occur after 

it, the — must have Fath (IA): and if it be without (3 
(R, IA), the Damma of its £ may be transferred to its 
«-$ , like as it may be elided (R), [so that] its -. may 
have FatJb or Datum (M, IA), Datum being more frequent 
(J), as 

(M, R, IA), by AlAkbtal, And I said, Dilute ye it, and 
ward off its strength from you with its admixture. And 
very pleasant is it as diluted wine when it is diluted/ 

* s, 

(J) ; and similar is every J*» when praise or wonder is 



( 230 ) 

it, a 



meant by it, like ,_£&* U <*x> [468] ; [the wonderer says 

/ 9 A * a\ tK<o , A 9 

uX«a.j &a.yj ^ma (K on IV. 71),] Jh cites 

** a i\/Z * u a S >a a/Kt * 

Vj cwO^I U ^gi-* «*UJf £Juj If 

//J / • a £ a /£ t a *? 

it/ew withhold not from me what I have desired} nor give 
I them what they have desired. How good is this as dis- 

/ j> a • a a th^> t a 9 

ciplinel, and u£Ua> ^JndS pie. is related (R). When a 

n. 6ther than to occurs after w-**^ , it may be governed 

a • § a/ s / 

in the worn* by «-^-, as <*>.') *-">=»•, or gew. by a red. 

A/ S / # 

uj, as 6if. v ** According to F, IB, 1Kb, who asserts 
that it is the opinion of S, and IM (rA), l--^ in a^j fjoa. 

[and i*ij t^ v (LA)] is a [pret. (IA)] «. j to , [a cfe>w. 

a a 
to ■'(^Jf (T), denoting presence in the heart (J),] is its 

**' 
ag. (IA, ML) ; and the particularized (I A), jjj (ML), is 

an inch, whose enunc. is the preceding prop., [the cop. 

being the dem. (ML),] Such that dearly loved is this thing 

is Zaid, or enunc. of a suppressed inch. (IA, ML), i. e, 

$A/ /■-» 

**£J ya , Dearly, or iVotf dearly, loved is this thing .• (&, 
i. e. <fo praised or blamed, is) Zaid (IA), or, as is said, a 
subst. for 1 3 , which is refuted by its not taking the 
place of the first, [the ag. of i--^^ being only a dem. 



( 231 ) 

(DM),] and by its being indispensable, [the mention of what 
will make it known being necessary when it is suppressed 
(DM),] or, as is said, a synd. expl., which is refuted by 

/ /A? S3-° / A y fty * ** t> § / « /5// 

V ^ X y y jS y X " 

[by Jarlr, And pleasant are the fragrant breezes from a 
Tlamani woman, that come to thee from the quarter of 
ArRayyan at times (Jsh)], the det. not being explicable 
by the indet. (ML) : but according to [Mb, IS, IHL, and 

(IA)] IU, fa**- is a n. [for ^.^aajf (ML),] an inch., 
the particularized being its enunc, The beloved is Zaid, 
or an enunc, the particularized being an inch., Zaid is 
the beloved, [according to him that allows two construct- 

S **tO $Ay S y 

ions in J-«lftM *% (24) (ML); so that v-^. is com- 
pounded with 13 , and made one n. (IA), the n. prevailing 
because what it indicates is a substance (J)] : and accord- 
ing to some, [among them IDh (IA),] fii*a» is a [pret. 

$Ay fi y 

(IA)] »., and ojJ its ag. • [so that *--»». i 8 compounded 
with 13 , and made a v. (IA), the precedent prevailing 
over the subsequent (J)] : which is the weakest opinion 
(I A, ML), because the particularized may be suppressed, 
as 

SUP/ Simt/bfO y Ay /S/ y£ 

Uj^j ^Uaafl UJ fii^sk. Iff 

ttttx" y Ay y f jK-o 9 A yy 



( 232 ) 

[by MarrSr Ibu Haunngg (T, Jsh), or Mirdas Ibn Ham- 
mam (T), atTa'I, Now dearly loved is this, (the commemora- 
tion of these women), if modesty (withheld me) not, though 
often have I given my love to what was not near (T, Jsh)], 

8 t 

whereas the ag. is not suppressed (ML) : or <-^a» is a v., 
and the explicit n. its ag., I J being made otiose; [which 
Is open to the same objection] (J), i^a. and So , [being 
made like one thing (HM),] may not be separated (T, 

tSt 

HM). And So**- is uniform for the fern., du. and pi. 

(HM) : So is not altered on aceount of the alteration of 
the particularized in gender and number, but keeps to 
the sing, masc, 'because it resembles the prov., which is 

not altered; so that, like as you say jJS uiuaJf [l] to 
the masc. or fern., sing,, du., or pi., uniformly, so you 

iht tSt ih thm* tA A,0 , PASuO 

say iH; !*#>* or ***^ or ^*ifi or JoJ^S or ,4;^ 

P t A A<^> * * 

or uwldigM (I A). A sp. or rf. s. agreeing with the par- 
ticularized may occur before or after the latter (IH), as 
tfitinttZt Sht * Pt * j> t is t p tSt * Pt 

tt^ OJ) Som* or t*i) Ua.; and Vy«) o*»* SS*a. or V-«» 

§ S t P tSt 

ij*acM (R). The ace. after foosw i 8 said by Akb, F, and 
Rb to be a d. s.; by IA1 to be a sp.; by some to be a sp. 
if non-deriv., and a d. s. if rfmo.; while some say that 
the non-deriv. is a sp., and the deriv., if restriction of 
the praise thereby be intended, as in 

tt t * Pkt P thro tSt t 
Ufi)*, tt> ^li*4 J(J| |JoS». L> 



( 233 ) 

[0 lovely is wealth token given bountifully without prod*- 

/ if 
gality! (Jsh)], is a d, s., and otherwise a sp., as f<i«* 

***) WTj (ML), i. e. / wonder at the love for this rider 
who is Zaid, the purpose not being to praise him in 
the state of riding only (DM). The sp. may not be 

•A 

posterior to the particularized with **> in a case of 
choice, but may be here j because here it is from the explicit 
16 , and there from the covert pron. : and is necessary 
from the pron., allowable from 16 ; its omission being 
allowable here because the explicit is held superior to 
the pron. (R). 



6 a 



CHAPTER XI. 



THE TWO VERBS OF WONDER. 



§ 477. The v. of (IH) wonder has two forms, &**»f U 

a a2 t ttS 

and &j J*»! (IH, IA): J*M being proved to be a v. by 
the inseparability of the protective'^ [170] from it 
when the g of the 1st ^crs. is attached to it, as ^f*! W 

A-o A^ • ' 

&UI yie Jf How much 1 am in need of God's forgiveness ! '; 

' ' A A» * 

and J*a| by the affixion of the corrob. ^ to it in 

*/*/S / A/ A^A A/AJV 

• * $ / 

/ A £/ A,, t H fit/ 

• f * * /* * 

[Anil scarce any person taking in exchange after a hund- 
red camels a small herd of about thirty camels, how 
meet is he for length of indigence, and how meet is 
(he) !, the i-5 being red., jJf fA enunc. of the inch. 

*; A S ' 

Jij^Z-** , -• i. q. the <_. > , and & suppressed (J)], i. e. 

kf Kit 

gLf-S) , the light corrob. ^ being changed into f in pause 
(IA). The two vs. of wonder are aplastic (IH, IA) j 

S Slii A A? 

only the pre/, of J*»l and imp. of J*M being used (IA). 
They are formed only from what the J*»' of superi- 



( 235 ) 
ority is formed from (M, IH): the v. that they are 
formed from must be (1) triL; (2) plastic ; (3) such that 
what is meant by it admits of emulation, not like «^»U 
and j^i* , where one thing has no superiority over an- 
other ; (4) att., though the KK allow LiG lujjj ^/f U ; 

s 

(5) not neg., necessarily, as iti s\y*Sb .U* _U U Such 

a one has not benefited by the medicine, or allowably, 

as in lojj \s^.yi> U ; (6) such that its qual. is not upon 
p *t& 
J*M , which excludes the vs. indicative of colors, like 

o*« Oyl and ys* j*M , or defects, like J^». J^.f 

and ;jc ;j*t ; (?) not pass., so that you do not say 

* 

t ht t * hi / 

Iljj} ^J"'' ^ meaning wonder at a beating inflicted on 

him, lest it be confounded with wonder at a beating 

p a*> * * si , 
inflicted by him (IA). AK mentions that fo^j 4y\ U , 

t /th<° ' t /* hi * 

and j»)«JI l«>2> ^4 U are wrong when you mean by 
them wonder at the colors, but right when you mean by 
them wonder at Zaid's princeliness, 'Amr's conversation 
by night, the bird's whistling, the abundance of the female 
pigeon's laying, and the stinking of the horse's mouth 

i/f A hi 

from indigestion (D). o>£f , OJ-if and the like are made 
connectives [for wonder (IA)] in other cases (IH, IA), 



( 236 ) 
meaning what is not tril^ or is from colors or external 
defects, or is not att. (R) ; the inf. n. of the v. wanting the 



//A* 



conditions heiqg governed in the ace. after J*Sf as an 

A A? S / $ * 

obj., and in the gen. after J**| by the »_> j as d-&! U 

»/ /* A»«y JV • • A • * A A»*>/ • • A • A A3! 

&a.tj3=u w )« &X^.jsO and &&>f^asAMi| . &a^2mJJ h)U»&f £Toto 

t»ofe«^ are Ais rolling down and his extracting /, *$S U 

*/*/ ** ik si 

8,»* and K»«« ^of How hideous is his one-eyedness /, 

*/**k9 S /f /> /«j A AS 

fij^ak. o£f U and &3^*acu oi**»f jETomj intense is his fair- 
s' * * 

nessf (IA), [and] UG &/" i*£f U (R). He that means 
to wonder at colors or visible defects forms the v. 
of wonder from a tril. v. corresponding with his in- 
tended praise or blame, and afterwards puts what he 

means to wonder at, as *->y*S 1*** yf^t i £- s *\ ** How 

' "2? ' 

beautiful is the whiteness of this garment ! and £f>l U 

«y»J( JoJc )f (D). [Similarly] the rule for [thew. of] 

wonder from the pass. v. is that the pass, should be 

a conj. to the infinitival U occupying the place of the 

S • t y A A? S /* * 

wondered at after «*£J U , oj*£| , and the like, as i*£J U 
^^0 U J3ba> seoere was his beating ! or How severely he 

* • J> / A A? 

was beaten! and ^p** Uj ju»| J3bw rigorous was his 

y ' * 

imprisonment I or /frta rigorously he was imprisoned /. 

' // 
Bat as for what is inseparable from negation, like jr*? , 



( 237 ) 

/ h * ** 



or has no inf. »., like **j , ^-1* , ^ij , and £i±t , it is 
impossible to make their inf. ns. connectives for wonder 
from them, since there is no neg. inf. n. The v. of 
wonder is sometimes formed from something else than a 
«., as Sl^JI 8ii2> uXa&.{ U .flow; voracious is this sheep I, 



* * 



h* 3 •** */«? 4ss»v • ,» 

like ^jjJotiJf U&a-I [353], and similarly «JL.f U and U 
t—f\ How skilful he is in the good management of camels 
and horses I) the v. not being used, though the ag. JjJ and 

§ * t'hi , ,$*£ , 

**)& is; and from an aplastic v., as **H U and «*-£jf U • 

•»•• hi s 

and may be formed from internal defects, as &S#a»f U 

9&si ^ 

[below], HoJf U Uow quarrelsome he is!. Extraordi- 
nary are 8ja»- U and ^ U How good, and 6arf, Ae is I 
with elision of the Hamza (R). Such as Slkuf U .flow 

9K /h f thi t 

liberally he gives, uJ^»JJ SiJjf U How beneficent he is/, 
UbtgAf U How eagerly she is desired ! , fcXJuf U How 

S, f hi * 

hateful he is I (M), Sj-ai.1 U How concise it is 1 from 

t Sh* S>s f hi , 

yeS&A a v. exceeding 3 letters and pass., &&•&.) U [above] 

' * * */ hi * t hi * 

How stupid heist from Jy*^ £*aj , and 8La*f U and 

hi ' , , 

&> i ju\ How well it may be / from L g*>*e an aplastic v. 

(IA), are anomalous (M, IA) : and S mentions that they 

ftthi t 9*/ f* t* hi t 

do not say' &ki>f U , but &&& yf\ U How frequent is 



( 238 ) 
his sleeping at noon 1 (M). The wondered at, i. e. the 

t /hi 

ace. after J*J| , and the gen. governed by the i_j aftei 

A hi 

J*s| , may be suppressed when indicated, as 

// A S • * / / A • // tr*/* / S / t A / /Sh / »/ «' /< 

[by Imra alKais, 1 see Umm e Amr, her tears having 
flowed from weeping jor l Amr, and how patient (she) was 1 
(J)], i. e. Ub^j-sl , the pron. being suppressed because 

A • 

indicated by what precedes, [i. e. the pron. that £«*> is 

A A i/ A A A? 

pre. to (J),] j*-°Ij f€? C*** , t XIX. 39. iZoeo clearly shall 

' " ' AAA?/ 

*A<gf Aear, anrf Aou> c/ear^ sAaW (*Ae#) see, i. e. f& yo>$y , 
and 

hi/ <>h, A • A • A / * • ' Wk^ /S '*»*» /• *• A ' ' < 

/, ' '" 7 Z ' ' £ ' 

[by 'Urwa Ibn AlWard, Then that poor man, if he meet 
death, will meet it praised among men; and, if he become 
rich one day, how worthy will (he) be of riches/ (J)], 

A hit 

i. e. Sj y*^» , the wondered at being suppressed after 

, A J" ' A hi 

J*S| , though not coupled to an J*»l like it, which is 
anomalous (IA). TLe ag. is suppressible in such as 

A/ A hi h/ h*h9 

XIX. 39., because J-ty. ^j^^f literally resembles i*j}> ;/*! 

fit* (S ' 

[478] (ML). 

/ /hi A/ t /hi / 

§ 478. J**l in Ioj.3 J**' U is a jpre*. »., its ag. 
&pron. relating to U , and li^j a direct ofy*. '(KN). The 



( 239 ) 

£Ay fthi y # y *** * I Ay 

sense of fcfy ff\ U is Uj/ - &!*=*. s^ Something [479] 

' PS h>° y S y /*$ $A? 

has made Zaid generous, like pjj^l yj* &**»f. yS Some 
matter has stopped him from going forth and &-aan&t *$• 

y y A y ' 

&>IC» ^ iSSome concern has made him to go away from 
his place, meaning that his stopping and going away were 
not but for some matter; though this transport from 
every v., save what is excepted therefrom, is peculiar to 

A a£ 

the cat. of wonder (M). J*»f is (1) imp. in form, admi- 

y 

rative in sense, orig. a Ml. v., then transmuted into an 

y yA^ y * y y y fiy# 

augmented pre*. »., i. e. J*>! i. q. fiS/ fo ^Lo , like i*#f 
j£*-*Jl [488], then transmuted into the requisitive mood 

y 

while the enunciatory sense remains, and made to imply 
the sense of wonder j so that, its governing the explicit 
n. in the nom. being bad, because of its being in the form 
of the imp., the «— » is redundantly added in its ag., as in 
XIII. 43, [503], save that the redundance of the %~t 
in the ag. of ^ is prevalent, not necessary, as is proved 
by the saying of Suhaim 

y / /AS/y A Auiy //*/' 

y 2 ' 

y y AyA J> y A A^»y S A 5 .« yy 

\To 'Vmaira bid thou farewell, if thou equip thyself 
going early in the morning. Enough are hoariness and 



( 240 , 

Alhlam for man as a prohibitive (SM, Jsh)], but in the ag. 

» «s at 

of this J**! necessary, [except when the ag. is .J and 

' « A His 

its conj., like i)S ^-^Ij (480), because of the univer- 

• ' A $ 

sality of suppression with ^1 (514) (J),] for rectification 
of the expression, since the latter becomes by means of 

As lifliS 

it in the form of the real imp, ^'f. )y*] ; so say the 
majority of the BB (BS) : &> is an ag. according to S, so 

A a? 

that there is no pron. in J**l (IH) : (2) imp. in mood and 
sense, the commanded being the person addressed, and 
the v. assuming his pron., which is necessarily latent in 
all numbers and genders, because it is a sentence that 

ettiii s 

follows the course of the prov. : the speaker of/£**if U 

A A? 

wonders, while the speaker of &* J*»J commands another 
to wonder: so say Fr, Zj, 1Kb, and Z (BS): o^ tf\ J a 

§ us / /a? . e * * 

said to be ong-. t*j) pjf J , i. e. Zaid lias become possessed 
of generosity, but in my opinion is a command to every 
one to make Zaid generous, i. e. qualify him with gener- 
osity, the «-» being red., as in II. 191. [503], for corro- 
boration and particularization, or to pronounce him to be 
possessed of generosity, the c_» being to make trans. (M) : 
(3) imp., as these say, the commanded being, however, 

lit A A f 

the inf. n. iudicated by the v., so that Afy ^*a^ means 
** t ti * s ti tii ass 

**& uT - *' ** uT^ Make th °u Zaid to be goodly, (O 



( **1 ) 

goodliness), i. e. Continue in him and cleave to him; and 
according to this no apology is needed for the invariability 
of the sing, masc, because the commanded is sing. masc. 
in all cases : so says IK followed by IT. According to 
the [last] two opinions (BS) the i_j [is red., if the Hamza 
denote making trans.; and (B on XVIII. 25.) J makes 
trans. (B,BS), if the Hamza denote becoming (B), depend- 
ing [then] upon the v. before it; and the n. after it is in 
the position of an ace. : but according to the first it does 
not depend upon anything, like the rest of the red. ps. j 
and the n. after it is in the position of a nom. (BS). If a 
poet were constrained to suppress the «_» with anything 

A J A A? 

else than ^1 after J*>! , he would be obliged to use the 
nom. according to [the majority of] the BB, and the ace. 
according to the others (J). 

§ 479. U [an inch. n. by common consent (J)] is 

(1) according to S [a complete indet. (I A), i.q. s^ (J), 
not conjunct, nor qualified (M),] an inch., [allowable as 
such because of the sense of wonder in it, or because 

equivalent to the qualified, since the sense is {*&* s^ 

* t 1*2 * 

(J)], the prop, after it being its enunc.; [and li y*M U 

!i»j>3 is constructively fi^ij uj**^' t^J" > '• e - l*****- *!»»■ 
(IA)]: (2) according to AKh conjunct, the prop, after 
it being its conj., and [an inch. (M),] the enunc. being 

§ f § A * ?A/ / s A$ Ss 

suppressed; [constructively {&** J^ Jo>ij yj-^M g&l 
7a' 



( 243 ) 
What has made Zaid goodly (is a great thing) (IA)] : (IF, 
according to some, [Fr and IDh (J),] interrog. (M, IA), 
the prop, after it being its enunc; constructively/^ ^1 

As / / A £ * 

l,.»j ') *»»js>.\ What has made Zaid goodly t : (4) according 
to some, [AKh (J),] a qualified indet, the prop, after it 
being an ep. of it, and the enunc. suppressed ; construe- 

§ s a/ / /«M»/ 

lively **&* l*H) .jj****-' s^ A thing that has made Zaid 
goodly {h great). 

§ 480. The reg. of the v. of wonder may not 

• • A "P s & As j 

precede it, so that you do not say ^j**^! U foj»j or U 

t S A$ *As A fit As 

.jj*"M fojj, nor ^»**J <*•£> : nor be separated from it 

S s A$ s 

by an extraneous word, so that you do not say ^mk^.1 U 

• • A* t /&•" s /S ^o • • A-0 

u&lsx* J&l^oJf for Jfcl^Jf i_X*ia*« j there being no 
difference between the gen. and anything else, so that 

3 * As s s A S / A^ 5 / 

you do not say f^U ^fy ^j*-^! U for i*j£ \JU , nor 

i*/ • ./ A s s A$ s * ' s s A * s * ' 

U-Jla. lJoS* yj-^-i U for •-&*** UJL*. . If, however, the 

r * s s 

adv. or [jt?re/>. and] gen. be a reg-. to the v. of wonder, 
separation of the latter from its [first mentioned] reg. by 
means of either is generally held to be allowable, [when 
the reg. does not contain a pron. relating to the gen. (J)J 

/ s $S ii 

as in the saying of 'Amr Ibn Ma'dikarib *aL» Jb »d slf 

s si* s s sAZ*i ssAis s Si-s usAsAso s * At f 

* ■ f S S f 



( 243 ) 

Uft/lS* t&>Uj£*Jf ^ us^f^ 2b Goaf he ascribed the excel- 

lence of the Banu Satim ! hnw goodly in the fray is their 
meeting! and generous in scarcities their giving! and 
steadfast in noble deeds their continuing /, of 'All on passing 
by 'Amtnar [Ibn Yasir al'AbsI (Is)] and wiping the dost 

from bis face ifj*«»* Ujk*> \*S\$ ^f _jU2s5xff t»f JL* jjej 

How grievous unto me, Abu -lYak%<ln, is that I should see 
thee prostrate, made to cleave to the stones /, and of one 
of the Companions, [Al' Abbas Ibn Mirdas asSulam! 

(JAW 

■PS// / A JA#« S / t ft 

[^n«? /A<! Prophet of the believers said to the Companions, 
(xo #e forward before me in battle against the enemy. 
And how dear to us is that he should be the sender for- 
ward! (J)], and [otherwise is necessary, as in (J)] 

&# J yW 3 *i ^H u J^l 

A St" * s t f S \/ & JP * 

(IA) My two friends, how meet for the possessor of intel- 
ligence is that he should be seen to be very patient! But 
there is no way even to patience, much less to abundance 
of it/, where i_JW go-i may not be made posterior, lest 
the pron. [in ^ ] relate to a word posterior literally 
and in natural order (J). 



( 244 ) 

# h/ * * hi / / / 

§ 481. You say Ijjj tf"^ ^ ^ How goodly was 
Zaid!, [mentioning ^ (S)] to indicate the past (S, M), 

/ t /hi / /hi / 

while it governs nothing (S): and taw^l £*&S U How 

/i/hi / hi / 

cool it became/ an4 to^t l 5***l ^ How warm it became/ 
have been transmitted, the pron. belonging to the 8f*« 
(M). 



CHAPTER XII. 



THE TRIUTERAL VERB. 



§ 482. The v . is unaugmented and augmented (IA). 
The [unaugmented (L)] v. is tril. and quad. (SH, L), not 
gum., because it would then become heavy by reason of 
its universal affixes, the aoristic letters, the sign of the 
act. and pass, parts., and the nom. prons., which are like a 
part of the word (R). The unaugmented tril. [pret. 
(SH)] has three (M, SH, L, IA) measures (IA) [or] for- 
mations (M, SH, L) for the act. voice (L, IA), J*>, 
J*», and J*» (M, SH, L, IA), with Fath of the ci, 
and Fath, Kasr, or Damm of the £ (L, IA), the two first 
trans, and intrans., and the 3rd intrans. (M), like <—>/* 
and t-^3, J* and pl«, and t-J>l2> (L) ; and one for the 
pass., J*S with Damm of the o and Kasr of the £ , 

like yj*^ (IA). In &JUf IV. 85. TFow/d Araou? & «JbJ 
is read by making the J quiescent, like 

§ t f A f ft A t hf t S hi A t 
A* ft fit * A f « /J/ a£a,*> * 

• • • 

(K) And if I satirize him, he will groan as groans a youth- 
Jul he-camel of the intense^ white ones, whose two sides 



( 246 ) 

• * 
and the top of whose hump have been galled, fa*o and 

A ' ' i '. ' 

ML>y.4 among vs. being lightened as uoai is among m. (N). 

The £ of the aor. from J*> is pronounced with (1) Kasr 
or Damm (SH, L), the general rule (R), not Fath, when 
its ^ or J is not guttural ; so long as Kasr is not pre- 

/ 1 * a a* * ** * 

vented by the notoriety of Damm, as in ~f- — ^=u , $&. 

a a* * */* a ah/ 

^°i, J** J**i, or by the ».'s being indicative of «apcri- 
oniy, or by its £ or J 's being a ^ ; nor Damm by the 

* * * a ** * * /■ a * * 

notoriety of Kasr, as in ^->y^ ^Y^i > jj**"^ L r^ = Pi > 
' ' * * 

****** 

**jg» j-asw , or by its uJ 's being a j [or g ], or its 
f or J a ^g (L) : they use the two «fta&. in many words, 

* ** a an* ******* *** aa * * *** a a ** *** 

like J>f J>f» , >*» fh , (^ f*^£, J-*> J-~*J , *-&* 

* a** * * * a a ** * * * a a ** 

*-*W » i5***' «3***** > u- ** 2 *' u *** 3a i (R) : (2) Kasr, (a) when 

* ** *~ * * 

its iJ is (SH, L) unsound (SH), a y (R, L) or g (R), as 

*** a * ****** 

t±e* jj»j> (L) [and y»i y**& ] ; Damm being discarded 

because a g followed by a j or ^ before a Damma is 

* ** 
deemed heavy (R) : (a) the o.f. is j^ ; but the ^ is elided, 

because deemed heavy when quiescent between a o pro- 
nounced with Fath and an inseparable Kasra ; and the 

A 

imp. and inf. n. are made to accord with the aor., as d* , 

* 
§* ******. ****** *** * ** * ** 

&>* (L) •. (b) in ^S> y i^& , e- 5 ; £*i » A &> > #; 



( 247 ) 

£k the o.f. is "K&st of the £ in the aor. [699] , so that 
the j is elided ; the £ being afterwards pronounced with 
Fath because of the guttural letter : and similar is co+ 
gH , not used in the pret., except by poetic license, as 

Sr° / • A / A • h* 

h t f f S/ m .» A^ ^y / 

[ Would that I knew respecting the state of my friend, 
what is tliat which has destroyed him in love, so that he 
has abandoned it I (Jsh)] : and ys*, is made to accord with 

a tt 

£i*i , because syn. with it ; but its pret. is not used even 

S fi, 

by poetic license : (c) the ^ of y*M is not elided, be- 
cause it is lighter than the . , though some of the Arabs 
treat the ^ like the ^ in elision, which is rare, saying 
y**i y~j (R) : (d) As?.) t£xu is weak (SH), the dial, of the 
Banu 'Amir j says Labld Ibn Rabi'a al'AmirS 

/A/ • /ahi& **/ h* A hf 

< * ft 

t / / t\ s / s s , S<& a / * 

Ikl* (jiJ^w V ^gof^oJJ £i*3 

(R) ijf thou hadst willed, it, i. e. thy saliva, would have 
quenched the thirst of the heart with a single draught 
leaving the thirsty ribs of the breast in such a state that 



( 248 ) 
they would not experience heat of thirst (Jsh) : (b) when 

X X .» X XX Ax 

its £ or J is a ,5 (SH, L), as Jtf Jt& and ^ ^^ 
(L); but not necessarily, if the J of the hollow or £ 

/•,- f $r* ft t t S t 

of the defective be guttural, as jli, jli^ and ^.LS. <2*&i, 
ju» ^*—i and ^ (ji^i (R) : (c) when it is reduplicated 

S x i8 x S? . iS x 

en*rans.,as ^p- yearned ^su and ^1 moaned JSo ; ex- . 

cept 28 vs. with Damm, v_>! prepared himself to go away 

■& st j> a«° s* •s*' "»•" s? 

«-4* > y*" is ^"' 7no< ' e a smnd ey an( ^ j^yj [ »•' j 

hastened [ E ji ] , ^1 J' »«* cfcar ani Sr^A/ and 

, ,a a ■&'* * tttl>*> St S*x 

.UmJV! jnarfe a noise jyt.^ ^yualS Jj dungpd J*i, 

A / * A X ■» •» S<* S X <•> •» X A XX 9t\v<" S • 

&I)JU >* J^l J*- emigrated Jsu, &*1* JJJf ^ 

"' 5 ^ , J> ••A." S x ' 

couererf v»i, j"}* 1 ' >-r^" "^ a ^ a pace falling short 

S AS! i§ .P • ts^ g ^ 

c/ juidi; and o^f became tall ^-ssj , / ( _ s -£Jf ^ j£». 

uS .» X J> A 3 -o Sx S jv J> A J>A/-o a , 

entered J*****.. > j**- 2 * 1 ! ^;«^ rose jjJJ , ^jjj | jfcj rae'nei 

3 ft A? 3x ^^x ^x/A^>2/ .»Afi 

jfc^ji } &i>U -j was proud f'yi , jlaJI ^.« and £*jJ| poured 

" ' ■& st a , £*t sttin^i axx 3x 

down abundantly £—£ , o£ rara ii-*»i , y$ I 4Ultf /j& 

X 

S J> x aSa^» a x 3 .» x S x 

teas hurtful /y^i > J*^' jj* "-^ doubted uX&o, £l» 

XX '-' 

tS J>x ;;/ 3x iS *x Sx 

rained j^t , &*^ J-k t 00 * *Aerf unavenged Jiai , ct-**** 

£x 5*-° vi ft ^ AS*^ Sx tS^x. 

£>IU| pastured alone j-** , o^f **= became tall **5 , 

Sx i3 J x A S • A S x & 0s Sx 

&6» J* entered J*i , w»w» , i. q. ct**«* , ^j-S3 , jiS 



( 249 ) 

*n/h>o t 3 Bt a /f it 

j»«SJf became well-off after distress u )»- fi »*i » *M* y* fe- 
turned to attack fa , JswJI f produced date-pods & , 

St tS.*/ £ / 3 9t 9 >u<o i t $ 9j a f 

&i )* )Hi J* went quickly J+j. , *t$S u^S> i — $> , JO 
& meditated *& ; and 18 with either, «wU*i| ^f au ^ 

9h 3"° 3 3t $ , 

fJsJS became plentiful and luxuriant \£j>y>, and v£»*&, 

9 ti-* it iS^/ 9titlirO it f 

SiyUJ «wy jumped fZ , ^wJ I cy/ shed tears copiously 

fit i»° w9t A %KtO S / 

and SfcUl ga«c wm'/At copiously j£> , j*V f J ja. was 

* * t 

39t9hi<oit 3 9 t S / 

diligent •*?«., 'j****' r 5 " oecame abundant *«► ,«**«* 

• A^ • • fflitA-" 

l^j) ^U Sl^J i discarded ornaments on account of his 

' 3 9 t 9 ti" it 39 t *»i ■«</ ■ 3 9 t 

death o» , ;^l f* was hot ys=u , s^S ^ fell fsu , 

£/* e° it 3s t 9 tii° it 

&»Wf et>;0 yielded milk abundantly y±> and (j ja*J| ;J 



/owei abundantly [;*i]> ^l-a^l ^ reom * «**^*» 

-*& wow niggardly g&> , t^S *% was singular JA» , 

*Si^» s • «J */ a s «<» • s • 

y^l u^Joi. was distant I^iJ , ^,^1 ^ ^o turned away 

3 9 t 9 tS** it 3 St S * 

ij-oj , u*J| \-jfo flew off on being severed fi£ , ^e 

' t ' 

s A a ,*» 3 9t t*t*s> i / 4 .»• „ 

^^yUj presented itself ^*i., ^»1M w-»» /ifem* £&, 

*A .*A»o C • *»S 3 9 t 

y&J\ j** and *»U! was dry j^h (L): (3) Damm, (a) 

when it is reduplicated trans. (SH, L), as /^j^l J~ drew* 
8 a 



( 250 ) 

out &***»£ , &ls». untied &ksu : Kasr, however, occurs 
anomalously, like Damm in intrans. vs. ; alone in &*»• 
loved Smxu t in accordance with which is the reading of 
Al'Utaridi m ^Xxsu III. 29. [420], [(and) a poet says 

JVA2 t A#» sAw^o 2? .P.mSx A/ HI J> A • /H/ft £ i 

Z ' • ' /• • *"• • 

A J/ A^J A /AJ> S s XS S Sl\* t / SSK* sht it/Off 

(K) / love Abu Thorwan from love of his dates; and 
know that courtesy to the neighbour is more courteous. 
But, by God, if it were not for his dates, I should not love 
him} nor would he be nearer that i XJbaid and Mushrik, 
the poet's two sons (N)] ; and with Damm according to 

/ A ^ firG £ / f * S 

rule in five vs., *£=aM ia^» and JjULaJJ made the decree, 
and the divorce, absolute &%» , «CuJf o~> made hard &>-&j , 

^USJb &1* g-ave to drink after a first draught &!*& . &«j 
f * * ' 

carried and divulged &*Jj , '^^M >S> abhorred 8^j (L): 

(b) when its £ or J is a y (SH, L), as ,.jJL>. ,.G , !j* ; )»j 
(L); hut not necessarily, if the £ of the defective be gut- 
tural, as jl£> preceded sl&i and U> ^ , though necea- 

SMS £h9* 

sarily, if the J of the hollow be guttural, as sti j£j and 



( 251 ) 

_l> —y± (E): (c) when it is indicative of superiority 
to the competitor, and its uJ is not a y , nor its £ or 

fi fih y s y yy y 

jj a ^ , as &XJu«** X J^>S M He competed, or vied, with 
y 

me in being foremost, and I surpassed him in being 

fiPPhi J> fifty y y yy y 

foremost, &ju~t , &*>i»9 ^^"f He contended with me in 

' J)fS*$ yy * 

fighting, and 1 overcame him in fighting, &*fcj.f , L$ i«Mtfla- 

£*b • f y 

&*+«q V^ He contended with me in disputation, and I over- 
came him in disputation, &~&L\ ; but Kasr, if the lJ be a 

SSK yyy // / SSh y yy y 

y , or the £ or J a ^ , as £>iJ*j> ^^h ' ***** uS*^^ ' 

iJuJw ^^^ , He vied with me in promising and selling and 

y 
hating, and I surpassed him in promising and selling and 

hating, S^t , <**#! , **!*! ; and, according to Ks, Fath, if 

y y y f 

the e or J be a guttural letter, a Hamza, 8, £, £., 

«»/// • • • ' SS yhi S2%syy i/ y sl%, ni 

h, or ±. , as &+& o*a>tj f &*$M } &;i}$j '^Ijia , »f}a>f , 

S Shy s y " ' 4-fyAfi 

SXe^at L J-^)^ a , &*y£>\ , whereas others hold that the gut- 

s 

tural letters have no effect,in this sort, which is shown to 

SSSy y y y f y, 

be correct by the saying of the Arabs tijx£J> ^jtM* 
[484] He vied with me in poetizing, and I surpassed Mm 

j>ss*i 

in poetizing, »;*£' with Damm of the £ (L) : (4) Fath, 

y yy 

when [ J*s does not denote superiority to the competitor, 
and (L)] the £ or J is a guttural letter (SH, L) other 
than I (SH), which is also a guttural letter (B); so long 



( 252 ) 
as it is not reduplicated, like g» , ^- , £0 , ^f , nor 

x?x * Ax £xx $ Ax 

notorious for Easr or Damm, like j.U j^k, Ui£» j^jj, 

x x x s ax x x x .».<> Ax x x x a * A x i// sshs x x x 
<««/ x xx .».* Ax x ? x .»£ A x X x x .» x Ax x XX 

^L^u , i»a> ^Ab : e. g. Jt*»> Jl*»* , u*-2« L^i^ f o^*j 

J XAX X XX J x A x. /ft SsH/ i/t ?xAx f/t .PxAx x xx 

.Px A/ x x x .P x Ax 

^j> , AmJ £*»»«*a : sometimes together with something else, 
[because the guttural letter makes agreement of the pret. 
and aor. in Fath allowable, not necessary (BS),] as ^ci 

.P x Ax x x x 9 1 Ax XXX * !? A X XXX *#Ax XX x *:?Ax 

x x Axs ,P A X X .» x A? .p .» a2 .Pxui^xxx.P^Ax 

v_>lXXJ| i~jysa* Stsa*! and 8j»*1 , jliidJ! ^a.^ /**•)£> 

.PMxA^X XX .P^Ax '£ x£x XX xAx 

^Uf £*J> ^aju (L): but ^f ^b is anomalous, ^JS ^J&i 



x xx S .PAx 



'AmirS, and ^) Jfji an intermixture (SH) of ^f) ^f„ and 

X X * X AX XX 

c?0 cJ*V ^' ^ e £ °^ t ^ ie aor " ^ rom *•)** * 8 P ronounc ed 

' ' x x J>x Ax x x 

with (1) Fath, [the general f nle (R), as ^ ^*j , jJL. 
pLJ(L)] : (2) Kasr (SH, L), if the <-i be unsound (SH), 
a < , these vs. being formed upon Kasr in order that the 
cause of elision of the y may be produced ; though Easr 
is not universal in every such v. (R) : (a) anomalously 
(L), (a) with Fath, [which is more regular (R),] in [4 

x x S> Ax- 

(or rather 5) vs. whose *-i is not a y (R)j y j&> jp**l 



( 253 ) 

•* £av x x a / h * / / s/ h/ * f * hs 

and j*l« (L),] i_-~»*a- ^ * . «» »» , **> **L> , ^Jb .r^yt 

* £ax t * » * h* t x j> x 9th* 

and jr 1 ** , j^i j~tti » an d [in] f>-) )^u. and ^^» , 
[ £)j gjt } more often, and £;jd (R),] ^ j*i and ^c^> , il- 

•P x .PXAX X X .P X S> s K* 

&k and [more often (R)] &J *d , [ J3>; J$» and Ja>*i 
x * t ' 

(L)] ; (6) without it in [some vs. whose o is a j (R),] 

X X * X XX .* X X X .P X 

$) i3^ ' ***>) vt '^ » C <£ ^ £# » t flou gh S transmits 
• * t / * * 

■» X Ax x X J> X SfHrO x x 

£)j> as a dia/. «?ar. (L),] ^ -# ,[^J| ^ 2%c marrow 

• -PAS,0 x x 

was compact gtf. , whereas in i*J}J| ^j The Jfre-sHck pro- 



duced fire of„ the Kasr of the c in the aor. is not ano- 
malous, but an intermixture of two dial, vars., the aor. of 

•PAS'" XX */\3r° X X 

b^)ff ,3^ being used instead of the aor. of ^J ^j (L),] 

xx-Pxxxxxx^x x 

t3S i3*i» J; us^> J"; Jr* ( R > L ) : ( b ) wifch Fath als< > 

^* X x X X X _ 

XX X .» X * AS »« X X X X 

in the jpre£ in two words, ^j JjW an d «*>}JI ,e)} .e>d : 

XX • X 

>£' X * X X J X * X X 

(c) orag". in £»«j £«*j and o ^^ U-aj , as is proved by the 

X X 

elision of the j ; the £ of the aor. being afterwards pro- 
nounced with Fath because of the guttural letter (R). 

XX X Ax X X x Ax 

And Tayyi say J*> Jw in the conjug. of J» JUt, (SH) j 
because they allow conversion of every final ^ pro- 
nounced with an uninflectional Fatha and preceded by 

xx x .P 4 x x XX x# 

Kasr into J , as Jv , ^o , SU>U for ^ , ^o , and 



( 254 ) 
&&c\i (R). The £ of the aor. from J*» is pronounced 

X t 9t t 9 kt t t t 9 * h t 

with Damm (SH, L), as ci>& «J^ , lJ^2j w-3^d, not 

/ AJ> 

otherwise (L), a rule not broken save in one word vsa*** 

# xx t t 9 9*t t t 9 9 ht S 

ottf (R). But [ J*i J*H , as (M)] J^iJ^. [ «>*♦ 

J> 9/ * f 99Ht 

&yj (M), f" f*±t (SH),] is an intermixture (M, SH) 

"^ '*»' X t 9 fh* S 9 

of two cftai. war*. (M), J*a» J***i and J-a> J*afc> , cs^« 
**»%*•* and is"* «yl** , as 

X 

xx A 5 9t&t xx Ax tth*o t x a# x Sx.P 

ilfy fttffe daughter, princess of daughters, thou art my /jfe, 

X X 

a»rf we are not free from fear tfiat thou shouldst die, **i 

• ' X 

#xAx '*' 99ht t9t 9tht x A .0 

**ii and •*» f**i (R) : and likewise J*i J*iu , as «a*J* 

* XX 

oU3 [463] (M). The augmented *n7. becomes, through 

XXX 

the augment, of four letters, like *->}*> , or five, like 

'xxxA xxAxA 

^UaJI, or six, like C >»^*"I (IA). The augment is bomo- 
geneous with the letters of the word or heterogeneous, 
as in ns. [369] (M). Among the formations of the aug- 

i' Sx xSx xxx 

mented {tril] v. are (1) 0«, as ^; (2) J*l» , as 

XXX XX A? XX A? * * lit 9 9H*> XX A x 

v; u ; ( 3 ) •>•'» as f 1 *' 5 ( 4 > •>**» as «W J}*; 

xx A^ xAS<«xxAx 9t t t 

i.q. Jjyaf laughed much and /^j-Jf j»i*2o i.q. &*>fi> 

x xAx *X»X X XA X 

demolished-, (5) ,j^*» , as &**» j^^la. seduced and took 
away, transmitted by AZ, and seemingly derived from 



( 255 ) 

/•A/ $s /A/ 



&*&. deluded', (6) (J*», as &—aU i.q. &«aU cw< 'his 

Sl^l* . (7) Jl*s , as #**M ^jl** i- q. »>k» smeared him 

* 

to&Aj>ifcA;.(8) (j'*', as Ja-^l J&>* threw him down 
upon Aw back; (9) J^*» , as i^Xli" acted ic&A slyness, 

* / /A /A/ 

.UXKJ! 7%e pwrap being said by As to be derived from 

S //A/ , * ' A / ■*> fbf ' tb * »f * * 

uJWJ Procuration; (10) J*** , as &«f^ Wa. i. q. siala. 
shaved; (11) J-***, as Sj-JAaJk &«*il3 i.q. »LJS dressed 

'•'A/ // _ //»/ 

Aim w&A Me cap; (12) Jj**, as iuUf ^ ^^. spoke 

// A/ * ^S^> //Ax " ' 

fot«rf; (13) J***, as Jsj»yi iflivkc stooled in coition; (14) 

//A/ * A /A^ //A/ ft 

J**» , as JaaiUf jjL. j ejected his semen before insertion ; 

ft A/ .PA 3<*> // A / " A i 

(15) Jjwj , as £$! J**— i.q. J*~f put forth its ears; 

/ / A/ /A 3^> / / A / .P / •/ 

(16) J*«», as i^^l j— .2^ i.q. &«»*) concealed; (17) 

//A/ 9f/H / S Si-O //A/ 

Jrfjs , as ^^=5- [485] and J-a-jM J*^=>- became aged; 

//A/ /S w H» / / A/ /• / Ay 

(18) J*i>, as &iloJ! jku> treated medically ; (19) J*&, 

J> JlS^o / /A/ 

as J^yt ^j"**/ absented himself from battle, derived 

• HI /A<^ / // / / /A 

from ut-A*H J***,) buried and j»M#l uttered in a low tone 

s 

ft t A / /A / / /K , ' t* 

and j«»J| concealed; (20) J*a»", as ( j~*a*« i.q. **a> 

//A / / A S »"» //A / ^/ / 

hastened; (21) J*»&, as i^j^Jf (Jila> i, q. &*2J swallowed; 
(22) J*&, as f& ; (23) ,>&, as jMii' ; .p^ JUiJ ," 

/A / / /A / / / A// s , h,, 

as l-S &"*S quasi-pass, of ^gSl* ; (25) J*$& , a s U&iby 

* * * * /A // .» ^S^a / / A / / 

i.e. «-*£> sucked; (26) J*«*?, as J*.;'' ^j^W* [483] 



( 256 ) 

* * A \iO f t A tt 



i. q. <£>» teas lowly, teysJb sj^*3 clad himself with 

A A«*» / /A// 

the tunic, and Ji<**-Jk Ji±i*2 wiped himself with the 
* * * * 

napkin; (27) Ui*S| , as Jhj-yi UaL>a.f i.q. Up. was big. 

* /A • A </.Si« •• AyA 

bellied; (28) j-****? , as j*~J| ^-XUcf «*» intensely 

fSsh t *f / * / 1\/ A ' /A / A 

JfacAr; (29) ^gU**} , as «l& ^ cS ** 1 «J i. q. j&~\ lay 

* m-° /A/A * sZi*> ,/t , a 

on his back, u&oJf ^f^ [432], and Ja.^! tS AJLl2a*.f 
was wrathful; (30) J**M , as JxUf ^j-Ait wo* dark 

■P .PS^ /3 / a ' 

and tJ^yi ^^ mnw #3«cfc and active in his walk, from 

f / A? //A •a 

^jfcl.Aosfewetf; (31) JJj*»! with one of the two J s aag- 

9 /^i" */A/A //Ay A /2/A 

as )«4J! ^-^I i-q. ^^' was bulky; (32) J*«f, as 

* ' ' / 

S S<^» /S' A **h*h s *S ,0 , , a, A 

^gA-tfJ! £i±fi>f was /a* ; (33) J*^ I , as yJlLa/f J^a^f 
JeraJ ^w wecAr and stuck out his crop, coordinated with 

* / hs A SS/A g J , a 

fsslfj by means of the aug. j ; (34) Jt*£| , as &&*.! 

S PficO * A/AW Sf / A 

Ja. J! was on the brink of death and - Jiff J&j.f ,/ferf, from 

^ ^ / S //k * fftfO 3//A 

jk. ; (35) J*AM » as J^yf f$M Aw? Jorfy Jecome agU 

tated and altered^ from &*.yi ^~ became altered; (36) 
J*«H with one of the two J s aag\, as J».y! Jl^ff mkw 
short and stunted, £a^J! u>fy"f and ait>y*f trembled; (37) 

* * »h * ' ' A f f/K f , t A S / A 

Juiif, as J-aM ; (38) J»X>t, as JjJkf j (39) >*», 



( 257 ) 

9 A S <° 3/ A ,.'*■* 

as s^A\ y**-S was red, when its &;*•»• is permanent, not 
altering; (40) Jx&u4, as ^faX^\ ; (41) JUif , as 

,»A S H=S / A ' ' /** ' 

S i£*^ ) l * s ^ became red, when it has a 8^*a- not perma- 
nent, e.g. ^gyM ^^.j *)C jL=w ^UJ S MC A a one be' 

//A/A 

comes red at one time and yellow at another; (42) J^**»f , 

^/EJ^Z/A/A / /A /A '.' /A/ A 

as j*~J! ^j^f was fcmg*, J^^ai-f uftuurcl/and ^jM 

J>« j ^ •Si/A fhSSi" / S * A 

'cs^f [ 494 ] : ( 43 ) <-J^ f » M ^ ^jM rorfe tue colt 

• 2/ A / 53/A 

back-backed, OjM and kjyM teen* /as* (L). 

§ 483. The formations of the augmented [/HI.] are 
(1) [commensurable with the quad., as being (M)] coor- 

f S A ' ,» / A / */ As //As 

dinated with (a) ^f^ , as Jl*£ hastened, [ *U» , ^jUS 

• Ay /?A/ * m «■» /?A/ 

(R)i] a" 3 * » f ^^ » e * 8* "-^M^ Jb* rw#ed the feathers 

# * h* f sh* s sA * s s A / S s A s 

of his neck, J**s (R),] j»HS , )y&* , [ J**i , JjuS f 

a 9 3 t° / /A t 

e. g. J^f £*>^ became poor and clave to the earth (R),] 

//Ay / / A/ ///A/ / /A / / /5/ / 

J^t /*», [&c. (R)]; (b) c ja*£,as v*!??, fbS, 

/ / / / /25/s / / / / 

Jiti3 } [but such as *IG and Jiti3 are not coordinated 

//A// //A// / ,. A / / //A// 

(R),] «-^V [485], V ;^» >^ [* 96 ]' •**— *' 
[which also requires consideration, because the aagp. « in 

/ / A / / t *At t t / A // 

^—+* , <p>»-^ , J ^*-^ , is not for coordination, but of the 
class of imagination and mistake; they thought that the f 
9 a 



( 258 ) 

i A £/'A 9 A 

of. ^ MMt, &*y±*, JjiW-» was the Oof the word, like the 

9 A^ $/-A 

JJ of Ji<J^ and J of f 2 ^, whereas the regular form was 

^j&w, £;^, J 1 ^; so that ^»**> } &c, though really 
upon J*&*> , were in their imagination upon JJ*&> (R)] ; 

, / A, A ' '*'* /A' A 

(c) fsufA, as j— *ajJ1 [496], ^aJUJ : [the proof of 

/ ' ' 

coordination being the unity of the two inf. ns. (M):] (2) 

[commensurable with it, though (M)] not coordinated, as 

^ya., J3l5, -.yi.) : [(3) incommensurable with it, as 

S a /A / / M SyA • • A • A S • A //A/A 

(M)] ^JM , ;*3J , fc-^J , E ^X-.J , v l«£J , ^o^l , 
b Jet (M, SH). And y) 1 *^! became low is said to be 

, •/ A / • / ft .» .P i3 

[ortg\ c j**~1 (R),] J**»l from u)j**"*fl » [t* 16 Fatfc being 
made full (R),] in which case the prolongation is anoma- 

t / lit A * A./A J A /A 

lous; or J*a*-t from ^,^1 [or gtfiS , the j- denoting 

• t A • A 

transition, as in jipaaL*.! (493), i. e. Ae passed to another 

A/ 

.***, i.e. state, i. e. /row dignity to lowness, or became 

A ,/ A' 

K£e tfAe ^i/ a piece of flesh inside the gf , i.e. in soft- 
ness and lowness (R),] in which case the prolongation is 
regular. 

\ 484. J*» denotes many meanings And the con- 
j«g\ of contending for superiority, [by which we mean that 
one of the two matters should be superior to the other in the 



( 259 ) 

meaning of the inf. n. (R),] is formed upon &&** &JU»f , 

ft* */* t x * 
[then trans, only (R),] as &JUyo cS*"*^ Be vied with me 

in nobility, and I surpassed him in nobility, &*f\ ; [the 
v., when not of this conjug., like i^-l* , **aL , ff , beiug 
transferred to it when this ineauiag is intended (R)]s 
except [when the o is & y , or the £ or J a ^ , aa 

in (R)] the conjugs. of «yJ^ 3 , u><*> , c^-**^ , [the aor. 

of] which is &l*iJ with Kasr; and, according to Ks, [when 

the ^ or J is a guttural letter, as in (R)] &f£& i/.)* 1 * 

[482], 8^if with Fath, [whereas AZ has transmitted 

£>oi£i JsJyelii , got&f , and 23vseui» &3y£.G , 8*io| } with 
Danim. The conjug. of contending for superiority is not 
regular, however : S says "And it is not in everything that 

fist.//, /// ssssi sshtf 

this occurs ; for you do not say SZeyj ^J^'p , **/l i &**!* 

being used instead" (R)]. In J** , [oftener intrant, 

than trans., accidents, namely (R)] ailments, griefs, and 

tfAeir o#ps., are numerous, as *5« was sick, ^y* was ill, 

.y* grieved, -f rejoiced: and coforo, defects, and appear* 

anceff all occur upon it, [as -ol «xw tawny, t_^4« too* 

1 • * • 

gray, y& Aac? a» inversion and contraction of the eyelid, 

£l<£ was crooked, £»*) Aod little flesh in the posteriors and 

' ft ' Sx* c -- * 

thighs, »»&> was lank-bellied; though J*»l and jUlf 
■ •» * * 



( 260 ) 

i xA Sx* 

are tbe most prevalent in colors, as *«jyf «jbs white, y&S 

WIX A tf /A ul X A 

was red, f^S was yellow, $\)\ became blue, »Uai.t became 

XX t S/ 

green, from which co/ors ^JUi and J** do not come (R)] : 
but [ J*» sometimes shares with it in colors^ defects, and 

X J>x X .P x X V X 

appearances (R), so that] -of, ^— «;ow 6rotP», >Jy 

X.»X X */ * S s 

was lean, j*** w stupid, /if*- was clumsy, *»« forf a» 
x x x 

x*x 
impediment in his speech, ^) was foolish, with Fasr and 

X>amm, occur; [and in diseases and pains, as Ju« : and 

XX ' ^JA x 

in all these meanings mentioned J** is mtoMM.; &2y 

Stht ' 9 J) x ' 

feared him, &*'f was terrified at him, and &a&2o- dreaded 

fiH * A X .PA 9 h f * fiS £ , 

him being on#. &** i&*Jy , &*»• vs-^j» , and &U ls-^cL 

„ ' ' ' ' x"x 

X ^x ' 

(R)]. And J*» is for the w. of natures, [i. e. created 
qualities (R),] and *Ae /i&e, [what is not a nature some- 
times fbllowing the course of one, when it has some 
duration (R),] as ^y**^ was beautiful, £$ was ugly, **f 

S0 X X* X ^ 3f 

was great, f^o was small, [)&> was pure, and t&X. tarried 

'S(° x Ax .Px 

(R)] : and is therefore intrans. [432] ; ^WJ ljCu*.^ 2%^ 
Ao««e was spacious to, or tui/A, Mee, [said by Az to be 

■P S >o ff K ,0 , 

from the speech of Nasr Ibn Sayyar )^ f*****,) > and 

x A x i>x 

not to be evidence (R),] i. e. *-£> o-p-; , being anoma- 

X 

lous, [or rather made tram, because implying tbe sense 



( 261 ) 

« 

of f**^ (R)] j and the Damm in the conjug. of «Jj— ruled 

x*x 

him, [not orig. of the conjug. of J*» with Damm, nor 
transferred thereto, as is apparently the saying of S and 

s Axx 

the majority, because they say that c^Jj» is transferred 

9 *»' ■» Axx 3 A y 

to ut~}j> and i»-»*i> to ux*# , in order that they may 
«» 

afterwards transfer the Damma of the ^ and Kasra of the 

,3 to what is before them, so that, after the elision of the 

j and ^5 , what may indicate them, i. e. the Damma and 

Kasra, may remain (R),] being for explanation [of the v. 

as one] of the scions of the ^ , not for transfer [from 

one conjug. to another (R)J ; like which is the conjug. of 

SSH * A 

&A3" [403], while in that of %a>*±. they have had regard 
to explanation of the mode of formation (SH). 

§ 485. JJ*& is (1) quasi-pass, of Jl*» , as &i)f* 
t~>)fp& He put on him socks, and he put on socks and 
"i^laaX? &x«JL. jHe j>k£ on Mm a ^ Atr/, cnrf A« put on a 

* X Ax x 

shirt: (2) a coined formation, as lJ^2 walked softly and 

X / Ax/ 

i_$y*y undulated in his gait (M). 

/fix/ y Sx JMS/ 

§ 486. J*& (1) is quasi-pass, of J*s, as £>j*J* 
• s • •• 
y*S& 1 broke it in pieces, and it broke in pieces : (2) 

X S x X 

denotes affecting, or endeavouring to acquire, as £»«*> 



( 262 ) 

encouraged himself and ^aa3 (M, SH): says Ha"tim [afr 
Ts's (Jsh)] 

ttfi S * A / A.*/- • A^ a£a,-o / »S/ / 
/•a t / S / 'A A<* X • A • A /• 

ULxu -L. JbaJI ^uJaXmJ J. 

[Endeavour thou to acquire forbearance with the nearer 
relatives, and preserve their love. And thou unit not be 
capable of forbearance until thou endeavour to acquire 

/ffl • t ' 

forbearance, orig. JaoXj (Jsb)] : S says " And this is not 

s / * f 

like JJ%w [487], because this one seeks to become for- 
bearing": and hence j*& and jy£ attached himself to 
the tribe of Kais and NizSr (M): (3) is i. q. J**wf- [in 

* tht A • 

two senses peculiar to J*aX*«! , believing the thing to be 
of the quality of its root (R)], as ^XJ and JfeuJ believed 
himself to be great and grawo} (M, SH), and requiring, as 

*J>* S // 9* Hit/ tj&/* 

jJ^xJu required the fulfilment of it (R), &£*£> , and &uu5 
CM), sought the settlement, and manifestation, of it (K on 
IV. 96., XLIX. 6.): Dhu-r Rumma says 

f^l*acw ji^f ^mJJ p/" U» 



> *;»K<* /«/« .PA,*V S*.* # 



Tften <Ac nobleness of the inhabitants who have jour- 
neyed away from the abode I And the baseness of the 

9 tt/J A / A <« • yA* • * 

substitute taken in exchange /, meaning *&&£■» j U y *J .(&} 



( 263 ) 

tSJ^Mp ^(oJf (El on IV. 2.), i. e. the wild cows and 
gazelles (N) : (4) denotes repeated action in a leisurely 
manner, as &*^xw swallowed it in successive gulps: and 
hence «$&> understood, one thing after another, [y&£ 
looked, and t*~»2 listened (M)j though apparently *$£» 
denotes endeavouring to acquire understanding, like 
£***aJ| and ^a^l (R)] j (5) denotes taking to, or /or, 

y y /A*« * ASx x x x«8*o J> A 9 yy 

oneself, [as y) 1 ^! »»>;&*> and v'/**' t**J*«j3 / &o& /fo 
jpface <w an oJorfe and jAe rfwstf ,/br a pillow : and hence 
8lxy adopted him as a son (M)] : (6) denotes shunning, as 
*5C and £>» (M, SH), i. e. shunned **#( «n and £ y»f| 
crime (M): (7) mostly means the thing's becoming 
possessed of its root, as J&O , J-«C, and t^-JG, i. e. 

A? Af a* 

became possessed ofJ&\ a wife, ,^1 a rootf, «^Jf a collec- 

• 3/ 

Iton : so that it is quasi-pass, of J*> denoting making the 
thing ft> be possessed of its root; really, as in t-JKJ &**H 
1 collected it, and it collected together and J**U» &M 
I made it to become firmly rooted, and it became firmly 
rooted; or constructively, as in J£>G *oo£ a wife, since 
Ji>f is not used in the sense of made to be possessed of a 
toife: (8) is sometimes quasi-pass, of J*» meaning making 
the thing to be Us root itself, really or constructively, as 



( 264 ) 

$ • *<B t Z/f* * tiff 

w*isUI ^Sf The grapes became l^H) raisins and J1C 
It became a J^*f fillet, i. e. encircling (R). 



§ 487. J-*l£> (1) denotes what is [reciprocally] done 

by two and upwards, as bjl«su and \j>}£* They two, and 

• / f 
They, fought together: and is from J^l> , (a) singly trans. y 

* f / 
as «— »y^ Fought with, being then £«*ra7w. ; (6) doubly 

• A?3^3 P.PA X • 

trans., as v^l &uota. / contended with him in pulling 

t A3." /A/ /• f 

the garment, being then singly trans., as «— '^' IkofcxJ 
We contended together in Sfc. (M) : sometimes, however, 
it denotes agreement in the root of the v., but not by some's 
subjecting some to that, like the saying of 'All &&>( bU7. 

ft t 

&51j> Sm^u And his family were unequal to the description of 



tt / / / 



Aw malady (R) : (2) denotes that the ag. slwws you that he 

j> r>, ft s a/ t/ 

is in a state that he is not in, as isJ^Gu , u&~a*UJ , and 

S hs t t 

t~.Jta>beu feigned to be heedless, blind, and ignorant; e.g. 

ti t / K r r J> fit t t / 

t t £ 

When I make a show of looking from the outer angle of 
the eye, while there is not in me any looking Sfc. (M) : (3) 

/ tt hi*.*> » A/ ft 

is i.q. J*> , as [ y$\ J> (M)] is^fy flagged [in the 

1 1 ti"" ft 1 1 
matter and Si 1 ** I jy=F"> passed the goal (M): there must 



( 265 ) 

* y / 
be intensiveness in it (R)] : (4) is quasi-pass, of J*t> , as 

* f S J>S J>9 h * • 

&:[*& tJiidj I made him to remove to a distance, and he 
removed to 4-0. (M, SH). lDh says that according to Th's 
school it is only from two [or more], and is not trans. ; 
which is refuted by the saying [of Imra alKais (EM)] 

yAyyiS-PAy^y S y y y A y y yAy s A £ S Ay y y 

* * * % 

(ML) I passed guards in my going to her (EM) and a 
band eager for me, for keeping secret the slaying of me, 

, £ J> Ay 

&)r»i y being [in the place of the gen. as (Jsh)] a subst. 
of implication for the pron. of ^ (DM, Jsh). 

§ 488. J*>f (1) mostly denotes making [the toV, 
(R)] trans., as <5&«Ja.f seaterf Aim : [(a) what was ag. to 
the intrans. is made obj. to the meaning of making to be, ag. 

* Ay J> A y A? 

to the rorf o/" Me accident, as before, so that fo^j ct~*fiuf 
means 7 macfe .Zairf to 5e going away, Zaid being oiy. 
to the meaning of making to be imported from the Hamza, 
ag. to the going away, as in uj>j t-^au ; and therefore, 
if the tril. v. be intrans,, it becomes through the Hamza 
trans, to one, the 06/. of the meaning of the Hamza, i. e. 
making to be or become : (b) if trans, to one, it becomes 
through the Hamza trans, to two, the 1st the obj. of the 

J> Ay A J 

making to be, and the 2nd of the root of the v,, as &f^ 
10 a 



( 266 ) 

/AS i* *■ h* 

j$*Jf li^j I made Zaid to be digging the canal, the'litf 
being made to be and the 2nd dug; and the made to be 
takes precedence of the obj. of the root of the v,, because 
the meaning of agency is in it : (c) if trans, to two, it be* 
comes through the Hamza trans, to three, the 1st belong- 
ing to the making to be and the 2nd and 3rd to the root 

of the p.; which is two vs. only, f*\ and ^ i (d) 
thetril is sometimes trans, and intrans. in one meaning, as 

, it sab/ / 

^$8* sorrowed and &Zi'f* made sorrow to be in him; then 

we say **'} a »f denoting transport of the intrans., not of 
the trans., so that the original meaning is made him to 

be sorrowful i (e) the Hamza in £y*A was quick and itajl 
was slow does not denote transport; but the tril.. and aug- 

mented are both intrans., gy and £at , however, being 
more intensive, because, as it were, (denotative of) nature, 

like f*o and yf s (f) if (Z and) IH said that J&\ 
mostly makes the thing to be possessed of its root, it would 
be more general, because that of which the root is a 

prim, would be included in it, as 8fi*a.| gave him a gift, 

b * tthfht 

i. e. made him to be possessed of a tiika. gift, and &X*2>of gm. 

ed it, i.e. made it to be possessed of l»-2o gold', (g) some* 
times it denotes making the thing to be its root itself, as 
s^AS cH^f made it to be a &>o& present or »tji&> animal 
led to Makka for sacrifice (B):J (2) denotes exposing 



( 267 ) 

[to the thing (M), the Hamza importing that yon make 
what was obj. to the tril. to be exposed to be obj. to the root 
of the accident, whether it become an obj. to it or 

not (R)], as [ &&Sf and (M, E)] &**>! [exposed him to 
slaughter and sale (M), i. e. exposed him to become slain, 
whether he were slain or not, and sold (R), whence (M) 

£>joJ (M, R) made for him a grave, whether he were 
buried or not (R), &*£»~l prescribed for him a medicine 
(M), &*£»«*<! (M, R) assigned to him drink, whether he 
drank or not (R)] : (3) denotes [its ag.' s (R)] becoming 
possessed of such a thing, [i. e. of what it is derived from 
(R),] as }A**M ***l became possessed of a &** pestilential 
swelling ; [or of a thing possessed of what it is derived from, 
as J^iM •—»>*' became possessed of camels having i^>f* 
scab (R):] and hence L r Mf incurred blame (M, R), s-A$ 
incurred suspicion, J»J| ^yo\ The palm-trees came to 
the season when their fruit ought to be cut off (M),] ±*as>-S 
* » # Ji The seed-produce attained to the season for being 
reaped, [ vty rejoiced at an announcement, jk»t broke his 

tstii- * *& 

fast (M), f**«et and ^**S entered upon the morning and 
evening, W*&f and Imja.| entered upon the time of the. 
north wind and south wind, d»J and Je-I arrived at 
tferjdwd the mountain, f^' and <J4) amounted to nine 



( 268 ) 
and a thousand (R)] : (4) denotes finding [its obj. (E)] 
to be of a certain quality, [i. e. ag, to the root of the v., as 

psa / A? 

&Uiu t found him to be niggardly ; or obj. to the root of the 

j>j>« * a i 
v. (R),] as £>ki>#s»-! found him to be such as is praised, i. e. 

* S A t A% • A9 

praiseworthy (M, SH) : in L-OUaoJ J found thee to be *■**«* 

/ ./A? y sA$ 

silenced, however, J*H is transported from J*M itself, 

t & f / >& * * fi s^ A * Ai 

like ^xiUtsJi i_£Uo«f U in wonder, J^yi is^*siif silenced 

ft s 

being said (R) : 'Amr Ibn Ma'dlkarib said to Mujashi' 

A S /»// A/.P f , A-tiSs it 

[Ibn Mas*ud (R)] asSulaml ^UJGS **!*, ^Jj b S^a &U 

AS * A * A? // AS * A / f * A* / A • A? ft AS /hi/ t AS Ss A? •• 

2b (3W 6e ascribed your excellence, Banu Sulaimf We 
have fought with you, and not found you to be cowardly; 
and have asked of you, and not found you to be niggardly; 
and have competed with you in satire, and not found you 
to be silenced (M, R) : (5) denotes depriving [its obj. of 

SSAsAf 

what it is derived* from (R)] f as &%££! removed his com- 

S * A* S A t At 

plaint [and y~$SS\ e^*=i*:f marked the writing with dia- 
critical signs, when you remove, or do away with, the 
&>KS complaint and &*=«: barbarism (M)]: (6) is i.q. 

/• " • A /A^> S A ssA/i 

J*» (M, SH), as &*l\ cJj and &X3S\ cancelled the sate, 
e£li£ and &Xli£| Jzmerf Atwa, yG and /if went forth in 
the early morning (M) : an augment of meaning is, how- 
ever, unavoidable, though it be only corroboration: (7) 



( 2(39 ) 

Pth / hi 



denotes praying, as 6£aS-4 prayed for rain for him, as 
says Dhu -rRumtua 



s s«j / A/ jy 



&Mi*U 8vM<: Jwf ts^tj Ui * ,<*& &4*J £>) ,5k is-*»j 



hi s s * St t AS 



&a*1L«j »jbas>.| ^i*iXJ * &xi| U« t>y ^a., &A5~t; 
• # • * • * 

[ T halted my she-camel at a home of Mayya's, and ceased 
not to weep beside it and address it and pray for rain for 
it, until, from what I toas revealing, it was well-nigh 

St t hi 

speaking to me, its stones ( &>bpa>.! being a subst. for the 
sub. of otf , vid. the pron. in it) and its playgrounds 
(FA)] ; though the commonest in the cat. of praying is 
Jje , as &*iJa. [48D]: (8) denotes other meanings not 
having any rule like the rules of the meanings men- 

S/ /hi 

tioned, as ty^ saw him : (9) is seldom quasi-pass, of 

t/t ft hi* sshs/ 

jx* } as $&& £>jk» / made him break his fast,„and he 

, ,hit Sth , , 

broke his fast and }»*** 63^» I rejoiced him by an- 
announcement, and he rejoiced at the announcement (R). 

§ 489. J** (1) mostly denotes multiplying [the 

S A mt 

root of the v., in the trans. (R),] as is**l«aa cut in pieces 

$ hit *12/ $ hi * 

and i=J»U shut; [and intrans., as (R)] is^f* and u^i^fe 

[multiplied the ^fi- going about and the oiy* g-ofn§- 

round (M, R)] and jUJf «a>j* {The murrain fell among 
the cameh t and" death was frequent among them (R) : it is 



( 270 ) 

not said of one (M); you say Xy* v^UH ei-5U , and not 
&a£U from the inconceivability of the. idea of repetition 

t tf.i^> S AS / S3 KHz 

in the like, but v>t^ 1 ct-SJi ; and &«*}». means multi- 

j>p * / / " 

plied his wounds, -whereas &£=*}». wounded him admits 

of multiplying or not : says AlFarazdak 

St th A/ tt Shit 5/ tSH.it e ,1\Z S,t\i S A • 

»U* V ^^ U| c^ify ^^a- « l^SU!^ bi^'f ^Z*| «s~J^ U 

I ceased not to open doors and shut them until I saw Abu 

t s mtfi tSoitfi 

'Jmr Ibn l dmmar, i. e. %5=uS| and 1$«1p! (E)] : (2) denotes 

,/l\i * SS Kit 

making trans., [explained in J*>\ (E),] as &**•/ glad- 
dened him ; [where also it would be better to say making 
the thing to be possessed of its root, that it might be com- 
mon to such as )Sai\ ^jzai flavoured the pot, i. e. made it 

to be possessed of bsi aromatic herbs or spices: but tliis is 

t tn$ 
not trans, to three like J*i| , except when made to 

t tKe t S* / t* t 

accord with J*i| , like »*jv*a- and y&- (E):] and hence 

st AS t sshS t 

&xS»*9 J imputed wickedness to him [and SXeii^. / saidio 

/ t fi A t 

him u-d Uaa. God cut off thy nose/ (M/j: (3) denotes 
depriving (M, SH), as ;*»*M cv<^- and l£of removed 

A /J> ' t tt 

the oi^ skin and the lifjS tick (M) : (4) is i. q. J** , [in 
the intrans., as ,<■*•* and ^g*** , e. g. 

thtfh^S , t I * •& * tt tS tt Wt* lit CllSt 

' 'ft t t f 4 



( 271 ) 
Many a desert waste, whose ostriches walk like the walk 
ing of the Christians in boots of black leather ; and trans. 

**A PtHS/ 

(BS),] as &^; and S*k) (M, SH, BS) separated it, e.g 

ttSt hf t AS/s 

*giuu lilijs X. 29. And We will separate their union, and 
sever the lies that were between them in the world (BS) : 
(5) denotes imprecating upon the obj, the root of the v., 

M«S/ "AS t 

as &**i*a. [above] ; or blessing him, as &&*> said to him 
* * fin >• 
U0 WL. [41] : (6) denotes becoming possessed of its root, 

as £yy became leafy-. (7) denotes becoming its root, as , 

SUJf \sSfa& became an \f*>* old woman: (8) denotes 

making its o5/. to become in the state that it is in, as 

%y&A\ yet) &sy3| uiy^ $\yiM\ l^i^JJJ ^ba*-, Extolled 

be the perfection of Him thai hath made the lights to be- 
come lights, and made the round heap of red sand to be- 
come a round heap of red sand, and made the soft white 

stone to become soft white stone! : (9) denotes doing sorae- 

• s • 
thing in the time that it is derived from, as -**•* came 

at morning : (10) denotes going to the place that it is 

derived from, as tJy went to AlKufax (11) denotes other 

meanings not governed by rules like those mentioned, as 

w;^» tesfed and Jf spoke (R). 

§ 490. J*l» (1) denotes that another does to you what 
you do to him, as &)la and &XU6 fought with him; and 
therefore, when you are the superior, you say &XJUa» ^^JJUfi 



( 272 ) 

(M) : inasmuch as J*l» implies the sense of sharing 

with (R), the intrans. becomes trans., as fcXajU' and £>j*t£ j 
and the trans, to one [<%'.] incongruous with the ag. 

becomes torn*, to two, as >->y*\ &%3t^ [^87], contrary 

fy &£*&& *»erf wnVA Aim ire reviling (SH), i. e. if the 

shared with here he the ofy". of the root of the v., the 

trans, to one in the tril. is frons. to one here also, but^ 

if the shared with here be other than the obj. of the root 

Of the v., the v. then becomes trans, to two ofrjs. : some 

* f * 
times, however, the 0&7. added in the conjug. of ^^ is 

<Ae one affected by the root of the v. not by way of sharing 

99h/ * 99ht / 

with, as «j^t* and &**^ returned to him (R) : (2) is 

t ** S A/ • BUS/ 

iq. J*», as uwjst**' (M, SH) i. q. *->>**« went forth to 
journey, though fhsre must he intensiveness in mjjsL* : 
similar is * l g*A\ <&)U i. q. && ?ow him the thing', and 
^Sjj. &U! J XXII. 39. Fmty Qod defendeth and £sf^ 
[is energetic in defending with the energy of him that 
contendeth for superiority in it (K, B)] are read (R): (3) 
is i. q. J**! (M), denotes making the thing to be possessed 

//A? /3/ Jfil r° / f t 

of its rootle J-*l aad J*^ (R), as 6ii\ ^Sfc (M, R) 

/ • //A/// 

Go^ maAre fAee *o be possessed of i&\* health/, i_X**«# U*|^ 
Make thine ear to be possessed of *iUj mindfulness for 

t aS si / // / 

us, like U* J , and Soa. j*l*0 termed away Aw cAeefc ^om 



( 278 ) 

jpr&te, Le. *f*e <R): (4) biq. J**, [i.e. denotes 
multiplying like J*» (R),] as [ sjUS (R)] i&-a*U 
doubled [the things i. e. multiplied its i»it**e| #&e*, like 
**»**£ , and *Uf ***U like &**> , i. e. multiplied his £**» 
wealth. These (last) three cafe, are most often trans. 

m 

§ 491. J*&f is [intrans. (SH),] quasi-pass, of Ja> , 
as y& l» &3^*»f 1 broke it, and it broke (M, SH); except 



what is anomalous (M), [or] seldom of J*»f (SH), as 
JLw U &X2&«<! / shut it, and it shut, [though 3**"^ may 

, ,h*> atttt JBSf, j> AxA# 

be quasi-pass, of *-A*M utJ*** , because oJuL- and isJ&*f 

• "KsOs t3 A •AS 

are «yn. (R),] and £*/ 1> &&»*5f / disquieted him, and he 
was disquieted It is peculiar to physical action and pro- 
duction of impression, [because this conjug. is applied to 
denote quasi-pas&ivity, i. e. reception of impression, which 
is more appropriate and congruous in what is apparent to 
the eyes, like breaking and cutting and pulling, so that 

Jk»tf &Ac and *$kt* &*<p are not said; whereas, though 
J»£» is applied to denote quasi-passivity of Jto f JUa» 
and f$&» are allowable, because the repetition in it seems 
to make it apparent and manifest, so that it becomes like 

the sensibk(R)] : and therefore j.iM^ is [said to be (SH)] 
11 a 



( 274 ) 

wrong; [while they say J&>£ &X1S I said it, and it was 
said, because the sayer works in moving his tongue (M). 
But it is not universal in all that is (indicative of) physi- 

cat action; so that OjtaJli SjOjIo is not said, but i^i&Ji, 
I drove him away, and he went away (R)]. 

§ 492. J*«! (1) is [mostly (SH) partner with J*&( 
in being (M)] quasi-pass., as ***G &£**£ I grieved him, 
an<2 /ie grieved [and ,3 j*** t» fi^i*-* / roasted it, and it was 

S/A / ,h 

masted, **>! and ,57*^ being also said (M): S says 

"The conjug. in quasi-passivity is J*&J ; and J***l is 

rare, as £*£&»£ &Lt«&. J collected it, and it collected and 

^. jJU t» &£&.}•• •* miared if, and if «?as mixed" : since, then, it 

• //» 
is not applied to denote quasi-passivity like J*a»f , it may 

denote it in other than physical action, as *X«G &£**£ , 
not «*>U : and it often serves instead of J*&l as quasi- 

' •*> A ft 

pass, of ew. whose lJ is a ^ , J, p , ^ , or j , as ib-a«») 

y ski** *fk » hi* 

^*3jU &i I threw it, and it was thrown, not ^fS , us**tf 
l»UI IS c ^ssJ! / Jownrf «p f Ae wound, and it united, not #&! , 

• •A.'V S9Ktt /S 

^^aXili &Xa»» I removed it, and it was removed, not Jiff , 
J-aJU &XL*. / joined &, and if teas joined, not J-*yf , 

y y A / 'A ' 

though ^s£*f and cS =a*>f was e^acerf occur; because 



( 275 ) 
these are letters that the quiescent ^ becomes incorpo- 
rated into (751), while the » of J*&f is the sign of 
quasi-passivity, so that its obliteration is disliked ; where- 

• //A • • 53 • • 21 

as the «y of J*XM in ^31 and i_^lbf , not being pecu- 

* / /A 

liar to any meaning like the ^ of J*&! , becomes as it 
were not a sign, since the property of the sign is pecu- 

" " 9*** 

liarity (R)]: (2) is Lq. J*U3 > as f^yo.| [707] became 

■6 s J A ' 

mutual neighbours, f^+*a£M disputed one with another, 

lis/* ' 

[ f^HXJ! j»e2 together (M)] : (3) denotes making for one' 

/•A ,/• S #»*•■ 

se£f, as ^y^l (M, SH) and ^^f prepared Ay» roast 

meat, and a towj slaughtered animal, for himself (M)» 
i. e. [with an 06/.] denotes your making the thing to be its 
root, which should not be an inf. n., apparently for your- 
self, as *aaU| ,« V^*l Jnaefe the flesh to be Ay» roast meat 

t *&/ , t>9 /t 

for himself (R): ^j*^ I* rif) XXXVI. 57. means And 

// A 

they sh&ll have what they ask for themselves, like gy&1 

/ s f K 

and J*%f when he roasts ftpsh, and wieiite fat, /or himself 
(K, B) : says Labid 

hi/ * /A//"/ .?£ ■*&& S/issH$ /J>* 

H//S*>s //fit f y ht"t SB* B*it *»//»S 



( 276 ) 

Many a lad there was thai his mother sent with a message, 
and we gave bountifully what he asked— that she sent, and 
his sustenance came to him, so that he roasted flesh for 
himself on a night of wind and melted fat for himself (E) : 

and hence Jl^f and Jfi>\ took, or received, something" 

measured and weighed: (4) is i. q. J*i , as cwl/ and 

mA&S read, Utiaa. and tJib£U snatched away (M) : (5) 

denotes (M, SH) exceeding the meaning thereof (M), 
practising versatility (SH), i. e. striving, and agitating, 

* * / A 1 1 •A 

*n producing the root of the V. (R), as u~~«*Xf | [and J*u:f 

, ,, , , * ' ' 

in relation to ^»*S and J** (M) ; for which reason 

A /ft tu° t s *** / A • / x * Sf 

God says u>*»»tf f U l$JLcj o-a-»T U l$f II. 286. It 
shall have what it hath earned, i. e. whether it strive in 
good works or not, and shall answer for what it hath 
striven to earn, i. e. shall not be chastised save for the 
sins that it hath striven to produce (R) : S says " As for 
Oa-J" , it says i" obtained, whereas is-A—Jiff is practising 
versatility and seeking; and jLX*Uf is equivalent to 
agitating" (M): but others than S make no distinction 

• / * • / * A 

between l-~*/ and ^** 3 SS : (6) sometimes denotes 
something else not governed by rule, as &*iaiall Jsuf., 
made an exception m the speech (R)]. 

§ 493. J*iwf [mostly (SH)] denotes (M, SH) 

' J^A t A /A 

requiring the act (M), [or] asking, plainly, as ***X£u»f 



( 277 ) 

asked him to write, or constructively, as £C&.jaaZ-.f (SH) : 

JS / / A' Ss/Hs A .0//A/A ' 

you say HisiX^i and &JL*X**f and &%«L*f when -he 

- ' V / 

S /* * t f 

requires his &»». briskness and J** working and &%wj 
hastening ; and %w£*** ^-» , i. e. passed, requiring that 
from himself, tasking himself with it : and hence 

■t* Its A / A 

&Xa.jaaX M f , i.e. flfe'i not cease coaxing and requesting 

// /ItfO s A / A / A 

wn&7 he went forth (M); [and] you say S»^\ us^^kuu-f 
pulled out the peg, where requiring properly is not pos- 

S*A ./ * A / A / A 

sible, as it is in l^jj u^jsaJu*f , save by seeking to 
accomplish the extraction of it and striving to move it, as 
though this -were a, requiring of it that it should come out: 

St Us H$ 

in &£^i-f , then, there is no indication that you extracted 

s / A / A 

& at once or with striving, contrary to -ysaJuJ (R): (2) 
denotes becoming transmuted [into the thing, properly 

J (0*-° / • A/A 

or tropically (R),] as ^iMS ^aaaawf [The clay become 
stone or like stone in hardness (R)] and 

■» A/Ay * tt>Z O H%h*>, J> A /A / • A? / /J>A»« Si 

f f * * ' '. £ 

\yerily the small birds that do not prey in our land 
become vultures, and the she-asses in our markets become 
he-asses (Jsh)] : (3) is i. q. J*> , as f and yw»f rested 

s 

(M, SH), though there must be intensiveness in ;£**»! (R), 

*/A / / S* A / A 

and &iy> Uc and 8lU£*wl smote his adversary (M) : (4) 



( 278 ) 
often (R) denotes (M, R) finding to be of a certain quality 
(M), [or] believing the thing to be of the quality of its root 

SSK / A/ A 39 A/ A / A 

(R), as &juI&*a»*I and &£U*Ju«| (M, R) found him to be 
ft&e grand and c j&»**' fat (M), [or] reckoned him to be 
possessed of &*ia* grandeur and >**»» fatness: (5) denotes 
making for oneself, as mentioned iu J*X»( , as -IU«»J 
prepared blame for himself: (6) denotes o^Aer meanings 
not governed by rule. 

Sy A 

§ 493.A. J**l generally denotes inseparable color 

3, A 

or sensible defect, and JU»| accidental color or sensible 
defect: but the 1st sometimes occurs in theacorfewta/, and 
the 2nd in the inseparable (R). [See § 494.] 

*/ A^A 

§ 494. J-*j**i is intensive (M, R) and corrob. (M) 
in relation to what it is derived from (R)j so that 

/ / a y A .p a?a^» • / a • a 

~&yto.f a?os re^y rowgA, j»>1M ut-**<j<k4 produced 

S A 3.0 /A/ A 

much green fodder, and ^^^f ^J^J Ufas v *ry sweet 

/* / h t / hi , , 

are intensivenesses in relation to ^y^ > u***&*f , and U*. 

• • • «<««■*> * A/A/A 

(M) : and is sometimes fr a?w., as j-^l is-ijj**! rocfe Me 

• 3'A ' 

Aowe bare-backed. J »*s| is a coined formation, not trans- 

' • S^A 

ferred from a M/. v. : and is trans., as fo^M [482] ; and 
intrans., as o^f and lo^f [482]. Similarly ,JLi*M i»- 



( 279 ) 
coined, as j^;*! [432] : and sometimes J*j*sf , as 

r til ti 3s A & s * Si rlt 

iJ^S hid himself; and J**J and JM , as )ia»f and 

a '2 ' ' ' 

^Ufldf ieg-ara to dry up. 
* 

§ 494.A. All the conjugs. mentioned occur trans, 
and intrans., except J*a»f , J**l , and JM [496]. 
The meanings mentioned for the preceding conjugs. are 
those prevalent in them and governable by rule : but each 
amjug. sometimes denotes many other meanings not 
governed by rule, as repeatedly pointed out (R). 



CHAPTER XIII. 



THE QUADRILITERAL VERB- 



§ 495. The unaugmented quad, has one (M, SH, L, 
IA) measure (L, IA) [or] fonaatioo (M, SH) for the act, 

voice (IA), Jl*» (M,L),withFathofthelstand3rd(L), 

t 1 * fn" ft n * 
trans. (M), like [ j»aaJf (M)] ^y^i (M, IA) rolled the stone 

down, and intrans., like gtyS lowered his head (M) ; one 

/ A S A A S 

for the pass., like pf** > and one for the imp. t like p^=**> . 
The augmented quad, becomes, through the augment, of 

t tS t t t tkt A Stt A 

five letters, like p^^ , or six, like *sn/^.f [and j*«sf ] 
(I A). The augmented {quad.] has (M, SH, L) two (M), 
[or rather] three (SH|), formations (M, L), (1) JUC 
(L),as ££ [495. A.] (SH, L); (2) j&2|, as (M, 



ft s t ht ht"t t tm<0 ; A /A/ 



L) «sau^-f (M, SH, L), e. g. ut~*svj».U »*if| ut-*». 

Z crowded the camels together, and they crowded together, 

& j£rO t t A /* tt tit A 

Ja.yi J**^ was joyful, J&fA was haughty (L); (3) 

fi/xft it t h S//« 

Jl*»f, as (M, L) ^»l shuddered (M, SH), J**£f 

' ft SitO St ' * Sit t A ' 

hastened, }*&i\ jla*»l became long, a**«<! became swollen 
(L): which are intrans. (SH). 



( 281 ) 

ftn ** * th* 

§ 495. A. J**a> is quasi-pass, of the trans. J**» , 

•3// /3/ ****** 99 A / A / 

like J*a> of J*» , as r-f**& sSs^y^i 1 rolled it down, 
and it rolled down (R). 

§ 496. The [other] two formations of the aug- 

* * *\ 
mentedare [also] intrans.: and in the quad, are like J*i»l 

3/A ' 

and J**f in the tril. S says " And there is not in the 
* 

«;»/»/« 9 n* *h 

language &*zsuf*\ , because it is like euJ*a>l in toils. \ 

* * 

they have added a ^ and con), f , as they have in this:" 

9sktf A 

and he says " And there is not in the language &£U*»f , 

99 A ** A 9 h* * \ 9 H* * h 

nor &XUUM , e. g. ei^l was rea* and u&~wl$&f became 
* * * 

9 A /4/A 

gray; and the like of that from quads, is us-i>LM war 

* 

s hA*h * *tt*n 

at rest and va>jjU£f quaked" (M). And Jli*»I coordi- 

* * A* A * * A/ A 

nated with «sm^4 , like j—«i*»f went back, is intrans. f 

* ** * *■ 
like what it is coordinated with: and similarly u;)» 

/ < A / / 

[485] and Jn*r*> acted as a devil .coordinated witli 

** h **■ 'A' A * * h* A 

~f*±> : and ^y-' coordinated with *a=y;s4. j though 

t* * *& A> /£ a 

it occurs fe'an*. in poetry, as £H jJ*iS\ ^ ^f [432] 
Fm7y J fee slumber overcome fyc. % as though the prep. 

53/ / A/A / 23/ / A/A / . 

were suppressed, i.e. ^ ^ixijij and ^Js ^^^-d. 
12 a 



( 282 ) 
§ 496. A. The meanings mentioned for the forma- 
tions mentioned are not peculiar to their preis. : but are 
mentioned in the pret because it is the root of the conjug. 
(R). 



tP-A-ELT THE THIJECT. 

THE PARTICLE. 

CHAPTER I. 



The Paiiticlb in general. 
§ -107. The p. is what indicates a meaning [realized 
(Jm)] in anotlicr (M, Z, III, Sh) expression (R), [i. e.] 
Conceived in relation to it (Jm); i. e. is a word that 
indicates its meaning through the medium of something 
else (AA). It is not independently intelligible, so as to 
be predicable of or predicable; but requires the addition 
of another matter ( Jm). The expression that the meaning 
of the p. is [realized] in is sometimes a single term, like 
the [?*.] made dct. by the J ; and sometimes a prop., as 

in *5G t>£J J.£> Is Zaid standing? , since Zaid's standing is 

inquired about (II). The p. is therefore inseparable from 
an accompanying n. or v., except in particular positions, 
wherein the 0. is suppressed, and the expression restricted 

A •/ ^A/ • 

to the p., which acts as a substitute, as -aw [550], lwJ U 

[18], and <±i in ai* ^y [577] (SI). Sometimes it 
needs a single term ; and sometimes a prop., like the neg., 
interrog., and cond. ps. (R). The p. is distinguishable 
from the n. and v. by its freedom from their signs. It is 
(I) [not peculiar, i. e. (IA)] prefixed to m. and vs., like 

J-* * I> s ^/ l ^ *$ ^ XXL 80 " Then KiU ye he 



( 284 ) 



thankful? and fOsJf W «-*G| J*>; XXXVITI. 20. 
And hath the story of the adversaries come unto thee f 
(Sh)]: (2) peculiar to (a) ns., like ^ [in iU*Jf ^^ 
f&h kl. 22. And in heaven is your sustenance (Sh)]; 
(b) tw., like {! [in CXII. 3. (404) (Sh)]. The ps. are 
[all (IA)] uninfl. (IA, Sh), upon quiescence, like J® ; 
Fath, like J> ; Kasr, like #». ; or Damm, like c£* in 
the dial, that makes it govern the gen. (Sh). The species 
of p. are (l) the preps., (2) the- ps. assimilated to the v., 
(3) the cons., (4) the neg. ps., (5) the premonitory ps., (6) 
the voc. ps., (7) the /w. of assent, (8) the exceptive i)s., 
(9) the ps. of allocution, (10) the connective ps., (11) the 
expos, ps., (12) the infinitival ps., (13) the excitative ps., 
( v 14) the p. of approximation, (15) the ps. of futurity, 
(16) the interrog. ps., ( 17) the cond. ps., (18) the causative 
p., (19)the/>. of reprehension, (20) the J s, (21) the 
quiescent e> of femininization, [(22) the Tan win (AA),] 
(23) the corrob. ^ , (24) the 8 of silence (Z), (25) the 
£ and j- of pause, (26) the p. of disapproval, (27) the 
p. of trying to remember (AA). The conjunct ps. [177, 

571] are not mentioned [under that name] by [Z or] IM: 

hi 
they are five, (1) ^t , conjoined with the plastic v., pret., 

%Sr * * hi A * A t 

as ojj *<? A +a u>*33« I wondered that Zaid stood ; 
• *■' ^ ^ 

§h, f a* hi h s h / 

and aor., as ^j fjk ^ j* «**»* should stand; and 



( 235 ; 

At A 2 At * A tf 



hup., as J A> &Jf ^j£| I signed to him, Stand : where- 

* S tAAtAtAft 

as, if an aplastic v. occur after it, as Hf ^t— M j~*S ^ 
^*w U LIIL 40. And thai {the case is this,) man hath 

A f t t Ait 

not ought save that he hath wrought and *\ L ^^ ^1^ 

Atttt t ttAJ> t t *t 

^eJ> ,_, ; *S| jj ^yCi VIL 184. And that {the. case is 
this,) haply their end niay have drawn near i it is con- 
tracted: (2) ^T , conjoined with its sub. and pred., as 

,Aff& Sc A A/ AttS 

UJ^J U| {$*& J 5 f XXIX. 50. And hath it not sufficed them 

AS 

that We have revealed? : and the contracted ^ is like 
the uncontracted, being conjoined with its sub. and pred.; 
but its sub. is suppressed [525], whereas the sub. of the 

A / 

uncontraeted is mentioned: (3) ^J , conjoined with an 

*At t A* At "A 

aor. v. only, as f«*i) {•£* ,_/" »a--«^ JTtow earnest in order 
> • 

that thou mightest honor Zaid: (4) U, infinitival, adver- 

# *A/ * At t t t AS • 

bial, as CUIoa* cs— ••> U t_XA3a^>| J/ I shall not accompany 
thee so long as thou continuest to be departing ; and not 

# At t At t S t A y 

adverbial, as ?J-») <*>*ly6 ^ us^sa* / wondered that 
thou didst beat Zaid : conjoined with the pret., as exempli- 

i At S *t t * » * A? t 

fied ; and aor., as ^3 f>*i **• '-^•J jsw: ' ^ *o &«5' a* Zdd 

t> At * A * 2 '« / 

s/ia// stand and Jjj\ VX** *** c^-***?" 1 ^Ac< //iok wja.?/ 

/ t * 

i m't i At 2 ' * * s 

beating Zaid; and nominal jorop., as ^ v*ij *«-• «*-*?»« 



( 286 ) 

i ft §*t t t g e hi / 

that Zuid was standing and **$ a*} *•• i-** 3 ** ' V *0 
fo«» o.v Z«i</ ?'* .standing : the adverbial infinitival being 
oftcnest conjoined with the pret., or with the aor. denied by 

Ay fi ht A A t ht t t £ t a£ t 

Ay 

no* beat Zaid; seldom with the aor. not denied by J , as 

tt SPt t A/ / r-Z.9 S w t f / * at /£ 

• ' s» £ ' ' ' 

[by AlHutai'a, / roam about so long as 1 roam about; 
then repair to a home whose housewife is a slut (J)]: (5) 

ht $Ay t t ht S A t 

J, conjoined with the pret., ns *>i) p£ $ is^^o^l wished 

9nt r st A/ j> a • 

f&ctf 2a*rf /tarf stood; and aor., as 0*; ?& $ ^^y 
would stand. The sign of the conjunct p. is its replace- 

S tt ht s h ' , , , 

ability by the inf. «., as {)*> } J ^jj^ , i. e. oC«tJ (IA). 

t t 

The inf. n. [however] is not given the predicament of 

SS A 5 

^jl or ^f and its cow/, in suppressibility of the prep. 
[514]; nor in supplying the place of the two terms of 

Si fit 

attribution, which question is common to ^J aud Ji 

S t a i 

in the cat. of ^b [410], but peculiar to ^f and its 

conj. in that of ^"^ , [accoiding to IM's saying 

1 1 zi 

(459) that ^j-** is then non-alt. (DM).] aud to ^ 

t>t 
in that of y [591] : nor are they given its predicament 

in being a sxibst. for the adv. of time [65]. You say 



jp A * / St A? ■» * * 4~t *»ii 



( 287 ) 

t St aS 

lJUUS -♦ is^Msa* and -.yC ^f b-««; or *5C v_X»T , but 

t t t «•» / 3 /i' 

not uX*l£> , £*f t-Sty «_*W» [60] being anomalous, \prig. 
/KJ! ~. (DM)]: and JG &f ct~*-»a. or f G ^ , hut 

' ' 'r. * ' 

not i-X*US, unless _you mention the enunc, [eg. U-ola. 

' t S>s lif t t 4 ft tSi ' A/ 

(DM)] j and ,.^ ^J.^ji, but not ^GlXjI ; and f 

s at /Si t st hi * *i*° '. ' ' , t •» * 

j. Ju v_£! , but not j.j£ ^1 : and ^aadf S^La i_XXia. , but 

/ A yA» x u / .? A $ ' ' 

not y6*&S f J^i ^ , contrary to the opinion of I J and 
Z (ML). The conjunct ps. must be followed by a conj. 
explaining their meaning (IA). The ^ of females is a 

St A bi^> / A / lit ■ i* Sti 

p. in S^— JLIf ^ja&Jj in the dial, of ^ J^S [21]. The 
X is (1) a p. denoting absence, i. e. the 8 in Kbf [162], 
the jpron. being bf alone : (2) substituted for the interrog. 

m tit 

Hamza, as £Jf J*\y [690] : but rightly this should not 

be reckoned, because not an o. f, ; though some assert 

t i t » 

that the o.f. is Kifi>, the f being elided. y& and its 

•» yA-O/ J JA/ 

branches are ps. in such as J*>tit\ y& ljjj , when parsed 
as a distinctive [166] having no place in inflection ; 
but some say ns. The • is (1) the sign of male persons 
in the dial, of Tayyi or Azd Shanu'a or BalHSrith, as 

j& ^y^h and & uPy*^- [ 21 ]> according to S a p. 

' A ,s 

indicating plurality, as the «y in *aJ& is a p. indicating . 



( 288 ) 
femininization; and sometimes used for irrational objects, 

m f*& 

when treated like rational beings, as £f! ^j*S , devour- 
ing here, says ISh, being i. q. injustice and wrong, like 

*h*9 **S*& ******** 2 / VI $ *& *l& * * * A *$ 

* * £ '* * 

S9 * A* * m * 

i. e. *gX*ifci , Thou wrongedst thy sans as the ^~~e devours 
bis young, until thou foundest the bitterness of the 
unwholesome herbage, the ideal being likened to the real 
devouring: some attribute to this dial. V. 75. [21] aud 
XXL 3. [1] ; but to attribute tbem to something else is 
better, because of its weakness : (2) the y of disapproval 

[G20], as «y^yi What! the mant: but rightly this 
should not be reckoned, became it is an inipletion of the 

A * 9 5* A 9 Si* 

vowel, as is showu by 8&j»yi in the ace. and &*k>y( in the 

j> * 
gen. ; and like it are the ^ in f* [183] in imitation, and 

in )£& in 

t *AS^ *A? *// *Bh,* A / • * **•" A/ *fiht at* 

y^hi\i> yc\ Sf$~ U5f* £» * ^^ iS^' lS**- t **A Sfc ' tS^'j 

[.4nrf */mi£ /, whenever inclination turns mine eye, draw 
near to wherever they have gone along, and gaze (Jsh)], 
and the ^ of rhymes, as 

.* * tit" *3ii * A *hi" 

' " , " * ' * 

[1] : (3) the « of trying to remember [623], as when ho 

$A/ £ ** hr 

that means to say w*&j f"fe > an< *, forgettiug Oi; » wishes to 



( 289 ) 
prolong the sound, in order that he may try to remember, 

9 9/ 

says yfk ' but rightly this is like the one before it : (4) 
the . substituted for the interrog. Harnza preceded by 

A9 A it 9 fi£*> At • 

Damni, like the readings {&*]) )y»*M\ &rf\) LXVII. 15. 

' i 

16. And unto Him shall be the resurrection. Have ye 

A 9At~t 9 A /A t t 

become safe '■? and &? f***'j \&ff J 1 * ^^' ^0. Pharoah 
said, Have ye believed in Him f : but rightly this also 

should not be reckoned, because substituted. The I (1) 

a ,*,i 
denotes disapproval, as Mj**! What! 'Amr?: (2) denotes 

sj>a** 9 t&t 
trying to remember, as Ua.yi ct^ I saw the man: but 

rightly these two should not be reckoned : (3) is the sign 

of the du., as 

At f t t / thtt tA$ ttA-" tA t /»/ */ W 

&iS| ; \o i_XJ Jp J J * (flail jJL* u^Uac Uuflf 

[Thy two eyes were found at the back of the head in 
battles {meeter and meeter for thee is this matter) when 

ro 9 t/A ? At t 

keeping guard (Jsh)], £J| SUM o^ [21], and 



9 9 9 t w*t 9 w t9 § A 



ttt tt /tt 



by AlMutanabbi, [And he shot me with his glance, though 
his two hands shot not. And an arrow inflicting torment 
hit me, though arrows kill and give rest (W)] : (4) is the 
restringent f, as 

* it/9%/ 9 A 9 At t t9A$ 9A$ArO/ t 2-*> 9 9t s At 

ia a 



( 290 ) 

[by Hurak.i Biut AnNu'mau, While we rule the people, 
and the dominion is our dominion, lo, we are among them 
subjects taken as servants ! (T)] : but some say the \ is part 

of the restringent U ; and some say an impletion, ># 
being pre. to the prop., which is confirmed by its being 
pre. to the single term in 

fMm Sc/*' &i £»&>' l*yl * **5)3 8l*£Jf &£>l*» liwLf 
[by Abu Dhu'aib alHudhalf, Amid his embracing, i.e. 
combating, the brave armed men and his eluding, one day 
■was appointed for him a bold daring man _to repel him 

, Af/AsA£*< 

(Jsh)] : (5) separates the two Hamzas [661], as pS^iJl f 
II. 5. [28], allowably not necessarily, whether the 2nd 
Hamza be softened or sounded true : (6) separates the ^ 

of females and the corrob. ^ , as ( d*iy*S , necessarily : 

(7) [55]: (8) is a subst. for a quiescent ^ , either the 

corrob. y,, as XCVI. 15. [649], U/Jj XII. 32. And 

shall surely be, and jJS omu Uj [649] ; or the Tanwln 

of the ace. [640], as \^ "Htf) in the dial, of others than 
Kabl'a, [who pause with quiescence upon the ace. pro- 
nounced with Tanwln (DM)]. But the f substituted for 

A t 

the ^ of ^S may not be reckoned: nor the f of multi- 
plication, as ,£>**** ; of femininization, as ^*s* ; of co- 

# A? 

ordination, as ^sS ; of unbinding, as 

, s*$ ut s *ilif0s tt A ,s*t?K,t**f&tt* 



( 291 ) 
[by Al'Ajjiij, What has aroused sorrows and a sadness 
that has saddened, because of a ruin like the striped 
Yamanl garment that has become loom out? ( Jsb)] ; of 
dualization, as ^ { <H'fl ; of impletion, in imitation, as 
li* , or elsewhere in case of necessity, as 

\_l seek refuge with God from the scorpions raising the 
joints of the tails (Jsh)] ; that the vowel is made manifest 
by in pause, i. e. the 1 of U| according to the 1313 [1G1] ; 
or of making dim., as L>P and V>UM ; [or substituted for 

A ' 

the Hamza of J! on prefixion of the interrog. Ilaniza, as 
^»« iVbio? (DM)]. The ^ is a p. of (1) disapproval, 

A PA,* / 

as &aJjj;3' [CIS]: (2) trying to remember, as gSi [G24]: 
but rightly they should not be reckoned, like the ^ of 

* A i/, 

making dim., of the aor., of unbinding, [as ^.w ^tf^ 
(DM),] and of impletion, [for imitatiou, as ^+ , or an y- 
thing else (DM),] and the like, [e. g. of the da. and perf. 
pi. masc. in the gen. and ace. (1)M)1 ; because they arc 
parts of words, not words (ML). 



C II A P T E R I 1 
THE PREPOSITIONS. 



§ 45)8. The prep, is what is applied to conduct, [i. e, 
make trans. (It),] a v. or its like, [tlic act. part., &c, as 
in the d. s. (75) (R),] or its sonsc, [the adv. and />/•«/>. and 
gen. (R),] to what follows it (III), whether a plain n. 
or renderable by a //. (Jin): so that its gen., being a 
direet obj. to that v., is ace. in place; and may therefore 

h9,9 Kit 

be coupled to with the ace. in f&=»-;fj V. 8. [130. A.] 
(R). They are (1) [ps. only, vid. (M, B)] ^ , JS , J^ , 
^> ,. the w» , the J , c->; , and the • and »a> [of the oath 
(M, III, KN); (2) ps. aud n*., vid. (M, R)] J- c , ^f , the 

A J> PAS 

i_* , o* , and Jl- (M, III, IM, Sh, KN); (3) ps. and vs., 
vid. (M, R) \L\L , ti*' , and ill (M, III, IM); (1) J [513 j 
(IM, Sh), J*J, and ^X. (IM). These 20 ps. aro all pe- 
culiar to ns., and govern the gen. (IA). The_/;rc/;*. govern 
in theg-en. (1) the explicit n. and the pron., the general rule, 

A • A / >» • 

v *d- uj* » ls J ' > cj* » ls 1 * j the uj , the J , and J , as 

~y >-j uXi*^ XXXIII. 7. Arid from thee andfrom Noah, 
* ' *. 

ntP A/ i ,o / 

f&aa.;* &Uf ^1 V. 53. Unto God shall be your returning 
and X. 4. [41], jlfa ^ &X LXXXIV. 19. Z>c'#m; 



( 293 ) 

SK * S, t ft* ll / J>i-o f , 

after degree and &i* S**3; f*** *^' 15**-) ^- **« ,# ^'^ 
&/W/ 6c satisfied with them, and they shall be satisfied with 
Him, &}*=£ uOaif JLj Q^' y XXIII. 22. And upon 
//turn ani «/)on //ie ships ye are carried, ^y-)y &iil i '/-»' 

IV. 135. Believe in God and His Apostle and &> ij*-»'j 

XLVI. 30. And believe in Him, l-j ct>f^-*~- M J L &M 

***.- ' ' ' 

,jfl^ I ^ II. 284. £7«to (7oi belong what is in the heavetis 

and what is in the earth and ^^^ *& J^ II. HO. All 

(of them) are obedient unto Him [117], «,b! j^ I ^^ 

' .. •** ' ' 

«xi.'jj*W LI. 20. /4«</ in 2/*e eorM are signs for the sure 

knowcrs and j-iil/J ^^£.5 U i^^ XLIII. 71. And in 
it shall be what the souls desire [177] : (2) only tbc expli- 
cit «., but not any particular one exclusively, vid. tlie uJ , 

35 / 

lj ^- , and the y : (3) two particular words, vid. the msj , 

which governs only «JUf and *~>) pre. to &**#! or the 

tSt as ^li-of ^J^ry aUU ; XXL 58. And, by God, I 

will assuredly outwit your idols and &**& f ^y or ^> J 

* * * 

By the Lord of the Ko}ba or my Lo/'rf : (4) a particular 

A , 

one, and a particular sort, of the explicit ns., vid. ^ , 

y A/a/ 

which governs only (a) the iulerrog. U , as fc*^ /for 
whatf; (b) the understood ^J and its cw*/., as ljCXa=. 



( 204 ) 

/A* A/ A / A t 

{ J"*^* \J C^ll] > *£ u/ ^c eaus '' lt i ve i the understood ^jl 
with this v. being rcn durable by an inf. n. governed in the 

A • /«» 

g-cn. by ,_/, as though you said r t/lU : (5) a particular 
sort of the explicit us., vid. tii- and o- , the ge«. of 
which is only a n. of time, definite, not vague, and past or 

/A (W Ay 4U SSf.it / «; 

present, not future, as &**sJ| -jj> J.L* &£j>|j L» or J.W 

t lit S A * A * 

/wye wo/ seen Ai»» *»«ce Friday, and U*jj JJL. or J-. « 

f S S S P ti t t S «/ J«* *Bnit , 

our day, not uJ>« J-*-* Mjl " or J-t , nor is-^ 3-i* &Jut * U 

A « " * 

[or 3-« ] '• (6) a particular sort of the prons. and explicit 

ns., vid. *~>) , which governs only (a) a pron. of the 3rd 
jp«r*. ^i/Jg - , masc, whereby the sing. masc. or anything else 
is intended, necessarily expounded by an indet. after it 
agreeing with the sense intended and governed in the ace. 

s* it 3Z.B li,S, •» t ?.*■'*■*' 

as a sp., as Ua.^ ^ and ^i^) and Mu^ and 8l;-»l and 
»*j!v«! and ^U«J Scarce any man and /?co men and Mien 
and woman and ftw women and women, all of which is 
rare ; (b) a qualified indet. explicit n., as ^Jt^ J^> i_>j 
u»juU Scarce any good man have I met, which is frequent 

s 

(Sh). The adv. and pre/), and g-en. must depend upon 
(1) the v., or (2) its like, [i. e. the deriv. n. governing like 

i»/M lit * Ktt t A/AS t &f& t t 

the v. (DM),] as v ««-a**M >i* f &d* u^-su'l [ >*JJI Mv-o] 

A A // 

*$*U I. 6. 7. [TZte «?oy of them that] Thou hast been 
gracious unto, not of them that Thou art wroth with and 



( -'!»5 > 

■i / a ^ ;« *h£*<£ * /• a**v 

• y x 

^ y ArO Ay i^J y A *Q y A 

X X X XX X 

[M9], by Ibn Dnrnid, [And the. white hair has become 
glowing in its black hair «?/*/* fa * loir lug) like the glowing 
of the fire in the dry log of '•*£* (Jsh)] ; or (3) what is 
renderablc I»y its like, as XLI1I. Si. [177], ^ depend- 
ing upon «-Jl because renderable by ^ ?$*■+ worshipped, 

£ 

and 

$*H/ til^> SS , Ax xx 5 9> t fS\S$s*J? X C X 

Jile b\S | 6-^ ** ^U jib j & [g> J&£ji, "Sj-§~ ,<»l— '' d ) 

' ' ' z 

[And verily my tongue is honey whereby convalescence 

is attained: but it flGl) against him {that) God has 

iZ / Ax XX $sAs 

poured it out {upon) is colovynth. orig- &*-* ** l J^ *&« 

AxX J>i-o ,, $ /Ax 

&*i* *UI (DM)], tlic ^ mentioned depending upon J&e 

because renderablc by w-*^ hard, Jli troitblesome, or 
* • 
«*£*>£ *eye;e ; or (4) what points to its sense, as 

A 3 X • X S x X x A/ A x .»*A-o /A/ xA A-o J>2 x? 

[I am Abu-lMinhZl sometimes. Mine ancestral glory is 
not a safeguard ovtTT me, but my safeguard is valour and 
munificence (Jsh)] and 

Ax* 2 x? J»/ A^2 xiv XX Mi^ i/ A x 5 x J> A^> x€ 

x x- £ X 

[by Fadakl {Ibn A'bad (Jsh) J- nlMinkaii (KF, Jsh), 7 wra 
the son of Mdwlt/a, when the cry used for rousing the 



( 296 ) 

horse becomes vehement, and the cavalry come in troops, ill 

ht A 

squadrons (Jsh)], ,ja*> and ol depending upon the tvvri 
proper names because of the sense of g^a^M the valiant. 

9 * * A 

or *Sf=&\ the munificent'm thcui : and, if none of these four 

# * A 9 ti t 9r /> 

things be found, one is supplied ns t»Jl>o Jtla»f o^*i J>\) 

' i ■ 

VII. 71. -4m</ ( We «?«/) unto Thamud their brother SaliJi, 
'lAfi J { -*& a*** 3 »j5* XXVII. 12. (Go thou) amid 

6 ' ' ' ' * , A A, ,A-=, 

?rme signs unto Pharoah, UU»a.| ^^JfyOj It. 77. -J «</ 

£ ' ' ' 

(do good) unto parents with doing good or And (enjoined 
w/?o» £/iem) respecting parents doing good, and the &!**«? 
[/» <Ae name of God (I recite or rehearse), like ^G^/b 
>/J.aIJ^ and &V*Jlj ^j*^ 1 * (Mayst thou bring home thy 
ipifts or wed) with close union and begetting of sons/ 
and with happiness and prosperity.', and 

UUJbM j^Nf o«~3sJ j>^» * pji* JliJ p l«iaJ| ^f „-J£» 

(K)j by AlFarazdak, Then I said, (I invite you) to the food. 
Then a party of them said, We envy mankind in their 
eating/(W*(N)]. As to whether they depend upon (1) the 
non-alt. v. : — those who assert that it does not indicate 
accident, vid. Mb, F, IJ, Jj, IB, and Shi, disallow that ; 
but the truth is that these vs. all indicate it, exeept < j-*S , 
[which also, says R, indicates an accident, i. e. negation 



r 297 ) 

«» A / i/hf /A * 

(DM)] : (2) the aplastic v. :— F saya on £ll *• tiy* **»'j 

•A ' 

[182] that the adv. is dependent upon ^ : (3) the p. :— 
that is commonly disallowed; but IH says on a**S U 

■» « / His /A 

ujj^m** !_X>; £**« LXVIII. 2. Thou art not by the 

$ * * * ft 

grace of thy Lord possessed by a devil that the [1st] *_> 

depends upon the neg. } since, if it depended upon 

* * / 
i^j' T * .' » it would import negation of a particular .demo* 

niac possession, that which is from the grace of God, 

whereas the meaning is not negation of a particular 

demoniac possession. Six preps, do not depend, (1) the 

lt*> »*/ • s A 1 A * 

red. prep., as in XIII. 43. [503] and &U| ^ IBi ^ Jfc 
XXXV. 3. Is there any creator other than Oodf; because 
the dependence means the ideal attachment [of the op. to 
the gen. (DM)], some vs. failing to reach the ns., aud 
being therefore aided thereto by the preps. ; whereas the 
red. enters the sentence only to strengthen and corrobo- 
rate it, not for attachment: but the strengthening J may 

be said to depend upon the strengthened op., as So-a* 
^ eh ^ UJ II, 85. Verifying what is with them, LXXXV. 
16. [31], and ^^ k)P f* ^ XII. 43. I/ye be 
interpreters of the dream; being really not a pure red., 
because of the weakness imagined in the op., which makes 

it quasi-intrans.: (2) J*J in the dial, of 'Ukail; because 
14 a 



( 298 ) 

it is quasi-red., its gen. being in the position of a nom. by 
incboation, since what is after it is in the nom. as an 
enunc, as 

fit* t / A S >*> yA,«/ t A £ .P A«e ^ A*/ 

» ' /A /A A^» ? 3yy 

k^^S lXm iN***! ^1 J** 

[by Ka'b Ibn Sa'd alGhanawI, Then said J, Call thou 
another call, and raise the voice loudly; perchance Abu 
-IMighwdr is near thee (J)] ; and because it is net prefixed 

• A/ 

to make an op. trans., but to import expectation : (3) V J 

y / Kt * * Ay J/»/ 

m iS V » ^V ' 8 V * accor di»g to S's saying [169] ; for 
•what is after it also is nom. in place by incboation, since 

/Ay 3 a , Sf s a 

Vy requires two props. [574] : (4) «_j^ in v4U> J^j ^ 
iltsi or c&~*aI ; because its g-era. is an obj. in the 2nd, 
and an inch, in the 1st or an obj. with the accusatival op. 
supplied after the gen., Many a, or Scarce any, good man 
(have 1 met), have I met him, not before the prep., because 

S a 

sj) takes the head [of the sentence] ; and it is prefixed 
only to import multitude or paucity, not to make an op. 
trans. : (5) the \S of comparison, say Akh and IU, arguing 

tiff )»/ S'yA 

that in y*$ (Jkjj Zaid is like 'Amr the op., if yu«,J , is 

not indicated by the uS , and, if a v. akin to the \^S , 

j. e. &A&f , is self-irans. ; but the truth is that all preps. 
occuring in the position of enuncs. and the like indicate 

/A A«*V , f , , , , 

y^SXwVj : (6) the exceptive p., i. e. U»- , ftJ* , and lit^ • 



( 299 ) 

because they denote removal of the v. from what tbey are 
prefixed to, which is the reverse of the meaning of making 
trans., i. e. conducting the meaning of the v. to the n. 
The predicament of the adv. and prep, and gen. after dets. 
and indets. is that of props.', so that they are eps. in 

v«ac Jj %» f^&> cW.lj or *><£ ^J* / saw a bird above, or 
* * * 

upon, a branch, because they are after a pure indet.\ 

s 3.-0 / hs ft A/° a t&s s%h** 

ds. s in «_>t=auJ| .*# J%M *^) ° r 3*^' l5* ^* aM? the 

/ ** i Is s 

new moon among the clouds or in the horizon, because 
they are after a pure det. ; and susceptible of being either 

shi SS »/&•&/ s A? J>AS,-o * A.P 

in &JLa£| JU j**Hi iUUfl ^ jpjS ^msxu Flowers 

please me in their calices, and fruit upon its boughs, 

because the generic det. is like the indet., and in y* liia 

&JUa£| ^i* £>b This is ripe frutf. upon its boughs, became 

t/ ' 

the qualiBed ?We*. is like the det. When followed by 

a nom., (1) if they be preceded by a neg., interrog., qua- 
lified [n.], conjunct [to.], inch., or s. «., [the qual, conj., 

enunc, or d. s. being the adv. (DM),] as t*s>! ;fu>Jf J *<♦ 

§ A/ 3^3 S $h , tS S Ss ■> tiSS S>° Sff 

and ±>\ ^ ^ and f* &*• J^-^ **>;>- and ^Jil ;U 



Hss lis S lis * 



M )^ l5* an(l 8 ^ *-***? ^-3 an<1 J&** **•"/; ^;r 

Hjo. there are three opinions as to the nom., that it is 
(a) preferably an inch., whose enunc. is the adv. or [prep, 
and] gen.-, (b) preferably an og\, which IM adopts, the 
©./. being absence of hi/st.-prot.;(c) necessarily an ag.x 



( 300 ) 

sad, when it is parsed as an ag., then whether its op. he 
the suppressed v., or the adv. or [prep, and] gen., because 

suhsts. for jAwf , and approximate to the «, as being 
supported, [the v. hein# supported upon the subject 
especially, and upon such as the interrog., which is mostly 
prefixed to vs. (DM),] is disputed ; the preferable opinion 

being the 2nd, because the d. s. may not precede in »*£> 

LJls* ^1oJf ^ , whereas, if the op. were the v., it might, 

$ f s '. 
and because of gS $2>\f Ji* [26], the pron. being latent 

only in its op., [so that the atv. is the op. of the pron. % and 
therefore, if there be no pron. in it, because of the presence 
of the nom. after it, is the op. of that mm. (DM)] : (2) if they 

be not supported, as *H) ;toJI ^ or u&m* , the majority 
hold inchoation to be necessary j but Akh and the KK 
allow both constructions. They must depend upon a sup- 
pressed [op.], (I) when they (a) occur as (a) an ep., as 

Zlii ^ ^cS y \ II. 18. [24], (b) a d. s., as jl ^ 
«**d3 J **/ XXVIII. 79. Then he went forth unto his 

' r ' f " _ 

jjeopfe tw7A [502] his pomp, the ^f;£X»f in fv2X*«^»f »|J£ 

J./A * *, ' 

8i*ie XXVII. 40. Jrad wAen Ac saw it resting before him 
meaning moHonlessness, not unrestricted existence and 
coming to pass, so that it is a particular being, (c) a conj. t 

as ^^-e « *o** ^ ^ ; Vf ; ^f^-jf ^ ^ m y 

XXI. 19. iinrf «mrt> Him belong they that are in the heavens 



( 301 ) 
and the earth: and they that are before Him deem not 
themselves too great, (d) an enune., though it sometimes 

appears in poetic license, as i>M }*J1 i-# [26] ; (b) govern 
the explicit n in the nom., as XIV. 11. and II. 18. [24]: 
(2) when the op. is (a) used suppressed in a prov. or the 
like, as ^1M <sZ*jp* [67] and jJ\ &4k ; (b) expounded, 

t t\ S / A 3 h*o , AyS J A * t A/ 

as &*» u>*-« &x*af| *»j>t [67] and &oi^ v*i}*, when 
allowed on the authority of the reading. [of Ibn Mas'ud 

hSt & s$ s St / 

(K)] d o^l >*Jl&U ; LXXVI. 81. [And (hath pre- 
pared) for the evil-doers, hath prepared Jor them (K)], 
though most hold that the prep, must be dropped and the 
n. governed in the nom. or ace. [62] : (3) in the oath with 

t A/ * f&iBt 

any [prep.] other than the w_>, as jj^i lof J^lMj 
XCII. 1. By the night when it covereth, XXL 58., and 

fi s i*.Ot*l tS t ill 

JsJJS^L V Sli [653]; and, if the v. were expres- 
sed, the «_> would be necessary. The necessarily sup- 
pressed op. is a v. without dispute in the oath and conj., 
because they are only props.; aud in the ep. in ^ Ja.^ 

$ y A *** S rO ' § a* 

jby* 4i» ^taJ| [32], because the ui is allowed in Ja»j 

w St, %■* r* Sjt it i J> t 

g\ &1» ij&b, but disallowed in ^1 && ^Uj Jb.^, the 
Baying 

* t9t>*> *h $ t tt * a hi ,t rt %» 



( 302 ) 
[Every matter, removing far or bringing near, is sus- 
pended upon the justice of the Most High (Jsh)] being 
extraordinary : and most supply the v. in the enunc., ep., 
and d. s., because it is the o. f. in government; but some 
the qual., because the o. f. in the enunc, ep., and d. s. 
is the single term, and because the v. in thein must be 
constructively a qual., and, say they, because lessening 
the supplied is better, [the v. with its ag. being a prop., 
but the qual. with, its nom. equivalent to the single term 
(DM),] which is of no account, because we do not sup- 
press the pron., but transport it to the adv., so that the 
suppressed is a v. or qual., each a single term : and in 
distraction it is supplied according to the exponent, the 
v. being supplied in &£* i_«X«u &*#sJ! -*>! (Wilt thou 
devote thyself to prayer) on Friday, wilt thou devote thy- 

/A? /U A^> , A /£ 

self to prayer on it?, and the qual. in us~>l &**»J| -^jJ 
,SaJ u_a£X** . In the oath it is *«**f ; in distraction like 
the spoken; in the prov. [and the like (DM)] according 
to the sense ; and in the remainder unrestricted being, i. e. 

$ *, i/H 

J 15" or fZ»** or their aor., if the present or future be 
' ' / • s«« 

meant, and ^ or yu*«l or their qual., if the past, and, 

when you are ignorant of the meaning, the qual., it being 

suitable in all times; not particular being, like *>G and 
i , 
«JU, save because of indication, in which case the 



( 303 ) 
suppression is allowable, not necessary, and a pron. is 
not transported from the -suppressed to the adv. and 
[prep, and] gen. It is generally supplied preceding 
them, like the rest of the ops. with their regs. : but some- 
times following, preferably, as in oj»j )\^ ^ , because 
the suppressed is ;he enunc, which is orig. posterior to 
the inch.; or necessarily, as in luvj _j!ljJJ ^ ^1 , because 
yjl is not followed immediately by its nam.; while he 
that supplies it as a v. must supply it following in both 
cases, because the enunc, when a v., does not precede 
the inch. As they allow themselves more latitude in the 
adv. aud [prep, and] gen. than in aaything else, they (1) 
separate therewith (a) the non-att. v. from its reg. [458] j 
(b) the v. of wonder from the wondered at [480]; (c) 
the annulling p. from its aunulled, as iJi l _5* aB *> & [34]; 
(d) the interrog. from J£ treated like c jk> , as <**> tMuf 
ft\ [441] ; (e) the pre. n. and prep, from their #erc$., 

Ay i^ 3 / 9 / f ; \ / A Ir»^x 99K*s A 

as ojj &Uf ; r U* |J& [1,125] and f&;0 &Ut^ &w^i< 



5 

A * 



I bought it for {by God I) a dirham; (f) ^o\ and ^ 

s 
from their subjs.^ as 

Ay A* • ht h*&' A • 

«> ' ' ' I 

/ArO A/ A /* «!•■<= 9 * 



{ 304 ) 

[by Hassan Ibn Thahit, In that case, by God, we will cast 
them into a war that will make the little child hoary before 
the entry into the period of hoariness ( Jsh)] and 

IsuigH J^&f) JUISJ! fiol # 1C13L* vJj}j V k=-*i'> *•* ^ 

[/ 10»# »otf, so Jong- as I see Abu Yazid Jighting, leave off 
fighting and witnessing the fray (Jsh)] : (2) make them 
precede (a) the sub,, when preds. in the cat. of ^1 [34], 
as 8j**J u#o ^ ^ III. 11. Fer% in that is an ensam- 
pie, or regs. of the pred. in the cat. of U [107], as 

<*#»/A.PAxAJ>Ay ,< aI 

' * c ' ' 

f /> t9 A • Cf> // 

TaAe thou as a buckler the armament of prudence, even 
though thou be feeling safe; for not at every time is he 
that thou agreest with agreeing with thee, whereas its 
government is nullified if the reg. be anything else, as 

* A t ••A.*> ttiit* * f* 

* ■* * 

J> t '% $ * t A s m9 , , 

«j;U ui j* j\ y j. jr u^ 

[by Muzafcim Ibn AlHarith al'Ukaill, And they said, 
Inquire thou about her at the halting-places of Mind ; 
but not every one that has come to Mind am I acquainted 
with that I should inquire (SM, Jsb)] ; (ft) [the conjunct,] 

when regs, of the conj. o l JJ , as ^.o^fyj ^ «*» lytfj 



( 305 ) 
XII. 20. And were of the listless about him in one say- 
* n S> ( c ) ^e v. denied by U , as 






[by 'Abd Allah Ibn Rawaha asSahabl, And we have not 
become independent of Thy favor. Wherefore make Thou 
the feet steadfast if we encounter them ; and do surely 
send down mercy and blessing, whereby the heart may 
become calm, upon us Companions (Jsh)] ; (d) the id. op. f 

$ fit t t nt S si 

as y^J l£} p)i JT| Every day hast thou a garment t. 
Some preps, sometimes act as substs. for others; though 
the BB and their followers hold that the p. retains its own 
sense, the op. being made to imply the sense of an op. 
trans, by means of that p., because the use of a trope is 
easier in the v. than in the p. (ML). 

A 

§ 499. ^j* denotes (1) beginning (M, Z, IH, IA, ML) 
of extent (M, A A, R, IA, ML), in other than time, [accord- 
ing to the BB, whether its gen. be a place or otherwise 
(R), as ^S ocp-JI J\ r !^J| o*p~Jf ^ XVII. 1. 
From the Sacred Mosque at Makkafo the Farthest Mosque 

, I ht » A tm 

at Jerusalem (IA, ML) and ~*A~ ** &;« XXVII. 30. 

Verily it is from Solomon (ML)] ; and in time [also, accord- 
15 a 



( 306 ) 
ing to the KK (R, ML) aud Akh, Mb, and IDh (ML)], as 

ff~ J;' uj* sf^^ iJ* J - *"' * *» «■*♦* IX. 109. Assuredly 
a Mosque that was founded upon piety from the first day 

*9 » hrO A/ A 13 / J /• 

(R, 1A, ML), &**^J| r;d - 'i^a ^oy lo! Lxn. 9. 

t f * t t t £ 

When the call is sounded for prayer on [below] Friday, 

A / A f t A /A/A£ A A*e S» S*w" / 

r 'iff*'***-" * / ft t *' 

(R), by Zuhair, Whose are the dwellings in the height of ^ 
the abodes of Thamud, that have been empty of inmates 

t /A Si 

from many years and from past time? (Jsh), ^y Uftu> 

tS S hi" / t * S h*° 

&a*saff ^JS &x*saJf And we were rained upon from Fri 

' i ' 

day to Friday in tradition (ML), and 

ft Ay xa£ A f Atif S $ 



\*> 3^ /Aw J A/ AxA.^ 



' ' ' i * 

(IA, ML), by AnNabigha (ML) adhDhubyanl, They have 
been chosen from the times of the day of Ha lima until 
to-day, having been proven with all provings (J) : in the 

A 

two texts indeed ^ is i. q. ^ , being often so in advs., 



A/ A S A 



as *i\ J-** ^ c*-*^ and &*■* ** J came in a time 

t * ' ' " * 

before, and after the time of the coming of Zaid mi 

§ s / A/y / A/ A • 

!_>(«». uXmj. Ui# *-»3 XLL 4, And in between u, 
and thee is a veil, and the meaning is on account of (the 
lapse of) years fyc. ; but apparently the opinion of the 



* 3U7 ) 

A 

KK is correct : tlie inceptive ^* is known by the appro- 
priateness of ^f , or what imports the sense thereof, in 

opposition to it, as **rr$S ^^a^JI .*«• **"* <^>^ I betake 
myself for refuge, or flee, unto Qod from the accursed 

fit * t A /l! « A J> 

devil (R); (2) partition, [as &J"<> *«M %•! .♦* Ja» IX. 104. 
TcAre *Ao?i of their goods an alms (R), whence ^UM ^3 
&UU LUI J Jj >* II. 7. And of the men are they that say 
(182), JTe believe in Qod (Ik): its sign is its replace- 
ability by j«*> , like Ibn Mas'ud's reading ])&*£ J*z* 
^jAaaJ U ji*> III. 86. Until ye expend part of what ye 
lom (ML)] : (3) explanation (IH, AA, IA, ML) of genus 
(IA, ML), being replaceable by ^jJl (A A), after (a) U 
and U$* , often, because of their excessive vagueness, as 

fm* A A f *' f 

&A >r » A~iJ U II. 100. Whatever verse We abrogate 

& St A*Oy 

and VII. 129 [419]; (6) something else (ML), as Jj*i£=a> 
^oyi ^ j-e-yi XXn. 31. (AA, R, IA, ML) WWe- 

' A 

^/bre s/twra £/te abomination, which is idols (AA): the ^ 

fi , t A^A * / 

in fi*««l J*} »sJ* u 6 -**** > however, is not this one ; but a 

* ' ' 

pre. n. is suppressed, i. e. / met from (meeting) Zaid a 

lion (R): (4) exchange, as S^^f j* l^«*Jf S^aaJV f**^;f 
IX. 38. Have ye become satisfied with the present life in 
exchange for the life to come 1 (R, IA, ML), 



( 808 ) 

6*K * tth* mt h it i ktt 

%tytt f'y»'y. iC« «• Ui CS^*3i 

' t t 

ttif" tt h tt * tStf 

Then would that we had instead of tlie water of Zamzam 
a draught chilled, that had been allnightonthe mountain' 

t S» ht hthiB ft —ft A* A t*t tt 

peak/ (R), ^f&H J>jU\ J &3a. Jl* 01**) XLIII. 

60 We would make instead of you angels in the earth 
succeeding you, the saying, [says IM (ML),] 

t»\ »h-o *9h^ t t> f, l,tt /^tShsa *bs A/ it t 

(IA, ML), by Abh Nukhaila [Ya'niar Ibn Hazn, This 
is a maid that has not eaten the broad thin cake qfi 
bread, nor tasted instead of herbs the pistachio (J)]* 



t a tht * . 



III. 8. [below] in lieu of obedience to God, f o e*» Vp 

£ / h-° t A at A.fi 

o«ll i_XI« i»aa)| Nor shall fortune profit the possessor 
of fortune in lieu of obedience to Thee, and 

ai*S th<o t t t sA»A S t $ 

* t ' 

t t in » thSt fins 

f * * * 

[by ArRal They seized from us the she-camels big with 

young instead of the weanling by main force; but":ii 

* * 
small young cameF is recorded fop the ruler (Jsh)], Ju»| 

ef 
being in .the ace, by imitation, because they record ^of 
* t § *» 
lLJf .Jib Such a one has paid §<:. (ML): it is known 1w 

its repjaceability by J*> (B)j.(£) causation (E^MB), as> 



( 309 ) 

* t$ A » y t y »S 

\ffS JfcOUfti. U« LXXI. 25. Becavse of their sins were 



m ss A * \ / 



they drowned, jJl V .*• uXJo^j [1], and 
& ' ' 

* yAy y 3 »&/» *S t *f A fh»/ fiettf h0 

«mJu£ »Aa. Iff J& UJ % &U$4 *<• ij**i) '^ \S^ 
by ALFarazdak (ML), He contracts his eyelids from 
modesty ; but eyelids are contracted from awe of him, so 
that none speaks save when he smiles (Jsb) : in 

* t # A ? 4 / al s As s 

y y ^ * 

*/t # A.P yA y ft h/h<6* 

y s / 

L»o not thou wed an old woman if thou be brought her: 
and strip off thy garments on account of her, going far, 

•A y A? A 

fleeing l^-» may mean t«M ^* (T) : (6) i. q, the ^> , 

m. y A' A y ■» * Ay 

as ^te- lJ^» ^-» u^j&^i XLII. 44. Looking with faint 
eye, says Y (ML) : [and,] with Damm and Kasr of the j. , 

my any A s 

L q. the w of the oath, prefixed only to ^ , as ^ --» 

A-- * '. ' 

By my Lord, like the «y to &U| , prefixion of each to 

*** 
the rcgr- of the other being anonialo'.s, as ^f and 

lll\ ** By God', a jorep. according to S, whose |* may be 

y y 

pronounced with Damm in the oath exclusively while 

a y a » 

some say the ^ is abbreviated from l j{^i, and the ^ 
from j*d1 (R) : (7) i. q. J (R, BS, ML) in 



( 310 ) 

» A// h/K t $h„ is, , , A , h , §* a ,.; | 

' Z ' ' ' t 

by Ka'b, But she is a mistress in whose blood are mingled 
tormenting and falsehood and faithlessness and fickleness 
(BS), as in J>$\ ^ t^SLL 13 U J. ; l XXXV. 8. Show 
me what they have created in the earth and LXII. 9. (BS, 

Ax $ A •• 

ML) ; [and] in advs., as above (R) : (8j i. q. ^e, as Jkf 

l^> A A AJ>J> J* • /A 

*M /^ m* f^y* ^KU XXXIX. 23. 7%e» «?oe wnfo 
• • • • , , * 

them whose hearts are Iiard to the mention of God ! and 

/I A xA/ 5.P A / • /Ay y 

IJJ6 ** Stt* ^ Uf oS UL»^ b XXI. 97. woe unto us, 
ice Aaue been in heedlessness of this ! ': IM asserts that 

A */a£ $ Ax 

(ML) the [coniparatival (R)] ^ [in such as J-aif oj>j 

Ax A 

•j** ** (ML) ] denotes passing (R, ML), as though Zairf 
A<w surpassed' Amr in excellence were said: (9) t. y. tfci* , 

lift/ il^ / A J * ./«£ ,s l\f» tf.t s A.9 A s f 

as tiUa &U| yj- (A-U^l V ; ^1^-1 ^ ^ III. 8. Their 
goods shall not avail them, nor their children, before God 
aught, says AU : (10) i. q. L>> , when conjoined with U , 



as 

/ A t*<" «• 



•A»o X t /mi& AP £• • / 

r^i ^ u) 1 **^ 1 JP ^b J* 

[by Abu Hayya anNumairl, And verily we often strike 
the chief a stroke upon his head that casts the tongue out 
of the mouth (Jsh), say Sf, IKh, ITr, and Am, who thus 



( 311 ) 

't / 9 h/ a A*2? AsA<<°/ 

explain S'a saying \X ^fSsu U- ^f ^ And know 
thou that they sometimes suppress such a thing: (11) i.q. 

t t AsAfO A 9 / St ft 

J* » as r>*H uT 8U >^ Xx *- 77. Jwd We A^joerf Aim 
against the people: (12) distinction, which is the one pre- 

fixed to the 2nd of two opposites, as ^-» j-~aJI J** ailf. 

^kaJf II. 219. And Qod knoweth the marrer from the 

w &r& * t t A*o S S M J 

mender and t-*«ftkM ** i*^uiaM U»j> Jk* HI. 173. Vn- 
&7 His distinguish the bad from the good, says IM : (13) 

* *S-° f I A SBStt 

extreme'. S says "And you say £«0»*H i_J&> -» &Xj»U 
1 saw it from that position, making it an extreme for your 
sight, i. e. a place of beginning and ending" : (14) desig- 
nation of generality, which is the red. in J»»j ^* ^»^l^. U 
Not any man has come to me; for before its prefixion this 
admits of meaning negation of genus and negation of 
unity : (15) corroboration of generality, which is the red. 



• l*»/ • 



in. tA*.f <** igte* *•* or ^Up ^y* iVb/ any one has come 

I ti § s , 

to me; for o^-i and ^ are forms of generality (ML) 
after negation (DM). [Thus] it is [sometimes (AA)] red. 
(IH, AA, IA), L e. suppressible (AA), in the non-aff. 



ftm* * 



(IH) sentence (Jm), as &±\ ** ^JA*. U (AA, IA), i. e. 

» ti 

ja.| (AA). The conditions of its redundance [in the 
two sorts (ML), according to the majority of the BB 
(IA),] are (1) precedence of negation, prohibition, or 



( 312 ) 

A f S / •/ A *9 h * t t 

interrogation [by means of Ja> , as 1M '&» j> few Uj 
lS*l*i VI. 59. JVor doth any leaf fall but He knoweth it, 

/J A A^x • A •• A • 

t>=k.i »- Ju U Zrg^ «o2 any one stand, and ><• ^g^ J^> 

)jla> LXVII. 3. Seest thou any flaws?; and F adds eon- 

* 

dition, as 

f / A £ A#^ /A A .?• • A /• 

Jhf 3 •" ss t A t ** * A • 



(ML), by Zuhair, And whatever any disposition be in a 
man, though he fancy it to be unnoticed by men, it will be 
known (EM)] : (2) iudeteraiinateness of its gen. (IA, ML) : 
(3) its [gen.'s] being an ag., direct obj., or inch. It is 

red. in the ace. and nom. in ^ U^ jJ^ ^j* &1J| J^ku! U 

I A »*/ * ft 

&)( »* &9k« XXIII. 93., where you may construe «W to 
be a#., Gorf /ta^/t no* g-o#e» any offspring, nor hath there 
been with Him any god, because its nom. is an ag. ; or 
non-att., nor hath any god been with Him, because its 
nom. is like the ag., and orig. an inch. The restriction 
of the obj. as direct is IM's phrase, as though its redund- 
ance were disallowed in the concomitate, causative, and 
adverbial objs. because i. q. the gen. governed by £+ , 

A 

the J, and ^y, with which ^ is not combined; but 
no cause appears for the disallowance in the unrestricted 

A t A • htO t SSs t 

obj., and AB thus explain sJ~ ** w»UXJ| J lib 3 U 

t * * * * 



( 313 ) 
VI. 38. We have not been remiss in the Writing at all, 

* A/ 

i. e. Ikjyu. By analogy it should not be red. iu the 2nd obj. 

S t ' .//A? 

of ^jk or 3rd of *M , because orig. an enunc. ; and the 

// tUt t t t 

reading [of Abu Ja'fer alMadanl (K)] UJ ^Jum>. & U 

ft A? A t S A t t Sit A i 

*UJ«! ~» lX>«4 ~* oooaj J XXV. 19. It behoved not 

■ft t * 

us to be taken besides Thee to be lords is anomalous. Akh 

A ttt 

does not prescribe the two 1st conditions, citing l>£Jj 

t t APIt<" ft A / ft 

vJL/jJI ty ^» uSs^. VI. 34. ^nrf assuredly the tale 

of the Apostles hath come unto thee and f^y^ uJ** f^' J*** 
XL VI. 30. He will forgive you your sins; nor the RK 

t t K t t lit 

the 1st, citing ^lo* ^* ^JS i*» 2%ere has been rain and 



A • A/ /A t t tt //A t>ti $ 1 1 htt 

by 'Umar Ibn Abi Rabf'a [alMakhzmnl, ^n«f Aer love 
grows for her beside us } so that what a dissembling foe has 

A t At t At 

said harms not (Jsh)]. The ^ prefixed to Ja» and **> , 

say the majority, denotes beginning of extent ; but IM 

a .f'A/- t t»> i° t »%tt A^a i. 

asserts that it is red. In ^ 8jg£ J^-jM ^y>W f&$S 

~t**> * 

/L-JJj .^> VII. 79. What! will ye indeed lie with men 

out of lust (begun) from otliers than women f, [i. e.from 

A * t*&t 

men (DM),] >«• denotes beginning' "(ME). In «yl##fj 

A*A^ t Z ^> SS nt li A J * » S .*> SPt mttt ht ft 

fi±o ^Ulj ^XjUJ ^ ff)fB** J Jp*\ £4 <0; f*>l~> 
16a 



( aid ) 

A S it t A K 2 f «// 

>g» IV. 27. *SjL«J >* depends upon JjS\>), And the 

mothers of your wives, and your step-daughters, who are 
in your bosoms, by your wives that ye have gone in unto, 

.* denoting beginning [of extent, like &W| y)y) ulA** 

/ * • A i* 

Sobj^a. ~* **La The daughters of the Apostle of Ood by 

' sat a 

Khadija (K)] ; not upon the \sJ^*\ also, unless >* denote 

(10) connection, i.e. connected with your wives, like 

A/ A AJ J Ax -P • /JA#/ • ^ • J>A/ 

[ji*; j, £§>&*> cwCtsUJI^ ^yiiUJj IX. 68. The men 
hypocrites and the women hypocrites are some of them 
connected with some (K),] 

"When thou contrivest wickedness concerning Asad, verily, 
I am not connected with thee, nor art thou connected with 
me (K,B), and [the Prophet's saying (K on XXI. 81.)] 

w S**bjs r A *$ / 

J-« OijJj Vy oo >•• UJ U /«;« not connected with pas~ 
time, nor is pastime connected with me (K). And 'Anir 
Ibn Sha's says 

• A B s f Ki m A* A • 

Wherefore, if Hum be (17) agreeing with^me, or desiring 
my society, be to him good like the clarified, butter that the 
cki"y have been seasoned with in<pi.»ated date-juice for, 



( 3 ID > 
that it may not go bad ; from U-» .Us Such a one is o/'m. 

A 

i. e. agrees with us (T). *-t is exclusively distinguished 
by governing in the gen. JjS , <jju , ox* , ^uJ , ^oJ , 
£* , and t\> , and also ^ and ^^ when n.9. (R). 

§ 500. Jf denotes (I) ending- (M, Z, IH, IA, ML) 
of extent (M, R, IA, ML), temporal and local, as \y+>S ^ 
JJJ| J| ,.tud| II. 183. Then complete the fast until 
the night (R, ML) and XVII. 1. [499] (ML); and governs 

f f f fl\*> S A 

the last [part] and anything else, as ^J\ &=^UJf ^y* 

AS *# i»» A • -' 

JyJU! yM or &a*a> ^f (IA): the two limits, beginning 

and end, are oftener not included in the limited; so that 

in £■£*** f US\6 ^ ^>y*iS IJ.2> ^j* u^-j^Cif the /?/?o 

places are apparently not included in the buying, but 

may be with context (R): [for.] when a context indicates 

the inclusion of what is after it, as &Jjl ** ^f&\ «A* 

8v»-l Jl I recited the Kur'Sn from its beginning to its 

* f * £ 

end, or its exclusion, as II. 183. and II. 280. [447], it is 

acted upon (ML); but [otherwise (ML)] what is after 

J\ is not [necessarily (AA)] included (AA, ML) in the 

predicament of what is before it (A A) : (2) i. q. £* (III, 

ML), seldom (III), when you join a thing to another 

a* /a? • hfs *f\i ssi-s ,, 

(ML), as in ^Sy>\ J\ ^\yA SfW V ; TV. 2 Nor devour 



( 316 ) 
iheir goods with your goods (R) : so say the KK and many 
of the BB on &U\ JS 3 ^\ ^ III. 45. Who will be 
my helpers with Godt and J^f o^JJt ^1 o^di] Camels 

'4 ' 4 

from 3 to 10 with camels from 3 to 10 are a herd of camels, 
i. e. Little joined to its like becomes much: (3) explanation 
of the agency of its gen., after a v. of wonder or n. of 

superiority importing love or hatred, as t^sJ JP* » fl ^y 
s, " ' ' 

,J\ XII. 33. My Lord, the prison is more pleasing unto 

4 s A/ JA^A-Oy 

me: (4) «'. y. tf/te J, as i_XaM /*^!^ And command be- 
longeth unto Thee (ML) : (5) L q. J , as is said [by 
many (ML)], in 



' it' 

J y A S J xA,o 



(R, ML), by AnNabigha adhDhubyani, 2%en rfono* *&ow 
feawe me to be because of the threat as though I were among: 
men a he-camel that pitch is smeared upon, mangy (Jsh) r 
and 

S / Sk-* '*•" AyAfO „ 'A .» / 

' • , * * t f. 

[by Tarafa (Bil)J -4wtf i/ */*e whole tribe meet together, 
thou wilt meet me among the highest of the noble house 

AJ>Sxy tf 

repaired tohj men (R), whence, says IM, may be f&x»»£? 



( 317 ) 

/ / A<*> Ay 



L»USM j»»i Jl IV. 89. He will assuredly gather you 
together on the day of resurrection: (6) beginning [of 
extent (DM)], as 

yyAy *A*> * As * A „ s St 

t^ji yfS't u^JU oSj jyC 



(ML), by 'Anir Ibn Ahtnar alBabill (Jsh), She says, when 
J have raised the camel-saddle above her, Shall Ibn Ahtnar 
be given to drink and not quench his thirst from, i. e. 

y A 

fide and not be weary of riding, me? (DM) : (7) i. q. oJ& 
(R, ML), as in 

SSfi y **t>° * / y y lit 

/ »!•« 3 «* y By / *f 

(ML), by Abu Kabir alHudhali, Or is there no way to 

youth, when its remembrance is more delicious to me 

*/ * t& 
than mellow wine? (Jsh), [and,] it is said, in Jl\ u>Jf 
* , « % * * 

k^jua. or % J>^ > . Thou art dear, or hateful, to me and 

«Jf u>wJb. / sat by him (R) : (8) corroboration, which is 

' £ g y A? A y A'vPy 

the red., authorized by Fr, citing the reading *&j&| J**.ti 

A Ay yAy 3^» y 

^f ..£ j-UJI ^ XIV. 40. Wherefore make Thou 
* s ' ' 

hearts of men to love them (ML). 

w y 3 y 

§ 501. ^gAa- [and ^^ a Rudhaili <fta/. var., a jw^p., 
co»., and inceptive p. (R), used in one of three senses, 



( 318 ) 

a 
ending of extent, prevalently, and causation, and L q. Vf 

£ 

in exception, the rarest of them and mentioned by few 

(ML),] is (1) [a prep. (R, I, ML),] syn. with J\ (M, R, 

a, a * 

I, ML) and ^J (R, I) and sometimes V| (I) ; governing, 

A / & % 

when syn. with ^ [or Iff ], only an inf. n. paraphrased 
by the v. governed in the subj. after it by the understood 

A $ t~ SI t\/ hZ 3 * KiO 9 * 3 v 

yjt, as £*! ia-*M [414], not &saff Jyio ^^Xa. ; and, 
when s^n. with ,J\ , the same, as t-^A^J ^gXa. cwp* 

J> A 3 ^ %■ ' ' 

« *.» A J| I journeyed until the sun set, and the plain «. 
also, as XCVIL 5. [below] (R): it differs from J\ in 
that [ (a) it must be preceded by a thing having parts, 

Ay 3 / / h/S<& * «// 3 A 

expressed, as jj£ ^^Xs. ^all va-ej-fi ; or supplied, as ut-*J 
• a .*> ax # y/Aa^s ^ a ' 

lydl ^^Aa., i. e. &UUf us~*> (R):] (b) its gen. is not a 

pron., [the saying 

J> .• • -»a£ r A ui t» ms Sfi 9 hf f 2/ A/S 

being a poetic license (ML), <SAe came unto thee y betaking 
herself to every road, hoping from thee tliatshe should not 
£e disappointed (Jsh), (and) ^^a- in 

''<' A*y /• A y y A £, 

■P y JS/ A ,a«o ^ j A £, 

ja.lf Stia. ^ j£Jb fijisalf . 



( 319 ) 

ft S • 

being inceptive, i. e. & l J^*' , And I will suffice him 
against what he dreads, and give him his request, and 
join him to the people, so that lie shall be joined, and the 
saying 

• £ • K»**f s 5 * £ y $ y» KP y 1 r&s y y 

anomalous (R), Then no, by God, men will not find a 
hero until they find thee, son of Abu Ziy&d (J)] ; and, 
[when preceded by a thing having parts (ML),] must be 
the last, or contiguous to the last, part [of the thing (M)], 

y >y 23 y y y y £ *** f Ky£ 

as l^-i^ J^. &C*«Jt iaJ^f I ate the fish even to its head 

/ A yh& y A y m~ y • § y y 

[and yaftM ^Uau Jo. Jt> -1L, XCVII. 5. Peace is it 

y y y ' 

until the time of rising of the dawn (R, ML), the time of 
rising of the dawn not being part, but contiguous to the 

y * my 

last part, of the night (R)], not \&a> J**. , [the saying 

y y 

objected by IM 

sS/SttSyfyyh S y j»a // *>/*• a / Sy 

not being a case in point, because he does not say ^» 

* A at / /AS *« y A ' 

tgLaJ Jtsw &WJ J uXU , though he means it (ML), She 

y y y y 

appointed a night; and I ceased not until its middle to be 
hoping, then returned despairing ( Jsli) ; and ought to be 

3 • A y A y A-tf A • / 

precise, because it is a limit,, ^j^- ^^^ *&)** ^ t^)^ 

t y y y y ' 

XXIII. 56. Then leave thou them in their ignorance until 
a time being i. q. the precise, i. e. the time of their chas- 



( 320 ) 

tisement (R)] ; (c) what is after it is [apparently 8 (It)] 
included (M, R, ML) in [the predicament of (R)] what 
is before it (M, R), when there is no context requiring 
its inclusion, as in 

9* H f * tu / 9 K f * * 5S*^ *AJP 

Sis>.s uiiiw S &Bj/rv«aM Jiff 

t * 

• tK& As ui • • Si *^ 

UblSIf &LJ ^^ o!)J|j 

[by Abu Marwan anNahwf, Re threw away the letter, 
thai he miglU lighten his luggage, and the provision for 
the journey, even to his sandal, he threw U away (Jsh)], 
or its non-inclusion, as in 

* 9 A * 9h t h>o t A t * t tf A9/ 

|Ojv*p* jAsnJi l$i* JJj 1U «gl 

(ML) May the rain water the earth as far as places related 
to them, and may good cease not to be cut off from them/ 
(Jsh) ; so that in the ex. of the fish the head has been eaten 
(M): (d) the v. made trans, by ^^s*. must dispose of 
all the parts of the [thing] divided into parts before 
Jio. , part by part, until it reaches the part or [thing] 
contiguous after l5 ^a. ; while, if ^f be preceded by a 
thing having parts, and followed by a part or [thing] con- 
tiguous, its predicament is the same, but otherwise not 

*• * 9 A / s t j) ti, 

(R) : (e) «*i) J^ o*aaT / wrote to Zaid and ** s-jy. 

* i ' ' 

&}Mi ts" V«*M I journeyed from AlBasra to AlKufa are 



'( 321 ) 

A/ S/ ' •»*«" S ' 

allowable; but n$t *i) ^yCa* or &j£M ,^ : (f) the 
aor. *Bfy\ itaay oeeur after ^J**. , as l$*£of ,y»- ♦&»;«• 

[414], constructively l$laol ^1 Jv* , the understood yjf 
and the v. being renderable by an inf. n. governed in the 

S3 / //PA? / ^ A 

g"fin. by JJ^ ; whereas (g&ol ^H «^«< is not allowable : 

hi i- ' *> ' 

the *u6?". is governed by ^jf understood, not by ^y^ 
itself; and ^jXsw prefixed to the aor. sub), l&'syn. with. 

, . '• A, /* 

^f , as XX. 93. [411], and the causative J , as »y 

AJ !§.»/ 3 • A.P/ * : » / S " 

^^ ^ fGyClai ^yiji II. 214. J»rf they will not 
cease to fight with ytyu in order that they may pervert you, 

i>x> Ki / t f * 3 / A/ S«« ■» £f 

both admissible in «U| *.| Jf / JS Jla. Ju5 ^t \<p*> 

• * g • t f ' 

XLIX. 9. Fight ye against that which doeth wrongfully, 

until it, or to the end that it may, return to the command 

of God, and Uf in exception, as 

t» t / r S9\*> / St» t fK<" / A/ 

.P / /A// / • • .0 / 5/ 

[by AlMukanna' alKindi, Giving from superfluities is not 
liberality, unless thou be bountiful when what is with thee 
is little (T)] and 

v. //£••* Ss tt Kt 9 * h* f li-°s 

U&tfj U3U ^uf Jew * Ubb Jwfi i^ii V &Df . 

(ML), by Imra alKais, By God, the blood of my sire shall 

not go in vain, unless I destroy the tribes of Malik and 
17a 



( 322 ) 
Kahil (Jsh): (2) a con. [540], [like the prep, in the sens© 

of ending, but not syn. with ^J ( or W| ) (R)] : (3) an 

t 
inceptive x ». (M, R, I, ML), as 

AfS / £ , S • A * K, / 

*gjdx» JJC3 ^y^. *g cvo^w 

/*i / A ft / S / A*" !// 

by Inira alKais, Have I made to journey by night, so that 
their riding-beasts are weary, and so that the generous 
coursers are not led with leading-ropes (M), prefixed to (a) 

the nominal (R, I, ML) prop., as g\ i J^S oJfj l*» [1] 
(I, ML) and 

by AlFarazdak, TAen, a/i my wonder ! men revile me, so 
//ta2 even the tribe of Kulaib reviles me, as though its 
forefather were Nalishal or Mujashi'f (ML); (b) the 
verbal (R, ML), whose v. is (ML) an aor. [ind. (I)], as 
II. 210. [414] with the ind. [and 

by Hassan (ML) Ibn Thabit, 7%gy are visited by a 
multitude of guests, so that their dogs whine not. They 
ask not concerning the approaching person (Jsh),] or a 
pret., as f^l^ !;** ^^ VII. 93. So that they multi- 
plied, and said. (I, ML) : and importing either vilifying, as 
^JJ Uaoc |y j or magnifying, as £H »»-MJ U> (R). The 



( 323 > 

S r 

position is sometimes suitable for the 3 kinds of ^s*^- » 
as lg«f^ JC&. &£*«•)( ijt-lTI ; and 

t * / m / t * t htt 

< * f ft 

Thou includedst them all with bounty, even to, or even, 
their erring ones, or so that even their erring ones (were 
included); so that thou wast master of possessor of error 

and possessor of right direction and UfelSJf &Lu J&. even 

tr 

to, or even, or so that even, his sandal, he threw it away 
are related with the three cases, though the nom. in the 
1st verse is anomalous, because the enunc. is not men- 
tioned, as say the BB, who require, when you say tS *A. 
tg-lj, that you should say jyu [1] (ML). 

§ 502. ^ denotes (1) adverbiality (M, IH, IA, ML), 
often (IA), (a) real (DM), heal or temporal, both com- 

binedin **>,** #*; j*> y f J^ J f)fl «**** fl 

f * * / / t • ■ 



S **t A •• 



vJLw ^> ^ ^^xli** j»g4* XXX. 1 — 3. dHf-L&m- 
Mlm. The Greeks have been overcome in the nearest of 
the land of the Arabs unto them ; but they after their 
being overcome shall overcome in from three to nine years; 

(b) tropical, as *#*■ j»L*HJ1 J ^i } II. 175. And 
in the retaliation ye will have life : (2) accompaniment, as 



( 324 ) 

~»f ^ ty&of VII. 36. Enter ye [in, or among, (an aggre- 
gate, and crowd, of) races, accompanying them, i. e. (K)] 
with races and XXVIII. 79. [498] (ML) ; [similarly] 
H ^ J i& I *saU ja.^ XLI. 24. means And the sen- 
fence of chastisement became due upon them in, or among, 
(an aggregate of) races, like 



* 

* * 



[by 'Urwa Ibn Udayya, If thou be perverted from the best 
of kind dealing, thou art amongst others that have been 
perverted from that also (N)], i. e. i», or among, (an aggre- 
gate, and number, of) others, not singular in that (K) : 

(3) causation, as ^L*ua. sy& ^ yilf t-J&o M^J j 

+ ' ' ' & 

Verily a woman entered Hell-fre about a she-cat that she 

S3 s Is 

tied up (IA, ML), words of the Prophet (IA), and jAS* 
«jj iJ^-J £>M XII. 32. 7%e» that is he that ye blamed 
me for (enticing) [126] (ML) : (4) i. q. JU (IH, BS, 
ML), seldom (IH), in Ka'b's saying 

/ f * A fi ^ • *A 3 9 

£ * • • ft 

JjJta.tfl &i»aaJ J j^lc J 

That passes a tail like the leafless branch of the palm-tree, 
possessed of tufts of hair, over an udder that the outlets of 



( 325 ) 
the milk have not wasted (BS), as in £3^ J> *&LJUtf. 

A S-° ' ' ' 

i^iwJ} XX. 74. ^«rf im7/ assuredly crucify you upon the 
trunks of palm-trees, 

?A,/ / A/ A«rf Jly /A* 

(BS, ML), by 'Antara, He was a maw of valour, tall of 
stature, as though his garments were put upon a great 
tree, for whom sandals of the kingly dx-hide tanned with 

h>)> are cut out, [strong (Jsh},] not a twin (EM, Jsh), and 

> A / A £ A •A;e 9 f t S S 

* / / ' 

r * Hi 5 » 1 K * H * t * // 

[by Suwaid Ibn Abi Kahil alYashkurl (Jsh)], They have 
crucified the man of 'Ahd Shams on the trunk of a palm- 
tree: then may the tribe of ShaibSn sneeze not save 
with a mutilated (nose)!: (5) i. q. the «— > > as 

% // C *S-* * A* .» xAx / 

[by Zaid alKbail, And horsemen of us ride on the day of 
battle, skilful in spearing the aortas and the kidneys 
(Jsh)] : (6) *. q. J\ , as !«&$! J ffert* W XIV ' 10 ' 
i4«rf /Aey put their hands to their mouths: (7) i. q. ^ , as 



( 32fi ) 

/ A^J J *A^> / , A / A ' ' A • / 

A • .P • A S • • A • A / • A/V 

S K$ / ' * S* A • • ' • 

[>>y Imrn nlKais (Jsh), JYow, happy he thou at morn, thou 
worn ruin! And shall he. he happy that nuts here in time, 
past ? And shall he be. happy fhn most recent of whom 
meeting with his mistress teas thirty months ago out of 
three years ? (DM)] : (8) comparison, which is the one intro- 
duced between a preceding inferior and subsequent supe- 
r;or, as j*13 Iff X^lfl^ UJoM 8^asJ1 £&•(*» IX. 38. 
For the commodity of the present life in comparison with 
the life to come is not aught but little : (0) compensation 
which is the one red. for compensation for another sup- 

t*ttlt**r * /A/A, t h * , 

pressed, as **-**) ^y^ &*>y& , orig. &*J >=-**; >< e&-->/<9 
/ i-t'ff/ /mn //ia/ //«cw Ukedst, allowed by IM alone : (10) 
corroboration, which is the one red. not for compensation 
allowed by F in ease of necessity, as 

[by Suwnid Ibn Abi Kahil alYashkuri, lam Abu Su l d 
vhen the night is dark, its blackness being fancied to be 

ss * , 

like the blackness of black leather, i. e. Sol.-, (Jah)]- 
and by some in l«» \yS ; | JlS ; XI. 43. And he said, 
Go ye on board it (ML), i. c. to*jj\f (DM). 



( 327 ) 

if/ 
§ 503. Tlie ^ denotes (1) adhesion, [ns s\j> &> A 

disease has adhered to him (M, R), and infected him (M), 

»/ * A t A? 

real, as o-Sf, us-X-*»*f I laid hold of Ziid; and tropical (ML), 



*s S ft > t 



as j..»j? <■£■>}}* (IA,ML), i. e. / made my passing to adhere 
to a place, near Zaid (ML)] : (2) instrumentality, [as is^jjtf - 

/,A-» if" A' 

J&lt* I wrote with the pen (M, R, IA, ML) and aJJj "ja-'^-v 

'* A, , .'"'"'' 

c-swa. Wi7/t Gotfs assistance I peif armed the pilgrim- 

't A • 

««•« (M, K), whence, it is said, the w» of the &l*w (ML)] : 
(3) accompaniment (M, III, TA, ML), ?'. 7. £* (R, IA), 

• • A A 

as V. G6. [GS] (R, ML) and r lL~> la*M XI. 50. Descend 

* A , Aui • / 

wi/A *n/(i/y (ML), whence, [it is said (ML),] j-*sd> ^a«J 
i_J^; XV. 98. Then extol thou God's perfection with 
praise of thy Lord (I A, ML): (-1) requital, [as i_£}i>> Ikifi 



; • a»*> j e nf 



This is in return for that (R, ML) and U> iJUJi Ul£.jf 
^^*,»3 +\i.f XV. 34. Enter ye Paradise in return for 
what ye were wont to do (ML), whence *>tiJ1 i_Xii.l 
'i } sJiSh UJjJ! SjAaaH l j; Xit n. 80. Those are they that 
have purchased the present, life in return for the life to 
come (IA)] : (5) making trans., [which is also named 
the v^ of transport, and is the one that alternates with 
the Hamza in making the ag. become an okj. , oftener with 

the intrans. v. (ML), as {&)& *W *-^o II. 16. (178) 



( 328 ) 

A 9 / » tlifO t • Afc 

(IA, ML), also read f8>;*> &U| ^J&JI , which means the 

A *t S t t t 

same (ML), orig. fbtf i~*&i> (DM) ; but sometimes 
•with the trans., as II. 252. (29) God's making men some 
of them to repel same, orig. l*fi*? ^fW! ji** («io(ML), 

$ ^ / **> t ** t t t ' 

or rather ja*> ,_f li 'f ^j*^ £*J (DM)]: (6) adverbia/itij 

' A/ ji-o 3 9,/t A/// 

(IH, IA, ML), as n>* &W j/,^ ^ HI. 119. And as- 
suredly God helped you at Budr and LIV. 34. [6-4] (ML), 

AS/A/ t A 3 A A// / S»// ><S / 

whence J^lfj ^^aciA-a* *3*l* m^*^ f^'j XXXVII. 

' ' ' ' t t ' * £ 

137. 138. And verily ye pass by them, when entering upon 
the time of morning and at night (IA): (7) causilify, [a 

/ t * -•* * Kit 

branch of instrumentality (It), as l^oUb ^<ji] ^ Jkx» 
IV. 158. And because of ivrong from them that were 
Jttrs (R, IA) and 

,S t»i * // m M^ J tZit .» ;5 ,« ;S// $ Aj 

l^«fa'>l Ijy'j) (5*** 1 ' .j^" * ^'^ iJ^^^ )J.&3 l-J^ 

(R), by Labld, They were men thick necked like lions, 
threatening one another because of rancours, as though 
they were the Jinn o/thc valley AlBadl, their fuet sl*ad- 

A.P A/ • A*5 

/asrf in disputing and wrangling (KM), whence -XUia *&l 

, A *<a ** t w-a a J / thi * 

J»*lf Jol=cul{ X-uiM II. 51. Verily ye have wronged 
#owr ou ; » sow/* because of your taking the calf for your- 

n* / a *"i 8 *• 

selves as a god, &yi>> Uo^f H*» XXIX. 39. ^nd every 



• t eS-*> lit $ A t 



one did We chastise for his sin, i>~y! o# , **ft a ^ wei{ 
because of (my meeting) Znid the lion, and 



( 329 ) 

£k<° / Ax A/ s %,&, i^s hft/M A / 9 Kt> 

(ML) 7%<sr camels have been watered because of the brand 
with an iron heated iu the fire; and fire sometimes cures 

A / 

o/t/te heat of thirst. (Jsh)]: (8) i. q. ^ (R, IA, ML), as 
£9fj wlii*; J^L, JU LXX. I. An asker asked about a 
chastisement befalling (R, FA), said by some to be peculiar 
to asking, as !>**&. to JL.G XXV. 60. And ask about it 
one having knowledge, and by some not, as *&)}> fj^^i 

A /hi y A hi * A/ 

*^UjU. *$»ijjf ww LVII. 12. Their light running before 

' •' X ' X • ""^ „ __ 

J*»/ * »« ,9til x X X Ax/ 

<Aem and from their right hands and sU*Jf /j**^" fi^J 
-UiJb XXV. 27. ^4«flf on the day that the lieaven sftall 
be rent asunder from the clouds (ML) : (9) partition, as 
is said (R, ML) by As, F, Kb, IM, and, some say, the 

A i -» J> X x t X A / t*r 

KK (ML), i.q. -* (R,IA),as &Ut oL* t# vr io Iaac 

*"/ x • /• 

LXX VI. 6. .4 /ou/// whereof the servants of God shall 
drink mid, [it is said (ML),] V. 8. [130. A.] (R, ML), 
whence 

9 X Sa 2/ h 2 f S XX A x23x/ S^ A yA*« ws y A /- 

[by Abu Dhu'aib alHudhalf, describing the clouds, They 
drank of the water of the sea, then rose aloft from green 
deeps, having rushing and noise (Jsh), and 

• A x h*> n/ A/ &t° t r f / J>» * <» * t » A *r 

5*" * r x r x ' ///• / 

18a 



( 330 ) 

(ML), by Jamil, And 2 kissed her mouth, taking hold of 
her locks, and drank from it as the parched man drinks 
of the cool clear water running over pebbles (SM)] : (10) 

ml S , t>/, 

exchange, as £M ^> ,J us^» [73] (IA, ML) and in tra* 

dition ***Jf )*=»■ l# i^y^i *■* Rtd camels delight me not 
in lieu of them (IA) : [thus] py*o Uj XIII, 24. may 
mean Instead of the hardships and wearinesses of patience 
that ye suffered {are these delights and blisses), like 



(K) I see the wild animals grazing to-day in the area of 
the prohibited pasture instead of my sometimes seeing in it 
sociable, plump women (N): (11) superiority of position as 

• A »h/%-* n A * 

yLua. &U3 ^1 - III. 68. J3e that, if thou give him 

' ' S/ /** A £s , f 

charge over an hundredweight, ^'yAxZi ^ f.^, fjf 
LXXXIII. 30. ^«rf, when they pass by them, to wink one 
to another, and 

* / s s * * 

on the evidence of %M ^gJU JCJuL.1 Uf Vf &U* j^f ja> 

Sm A ' ' ' * '" ' 

J* 5 uT Xir - 64 ' Shall I give you charge over him save 
as I gave you charge over his brother before t, XXXVIX. 
p&i&f-yjffi^ and the 2nd hemiatich 



( 331 ; 

•* /S»* tiff K f f fk f f f tk ff 

/ f 
. [by Rashid Ibn 'Abd Rubbihi asSulanri asSahabi, Is he 
a lord that the two foxes piss upon the head off Assuredly 
vile is he that the foxes have pissed upon the head of/ 
(Jsh)] : (12) swearing, being its original p,, and therefore 
exclusively distinguished by expressibility of the v., pre- 
fixion to the pron., and employment in adjuration [654}: 

f f hi lift 

(13) [ending of (DM)] extent, as ^ ^*^\ ^ XI!. 101. 

At f f A 5 

And hath shewn favor unto me : [one says &aJI vJ j**a»J and 
&> y and similarly &JI *M and & , as 

55/x ■ A ^S A f ff fh ff t St t A £ A? / A £ 

f fi f f f f f y 

(K), by Kuthayyir, Do evil unto vs or do good, not blamed 

in our opinion, nor hated if she hate (N) :] (14) corrobora- 
tion, which is the red. (ML). It is red. (M,IH,IA,ML) in 

fSA& >» f h3 Hi SliS ft 

the ace, as &1$aJ| ^1 fk*** !y& IT, II. 191. And cast 






not yourselves to perdition, ^j&JI &k LXVIII. 6. Him 

f t 
of you that is the demented, and 

f 3 ** f %-fhf f f f^> s -e t y *f * Sf t s ~f f *ft> S fi 

* • " ^ ' f 

[by ArRa% TVtcy are the well-born dames, not mistresses 
of mufflers, black in the parts of the face appearing from 
out of the muffler, that recite not the Chapters of the 

Kur an (SM)] ; and nam., as td*$£ &Ub J* XIII. 43. 

f f f 

in* f a / 
Qod sufficeth as a witness, u^j l-^wsm [24J, v nnd . . ^ 



( 332 ) 

$3/ 9 //»^ / *i ** fi 

by Imra alKais (M), Now has it come to her (and mishaps 
are many) that Intra alKais the son of Tamlik has taken 
ap his abode in a city of Greece ? ( Jsh) j [and] strangely 
in ' gen., as 

<> A / SfKi Ht / /A / «J/ 

• 3 •• a£ /rh<e hs tm*$ 

(R), by AlAswadlbn Ya'fiiratTamitnl, Then they became 
in the morning not asking him about what ailed him, 
wlietlter it ascendedin the height of love or descended (Jsh): 
(1) iu the enunc. or pred. (IH,IA,ML), regularly (IH,ML), 
often (IA), when non-aff. (ML), in negation (IH,IA) by 

means of j-jJ and U [108] (R,IA), as «->^ *UI j-itt 

8u*j* XXXIX. 37. Is not God sufficient for His servant? 

/ 3/ t\/ 2 ' / t St tt 

and ^y^ U* Jilii u&j Uj XL 123. And thy Lord 
is not heedless of ichat tliey do (IA), and interrogation 

ft ' ~t i At A t 

(IH) by means of ja> , as Jfo oju Jfi> Is 2kitd stand- 
ing? (R) ; seldom when pred. of V , as 

• .<• » t tb* £ t -tK fit 



• A / s •> t t US 



( 333 ) 

[by SawSd Ibn Karib asSahabi, Then be thou, O Apostle 

of God, an intercessor for me on the day that no other 

'author of intercession will avail Sawad Ibn Kaiib so 

much as a white filament in the vleft of a date-stone (J)], 

or of JS [538] denied %y [ U or] -^ , as 

A ti A/ S *° / a?a*o 2 .» A / 



AyAnO S , hi A A • A? 



(IA), by AshShanfara alAzdi, .4/irf, i/*/Ae Aa»«fo of the 
people 6e stretched out to the provisions, / aw not the 
hasty one qf them, since the greedy one of the •people is 
hasty (J); sometimes when an [original] enunc. denied 

in the cat. of ^ , as «-)&» &>ui!& U I did not think 

him to be going out, or a pred. of ^1 after the catf. of 

i~^ denied, as *&>lj— *JI jjjk* 45^ * ^ u>- f»i fty 

x 2 A * * Ax Axx X Kih)O f 

*0tS> jSIw * Jj J*; V ^ XLYL 32. What! thought 
they not that Qod, Who created the heavens and the 
earth, nor was unequal to the creation of t/iem, is ablet, 

s fii-o x Ax$ 

[as though y&> &Nf j-df were said (K)] ; anomalously 
(R), as matter of hearsay (ML), when off., as X. 28. [I] 
is the like thereof [and 

S X X A S Ay * '9 Axx X '»«i« ' *X? *'»/ XX 

eUaXw ^^^ ig-***y * t«A» yj^l k»^I £&> H» 

Wherefore covet her not (mayst thou avoid being cursed/). 
And debarring thee from her is a thing that is practicable 



( 334 ) 
(ML)], according to Akh [and his followers, while IM 

§As S A s Sas 

says on o-A u&~*3su thai i>ij is a postpos. inch. (ML) ; 

s ' 

and seldom when pred. of ^i , as 
* 

aw / Ass As AS 3 1s 

*a£a^»s £«« * *h*h*> J>sA.» Ass 

2?m< a recompense, if thou didst, would be' easy, r^hd are 
kindness and recompense disapproved among menty.:\%) 

sometimes after Aa-xl , as 

A f As.' ■»"!* ' Ass u f / s ss .P A .> 

> s /i \ ' ' " * ' ' 

J have repented of language that hap been from me. Then 
would that \t had been in the hollow of a pannier ! (R)] : 
(3) ivvjthe d. s, [whose op. is (ML)] denied, [as 

S , s sA a Sl s JA»^ ffi A £ s 4 s s w/ A s s s ss 

s* ** ' s * * 9 t * 

TIL) 4nrf riders of camels returned not disappointed, 
chose goal was Hakim Ibn AlMusayyab (Jsh) and 

? ' # ' £ ' ' 

MIL) .fibter o/fc was / summoned to a sudden calamity, and 
urried not,frightened or incapable I (Jsh), as IM men- 

ans (ML)] : (4) in the [direct (R)] ©6/"., [as matter of 

arsay, often (R),] as 

s*«« ' * A/s »ii« * »/ A r/h-o j s A $ s 2 s #s J A s 



( 335 ) 
t We are the Banu Dabba, the companions of victory. We 
smite with the sword, and hope for the removal of grief 
(Jsli), II. 191., SlilM £*»> u<*H £$*; XIX - 25 - And 

' ' " ' £ ' A.PA,A/ 

shake towards thee the trunk of the palm-tree, OlS*jJ£ 
sU*J| ^H t-^s-«*i XXII. 15. £e£ Aim stretch a rope to 

/A A J" A •/ 

the roof, jbaJb &J o^ «*j XXII. 26. ^nd whoso pur- 
poseth iniquity therein, XXXVIII. 32. (459), and 6y 
£Jt f±\sxJ\ (ML)] ; and [regularly (R), often (ML),] in the 

" a n/s as* a a , j> a * a to,** 

oh), of es^* , [ va~*Ih , o*%j. , cs^»*«* , e>J&J , and 
ft* 

* « /»! h* a * * a h * 

uvJuw&.f (B), and the like (ML), ojj* o»**» and %a~J* 
meaning/ heard, and foiew, (the state of) Zaid (R) ; seldom 
in the obj. of the doubly trans., as 

S / t * S<« Ay J ' ' ' • / *' a ' ' '■* * ''' 

(ML) r by Hassan Ibn Thabit, A bashful maid, that quenches 
the thirst of the bedfellow with cool saliva from much 
smiling teeth, has made thy heart lovesick in sleep (Jsh) ; 
and occasionally in the obj. of the singly trans. JS , 

• m a s w s a h$ / K/hM* / / 

whence the tradition U JX* «&*>»£ J bj/ Syi\» Jf 
£*•» It suffices the man as to lying that he should tell all 
that he has heard, 

* S &sam2t°&a /As As f * t tit * sss 

UU( j*asu ^j-UI u>a. # t>jA« .* J* lta» li> JUS 



( 336 ) 

(ML), by Ijkissan Ibn Tbabit, And the Prophet Muham- 
mad's loving us suffices us as superiority over any person 
(182) other than us (Jsh), and 

§*t 3 J # 9 S A tt 



• / / S tht 



by AlMutanabbi, It suffices my body for emaciation that lam 
a man so wasted tbat, tvere it not for my speaking to thee, 

t J> A * 

thou wouldst not see me (ML)] : (5) in the inch. [t_Xy~=>. 

$ t n t A t 

(R) in f ao l-Cu>*=s^ (ML), regularly (R); and (in) 

St t t t S t t 

ojj* foU vs^p. / went forth, and, lo, there was Zaidf, 

* ' z 

fj/ X> 151 i_X> 1-*/ How unit thou be when such a 
thing takes placet, and, according to S, LXVIII. 6. 
Which of yon is fyc. : and strangely in what was orig. 

t St 

an inch., i. e. tbe sub. of j»rf , provided that it be post- 

/ A/ 

poned to the position of tbe pred., as in the reading *-J 

St9 »? SM 

f Jy ^l? j*JI II. 172. It is not piety that ye should turn 

' t t — 

and 

It tt 3^» St * t P stS-*> 3 S S> / t StS 

&ifiH ^ ^*M ,$«*» *-»t«ai * Sail At Lasj* «-jJf 

(ML), by Mahmud anNahhas, 7$ it not marvellous that 
the youth is smitten by part of what is in his hands? (Jsh)] : 

A A $ 

(6) in the og. (R,ML), (a) necessarily in such as ^*- =*f 



( 337 •) 

A/ 

iiiyi in the saying of the majority [ i78] ; (u) prevalently in 

* ' XX Ax 

the ag. of ^^ , [when i. q. t-^***^ , iiitram. (DM),] as 

xx * 
XIII. 43., though Zj says it is prefixed because ^Jf iin- 

xA 

plies the sense of Uui't i?e content [with God fyc], 

f X JU i** X* 

which is verified by their saying iJI &UI ^'t [421], i. e. 

3x «/»/ xx 

^Ul and J**ft*, and necessitated by their saying ^JS 
*>% with omission of the cy , the separative making . 
[omission of the •&> (DM)] allowable not necessary, as is 
provtd by VI. 59. [499], [wliereas we do not see them 
express the «&> in it at all (DM)] ; but not when i. q. \'<^\ 

/A? x x 

and ^giil , nor when i. q. Js^ , the 1st £«*«*. to one, as 

S/*/f>/9,,9, A \f Ax xA S x 

X X *"/ XX XX 

[«4 little from thee satisfies me; but thy little, "little" is 
not said of it (Jsh)], and the 2nd to two, as &W( ^CuXjuui 
II. 131. And God will gU'ird thee from them, though it 

xx 

occurs red. in the eg", of ^Jf trans, to one in AlMuta- 
nabbi's saying 

9 S\ # X 53£ £ A X ^/J X X 

*$i* uX»ie J^=*> H*2 ls**' 

XX 

*a£ a? a x AxaS aS it// 

tr * x 

§ A x Ax Ax X 

[L e. jfco j=*"£^ says IJ, It suffices Thu'affor glory tliat 
thou art of them i and {let) an age worthy of thy having 

mi 



( 338 ) 
become one of its people (glory) / (W)] ; (c) by poetic 
license, as 



Ax l«vA$Ai^/ / &/ Krt 



Obj ,_$** y)^ ux>V l*i * ,_5*« ^Uillf^ t-Cwti Jf 

[by Eais Ibn Zuhaic al'Absl, Came not to thee (and 
tidings grow apace) what the milch-camels of the sons cf 
Ziyad experienced t (Jsh),] and 

A • •A X 2 /Ax X A£ Ax /A/ x/AS i** * /A/ 



JF/tatf [181] m in store/or me to-night, what is in store 
/or »ie ? Jli^ Aw sandals and my shirt have perished/: (7) 

lit As 

in tbe cor robs. j»& aid ^ja* , whence, as some hold, II. 
228. [235] shall themselves wait (ML). It is understood, 

ill «/ /Aix i / 

often with «U| in the oath [655], as JL*M siil (%) God, 
I will suitily do ; and anomalously, seldom, in something 

A / 

else, as in Ru'ba's saying #L [515] (R). 

§ 504. The J is pronounced with Kasr with the 
explicit n., [except the invoked to help next to k (ML), 
and similarly the wondered at (DM), with which it is 
pronounced with Fath (ML), because they occupy the 
place of the pron. in lJ^o\ (DM)] ; and with Fath with 
the pron. (R, ML), except the ^ of the 1st pers., with 
wlrich it is pronounced with Kasr (ML). The J denotes 
(1) peculiarity (M, IH, ML), by reason of ownership (R), 



( 339 ) 

Ax S xAx 

38 **$ J***' The property belongs to Zaid (M, R); or 

* ' yxA £**, 

otherwise, as j*fM J^=JI Tlie horse-cloth belongs to the 
horse (R), whence v-^aseJ »*£JJ f JjJ> This poem is by 
Rabib (ML) : (2) ownership (IA, ML), as II. 284. [498J 

Ax J /A/ xxA «S J> A/ 

and »*$ J^J i (3) quasi-ownership, as ♦-ySM Jbnff (IA): 

* ' «« xA Ax .» A „ X ' ' 

(4) making owner, as t^wo jjjJ ut**a>j /g-aoe fo 2aitf a 

* * * AJ> J>A? A A*/ xxx 

dl«ar : (5) making quasi-owner, as *£*•»&! >* *# J**. 

S* X*2 ' ' 

M^)' XVI. 74. ifc/A madfe /or #««• /root yourselves 
wives :(6) deserving, as 1. 1. [141] and LXXXIII. 1. [25] 
(ML): (7) causation (IH, IA, ML), as £« JyjJS J1, 
[72] (IA), like 

Ex tthiB x .P A xxx xx 3 x xx xA .» Axx xAxx 

[by Imra alKals, ,4,'jtf a rfoy toAew I slaughtered for the 

maidens my riding-camel— then O my wonder at her car- 

hf it* * 
ried saddle/ (EM)] : whence the 2ad J in yy*i ujjJ l> 

«» ' «» 

[48] ; and the J prefixed literally to the aor., [but in 
sense.to the inf. n. (DM).] in XVI. 46. [411] : (8) corro- 
boration of negation, which is the one prefixed literally 

XX X A 9* Ax 

to the v., when preceded by ^JS U or j& J non-att. 
and attributed to what the v. conjoined with the J 

is attributed to, as III. 174. [411] and J&jJ sUf JC» J 
*„ ' ' ' * r 

«$J IV. 136. Glffrf www no< minded to forgive them, which 



( 340 ) 

most name the J of denial, but Ns says should rightly 
be named the J of negation ; the reason of the corrobo- 
ration in it, according to the BB, being that the o./., is 

A A # * / / / 

J*£U f j-el* & U , and negation of the intention of doing 

is more intensive than negation of doing : ^S > how- 
ever, is sometimes suppressed before the J of denial, as 

hf § Us f* ** * *S t\t t A • / A/ §A/ •/ 

And not a host (has been intending) to surpass the host 
of my. people in withstanding, nor has a single man 
been a match, for a single man of my people (ML) : 

(9) i. q. J>\ (R, ML), ending of extent, seldom (IA), as 

w fil^ / c 3 ' / A t t sil^ ft* A 

£\ &U| £*« [432], i. e. &**». .- ^1 &W| ^M May 
*— ' / f / 

• 5 A / & 3 

God hearken unto him Sfc. (R), whence JsJU ^^aw J/ 

S t S ^ 

-•*«*• XIII. 2. JBcery one runneth its course until a 
jaenod named (IA, ML) and t$J ^^ v-O; ^b XCIX. 
5. Because thy Lord hath inspired her (ML) : (10) i. q. 

tJ / A $&/t 

J* [in superiority 0/ position, real (ML)], as ^*fr«pU &£»* 
XXXVII. 103. ^t«rf he threw him downupon the side 

• A?A • 5 /• 

of the forehead, J$oW &)?**) XVII. 109. And they fall 
down upon the chins, [and 

/A/ A//A * & * / P t t / m iO A/ « «/ / 

Jill. jfj±*& ^iy >=°* * &*d£*<> .LLyyJb &JJ U>s**«fl 

(ML) 1 pinned to him with die spear-head his shirt ; and 
he fell prostrate upon the two hands and upon Ike mouth 



( 341 ) 

/// A.PJS-X ? A / 

(Jsh);and tropical, as l$li JUJ J\^ XVII. 7. And, if 
ye do evil, your evil-doing will ba against them (ML)] : 

Ay 2 <a » t 

(11) i. q. J , [ns is said, in -^J ^UJJ £*b. HI. 
/ $ t r t 

7. Wilt gather mankind together on a day (R), as in 

y y A**» Ax /A Ays y y yAy3 $ ft t 

iuUflf r; J la-JUf ^t^J! e^; XXI 48. And We will 
* * * * / * 

/ * 

set up just balances on the day of resurrection and ^&* 

t t Ay y 

&Lw*J He went on his way, whence, it is said ,_c^ <i 

// * t t 

It S A £/ 

,y^3aj et— usi" LXXXIX. 25. would that Ihadprepared 

* tit 
righteous works in my life! (ML)] : (12) i. q. o*> (R, ML), 

f Ay / yy fi fiht t 

as is said, in ^^ «£yU# &x*XT I wrote it after three 

* ' U^ .» .P y I S yo 5 

nights //mtf pawed (It), as in «~*£J| lJJjJ sJUdj J| 

y tt \ y 

XVII. 80. Perform thou prayer after the declining of the 

yAJ J A?, yAJ J J 

sw« a* woow, the tradition &*ijy ';^^ ^-j^ 'yV 4 ^* 

ft t y y y y 

jFW ye a/3fer Me szg7&£ thereof, and break your fast after 
the sight thereof, and 

y y ^yAy A y Ay y AyO ^ ^ t y iu?y yA«yy Syy 

t ' t t t y y 

(ML), by Mutammim Ibu Nuwaira alYarbu'I, And, when 
we parted, it was as though I and Malik after length of 
union had not spent a night together (Jsh) : (13) i. q. 



t y 1 1 



J^S , as is said, in u&> y-MZJ before three nights that 

' * ' 

y A y Ay y Ay 9 9h tt 

remained (R): (14) i. q. o»i*, as ^^ l r~^ fc****' 

y s> t 

I wrote it at Jive nights passed, whence, according to IJ 



( 342 ) 



[and Z], AUahdarl's reading fbs t*. U JaaJU f^j/ J* 
L. 5. [But they charged falsehood upon the truth at its 
coming to them (K)] : (15) i. q- £* , as some say, citing 
this verse, [notwithstanding length $c. (Jsh)] : (16) i. q. 
** , as \a,\yc &S is^KAM / heard from him a cry and 
Jarlr's saying 

4 / • .PA?/ /AiS^) p * ,H*> ,s 

.p' xaS / / h^> / A/ 'a^x j A • • 

[ Jfe Aawe excellence in the world, while thy nose is abased; 
and we shall be more excellent than you on the day of re- 
surrection (Jsh)] : (17) communication, which is the one 
governing the n. of the hearer of a saying or of what is in 

9t * A -P 3 * » A t 

its sense, as &J o& I said to him, &l u^iof I gave leave 

s* s a i * ^ ' 

to him, and ni c^^-i I expounded unto him (ML): (18) 
*• ?• uJ* ( IH > ML )> witL *W«r (!H), as SyfS ^JJI JGj 
&J| U^JLj-* U f^ JS y \jL»\ uJU XLVI. 10. <4ntf 
they that disbelieved said of them that believed, If it had 
been good, they should not have outstripped us in betak- 
ing themselves to it (R, ML) : so says IH, but IM and 
others say it is the J of causation, [for the sake of blam- 
ing them that believed (DM)] ; and, whenever the J is 
prefixed to other than the [person] spoken to, it is to be 

rendered according to one of these senses, as Jfclp-! c^JS 



( 343 ) 

*■& A m/S\ /Z./ A P , % 

UjJLsf jVpi U> ; fSMjti VII 36. Ttieir last will say of, 
at for the sake ©/"blaming, their frsL Our Lord, these led 
as astrai/ and 

* /' <S # A 3s / * / A/ /M «»• A • A,* «•»/ X • 

[by Abu-lAswad adDu'ali (Jsh), Xi'Are the fellow-wives of 
the beautiful wife, saying of (DM, Jsh), or ./or <Ae so&e of 
blaming (DM), her face out of envy and hatred, Verily 
it is ugly (DM, Jsh)]: (19) eventuality, which is also 
named the J of result and the J of ultimate condition, 
as XXVIII. 7. [411], 

/' / 2 / S*r9 > A f A/A • 



/ /*** /lit 



[Tfteraybr <feal/i rfo mothers nourish their lambs, like as 
dwellings are built for the ruin of houses (Jsh)], and 

hs /A*e J> t / A /It/ 99 / A? * AsArO S/ tt / 

[by 'Abd Allah lbn AzZiba'ri alKurasbl, 2%en, if death 

have annihilated them, what the mother bears is for death 

(Jsh)] : (20) swearing and wonder together, which is pecu- 

i 
liar to &Uf , as 

» ~u>/ « iS^ at /h» * t Zihto // /I,/ St 

«*yj. ^UlSaJf &i > s 3u & >* > * Jjww «o f^Uf ^** ^aw ill 
'■' u ^~ // „/ * $" * ' ' / * 

[by 'Abd Manat alHudhnli, By Ood, a possessor of knot- 
ted horns will not last out against the days in a high 
mountain wherein are wild jasmine and myrtle (Jsh)] : (21) 
wonder divested of swearing, which is used in the voc., 



( 344 ) 

as in their saying t^.AaJJ U^ iUU b Oh! the water! 
And oh 1 the fresh herbage /, when they wonder at their 
abundance, and Jl JjJ -* Ji £ [*8]; and else- 

where, as in l~;ts 8jO &U [85] and 

r*> ft / A • J> AS r" / I ill • %/ hf * § / A*o/> § A s f § ft 

\ooy Ut*f yDjJJ tii£> ill* * S^ ^tSXJf j «r-^ v^ 

(ML), by AlA'sha, Youth and hoariness, and poverty and 
wealth — then to God be ascribed this fortune, how it has 
fluctuated! (Jsh): (22) making trans., as XIX. 5. [423] 
(IA, ML), as exemplified by IM ; but in my opinion it is 

A t tu / S // As 2 A / / t A S t 

better exemplified by f>4 ^fi^ ^ «*** f^j *->^f U 
.Hoto Aorrf Za«J strikes 'Jmr, and how dearly he loves 
Bakr!: (23) corroboration, which is the red, (ML): (a) it is 

[sometimes (M)] red. (M, IH, IA), as J3 uls; XXVII. 

■ r . 

ill*"/ /• 

74- Have become dose behind you (M, R) and &Uf^ U» 
iJf [134], though here the 2nd may be a lit. corrob. (R): 

<«// A/ 

regularly, as is*>y>o ^ , whence XII. 43. [498] ; and 



A/ * A/ , 



by hearsay, as *tf \n~iyb (IA) : and hence the J (R, 
ML) (a) intervening between the trans, v. and its obj., as 

" ' *<• f S * h ft 

A # • J>A S ,0/ »« rf , t / A^ 

8j-.tf jfcjJti ^2>jjf o*c >«JCJ 



( 345^) 
[by Tauba Ibn AlHumayyir, And whoever is possessor of 
a hard bone, by reason whereof he hopes to break the rod 
of fortune, fortune breaks him (Jsh)] and 

t t ft A .» t ft * K9 htt t A,*- * ht t t ht/ t 

• ft t ft 7 t 

[by Iba Mayyada, -4nd *Aow Aafl&rf dominion over what is 
between Allrak and Yathrib with a dominion that pro- 
tected Muslim and confederate (Jsh)], but not XXVII. 

t t t tt& 

74., t_5v>> being made to imply the sense of <->j&\ , 

have drawn near to you (ML) ; (b) after which ^jf is 

A?A ■ n t / A 

supplied, after the vs. of y»V\ and Sof^f (R), in such as 
IV. 31., VI. 70. [411], and 

Jju« J£* JUJ J Ja*3 * UJU3 tayj ^1/ jjjf 
t * * t * t t t 

[by Kuthayyir, / <fe«Ve to forget the remembrance of herf 

and it is as though Laild were imaged to me in every road 

(Jsh)], as is said ; (c) named interpolated, which is the 

t hi t 
one intervening between the pre. andpost. ns., as j*j* Ij> 

M A t A 

jj| »_»/saU [101], and governs what is after it in the gen. 

*- 't t 

in preference to the pre. n., because the J is nearer, and 

i\t tt t 
because the prep, is not suspended, whence JJ.y Of V 

fit t$ t fit A t tfi t * 

and 6i LS.J V and # ^U* V f according to S ; (d) named 
the J of strengthening, which is the one made red. to 

fi a 

strengthen an op. weak because either posterior, as ^oft 
20a 



( 346 ) 

/ 9 *K* A tat A 9 t 5 § t A ** 

^y&tf. *^>y Ji> j4^ *+**)) VII. 153. Guidance and 
mercy for them that fear their Lord and XII. 43., or sub- 
ordinate in government, as II. 85. [498], LXXXV. 16. 

[31], and >~»a* J^jJ trf/* ^ beating Zaid is good, both 

O * ' 
' t A A » mfif 

combined in ^iSA£> *$*&»! tif ^ XXI. 78. And We were 
witnesses of their judgment ; and, as IM says, is not made 
red. with a doubly trans, op., [when both objs. precede or 
follow the op., whereas, when one precedes and the other 
follows, this is allowable by common consent (DM)] ; 
but is prefixed to, one of the two objs., notwithstanding 
their posteriority, in 

* f * * .PA A* *i> •* / X J>fi 1 1 t t 9 A^» A* * 9 & t £ 

IJDUU SUastM Jasu &U{ V. # J&U* SUsdf Jam V -tnM 

by Laila [alAkhyaliya, AlHajjaj, thou shall not give 
the rebellious their desires, when God gives not to the rebel" 
lious tlieir desires (Jsh)], which is anomalous because of 
the strength of the op. j (e) of the person invoked to help, 
according to Mb, which '1Kb prefers, because it may be 
dropped, while many say it is not red., and the KK assert 

that it is a remnant of a n., i. e. J! , orig. i*ij Jl b O 

family of Zaid : (b) contrariwise the J is suppressed, as 

to? ye l&ykx* III. 94. Seeking (for) it crookedness, >»SJf j 

/ t* * 'AS * 

JjU* SU«*S XXXVI. 39. And the moon, We have appoint' 
ed (for) it mansions, LXXXIII. 3. [432], 

yAiArfl ft h t tthtt lift* ,,, fsnt fSh/, Kttt 



( 347 ) 
[And assuredly I gathered (/or) thee mushrooms and large 
white mushrooms ; and assuredly I interdicted thee from 
the small dust-colored mushrooms (Jsh)], and 

[And their young man went away, then catted out, "A 
male ostrich shall I hunt (for) you, or a wild ass f" (Jsh )] : 
(24) explanation : this is what explains (a) the obj. 
from the ag. ; which [ J ] depends upon a mentioned [op.] , 
and occurs after a v. of wonder or n. of superiority import- 

ing love or hatred : you say ^-pJ U and f J^i»i\ U j 
then, if you say ^UaJ , you are the ag. of the love and 
hatred, and he their obj., How I love, or fiate, such a one/; 
but, if you say ^ ^S , the converse is the case [500], 
How hoed, or hated, I am by such a one t : (b) agency not 
liable to be confounded with objectivity, and (c) objectivity 
not liable to be confounded with agency, when the [gen."] ac- 
companied by each [J] is either not known from what ia 
before the J , or known, bat explained to strengthen and 
corroborate the plainness; in all of which the J depends 
upon a suppressed [op.] : the ex. of the one expl. of ob« 

jecttvityis *$ ^5- [41] and &i I***. [489], the J being 
expl. of the biesBed or cursed, if he be not known, and corrob. 
of the plainness, if he be known, and the full phrase being 
Jyf ^o!;! [a reply to a supplied question (62) (DM)]; 



( 348 ) 

and the ex. of the one expl. of agency is OJ>y tu and 
&! bsjj Jlfay Zaid become lost! and perish!, these [ace. 6jf. 

• • ./ • • AiS • AJ5S A* .» •£ 

7W.] being i. q. j**»i and t-Xl2> ; and in JU (of *&( £<***} 

t a * s t t /t,s , sK* s a /A a bazi 9 / / e /> hsha t 

XXIII. 37. 38. Doth he threaten you that ye, when ye die 
and are dust and bones, that ye [524] shall be brought 
forth t Far, far off is it, (my meaning is) for what ye are 

• /Ax 

threatened with! the ag. [of «&>($£> ] is said to be a latent 
pron. relating to the resurrection or the beiug brought 
forth, so that the J denotes [corroboration of (DM)] expkc 

nation [of the ag. (DM)] ; and in \-& v»*JS> is-JCj XII. 
23. And said, Come thou, (my meaning is) for, or (I say) 

9 * * a a? / f , 

unto, thee %&*& is said to be i. q. J^Sf and JU3 , so 
that the J denotes [corroboration of (DM)] explanation, 

** * * ** a at 

i. e. u*> J?^$ ot *-& Jyf (ML), the supplied question 
in the latter case being " Unto whom sayest thou ?" 
(DM). 

a a 
§ 505. ^ is a pr^p., [according to the BB (E),] 

contrary to the opinion of [Akh and (R)] the KK that 

it is a n. [uninfl. (DM)] : and in the saying [of Thabit 

Kutna(Jsh)] 

Sf A • i*/ * htf * t 



( 349 ) 

[cited by Akh as evidence of its being a n. (R),] it is 
not an inch., [whose enunc. ^is y*(R)>] as is said [by 
him (R) (and) by them (ML)]; but $* is enunc. of a 
suppressed [inch. (R)], the prop, being an ep. of 

S a 

the gen. (R, ML), whose enunc. is suppressed, i. e. ^j 
J-eb» $* ys JJS [144] (DM) ; or is enunc. of the gm, 
which is in the position of an wicA. (ML), If (they boast be- 
cause, or & appear that,) they slew thee^verily thy slaughter 
was not a shame upon thee: and many a slaughter is a 

S a 

shame I (Jsh). »_j) denotes (1) paucity (M, IH, ML), 
orig. (R), [but] seldom, whence 

A t * t /A^ / A /• A S / /*$* 

/?A /A • ssAr<> / 

J^KUI U& ^*UuJf JUS 
t * * $ t * * 

[below], by Abu Talib, \And (scarce any) fair man, 
through the grace of whose face rain is besought (from) 

the clouds, i. e. fUaJI** (514), the support of orphans, a 

defence for widows/ (Jsh),] meaning the Prophet, and 

i $ at / htt ah* 3 a /S 

//£ .P xAy Ay yy y 

/ ' s» ' 

A / a* /■«»/*• tt * 

•S * l*t * ^e Zi/ a 

.IJI ^-fliw If 8i* — Ism 



( 350 ) 

f Now scarce any child not having a father, and parent that 
two parents have not begotten (663), and possessor of a 
black spot in the raised part of its face, perpetuated, that 
ends not after a time I (Jsh)], meaning Jesus, Adam, and 
the moon (ML): (2) multitude, [so (R)] often (R, ML) that 
it has become in this sense quasi-proper, and in that of 
paucity quasi-tropical, needing context [to explain it], as 

/ A** tOGi* / s**/A / / / s/2j4 / w * 

«waJI> &cjlftf s\y& % &)U UX>j b ^U 

• * * * ? f 

(R), by Damra Ibn Damra anNahshall, McLwlya, many 
a raid spreading abroad like the burn with the branding- 

/ A 9 fi / As 3*/ / 3*" Sss *&£ 

iron! (Jsh), whence ^A^* 'y^ y \yf$ £±&\ ^yi ^*i) 
XV. 2. Often shall they that have disbelieved wish that 
they had been Muslims!, i>M i*f^S «_j) k, [2], «-».) ** 

iU»JL> J &*jS u; lis ^y^i ^A &+&*<> [0 many a faster 
therein shall not fast therein hereafter / And many 
a spender of the night in prayer therein shall not spend 
the night in prayer therein hereafter/ (DM)], heard from 
an Arab of the desert after the ending of Ramadan, 

/h $ , /S?s t f tktt « As/ A S A/ H P t / 

[by Imra alKais, .4rcd man# a «% *Aa/ / Aaoe sported 
(in), and night (that I have sported in) (147), with a 
familiar woman, as though she were in beauty a lineament 
of a portrait! (Jsh)], and 



fi/ A • • A/ 



J AsA$ /$<# 



.*,yua ^y j*V # ji* ^ «^;t **) 



< 351 ) 
(ML), by Jadhlma alAbrash, Often have I gone up into 
a mountain! North toinds do raise my garment! (SMJ. 
i_^ has the following peculiarities (M, ML): — (1) it is 
put at the head (IH, ML) of the sentence (IH): (2) it 
governs only an indet., [(a) explicit (M, IA, ML), qualified 
(M, IH, ML) by a single term or prop,, as ol^a. Ja.^ »_^ 
or ,J&* or f>jf 8j> f Scarce any man munificent or that 
has come to me or whose father is generous (M), according 
to the correctest (IH) opinion, that of F, IS, and their 
followers (147) (R)] ; and [(b) sometimes (IH, IA), anoma- 
lously (IA),] a [vague (IH), indet. (R),]pnm. [168] (M, 
IH, IA, ML) of the 3rd pers. (IA), sing. masc. (IH, ML), 
contrary to the opinion of the KK that it Agrees with the 
sp. (IH) in number and gender ( Jm), expounded by (M, 
IH,ML)an [indet. governed in the (IH)] ace. (M, IH) as 
a sp. (Jm), [vid.] what agrees with the sense [498] (ML), as 

' * A? t A t <» / 9 *$f / 

S*lfc*l £t>*0 (%&. UZ*>\) 8f « 

t * f # 

* tt a j a /a* «» / m* 

(IA) (Many) a /rai/ person have I quickly set the fracture 
of the bones of and many a perishing man have I saved 
from his perdition! (J): (3) the v. (M, IH, DM) or (DM) 
the [like (DM)] op. (ML) made trans, by it (M, ML) (a) 
must be posterior to it (M) ; (6) is mostly suppressed, 
[because otahe presence of (explanatory) contexts (Jm), 
as says AlA'sha 



( 352 ) 

*Kt /t/ « *hl* r A/A,* / I ,//V/ * S# 

.Many a ftottrf Mo/ //«>« emptiedst that day, and captives 

9 /*/ / / A / A * 

ofaband,foemenf, tf»y» and j&*4 ^ being qw. of a»j 

and ^gj*! (147), and the v. suppressed (M)] ; (c) is [mostly 

(ML)] a jwrt. (M, IH, ML), as i^Jl u* ^ jJy ^ 

Scarce any generous man have I met (M): (4) it is made 

op. when suppressed [515], after the ui often, the y 

a/ 
oftener, Jt seldom, and without them seldomer, as 

A»t # A/ / ht /A# A / 

^ / » * * 

A # «»// A / /.Ms A tt ' 

[by Imra alKais, For (oia»jf) a woman like thee pregnant 
have I visited at night, and many a one giving suck, and 
have distracted her from a child possessor of amulets, a 

year old! (EM)], jJ>S ^*^y [above], 

A / / »* " A/ A fm *> SP A /A*o &B # / „ 

[ 2%e» sairf the mother of f Jmr, and afterwards the boon- 
companions, Nay, (many) a city possessed of ascents and 
mounds/ (Jsh)], and 

A / / A / / / A." hi 3 h Ay/ s A// / A / 

filla. ^ KUaJJ ^^1 Myj/ # &3iSo ^ %sJ»j ^fo *«,* 

[by Jamil, (Many) a vestige of a dwelling, in the rums 
whereof I have stood, have I been on the point of ending 
life for the sake of I (J)] : (5) it is red. in inflection, not 



( 353 ) 

f it it 

in sense; so that the place of its gen. in ^JUa Ja.» ^\ 

A 9 / f $ * 25 9 

^oic is a nam. as an £«c/>., in o>£aJ ^JUo J^j v^* ia 

an ace. as an obj., and in &Xxal ,JU» Jswj ^ * is a -nam. 
or ace. [498] : (C) its [gen.'s (DM)] place may often be 
observed, as 

S' slii" /A J «// *S ■» • 4rt' r AS'/ (u • 

tj*?^ ^A^S" r ^"^ i»»>«0 * Ui«.« ^U« JJAX«^" »w» 

(ML), by Imra alKais, And {many) a wild bull, &&e mount 
Sunnaik in height, and huge cow, have I frightened 
with a horse sweating much at mid-day, galloping much! 
(DM). U [affixed to it (R, IA, ML) (I) mostly (R, ML)] 
restrains it(M, R, IA, ML) from government (IA, ML): 
and it is then prefixed to the verbal prop. (M, R, ML), 

mostly (ML), [or,] as S says, only, £M J*l»H U>^ [below] 
being anomalous according to him, but regular according 
to Jz(R); the*;, being [mostly (ML)] a pret. [in letter 

M S Hs A? ,3.P 

and sense, as g\ \a**?$ t+i) (ML)]; and sometimes 
(R, ML) an aor. (R), future, as XV. 2., the proof that 
what follows it may be future being the saying [of 
Jahdar Ibn Malik (Jsh)] 

* t/*<° A f 2 f9 2 // \* / ft S 9f A A f- A * 

JU\ ja£. ) ^Jfr. Jc * J^*, J£ ^ uXtol Ji 

[ Then, if I perish, many a pure-minded youth, delicate in 

tlie tips of the fingers, will weep for me! (Jsh)] and the 

saying [of Hind Bint 'Utba, wife of Abu Sufyan (Jsh)] 
21a 



( 354 ) 






(ML) ?raa?^ a woman saying to-morrow, the grief of 
the mother of Mu'Smya/ (Jsh): and to the nominal prop. 
(M, ML), as 

(M, IA, ML), by Abu Duw'ad (ML) Juwairiya Ibn AlHajjaj 
allyadi (Dh, Jsh), Often were the herd, of camels tcith 
their pastors and owners, gotten for tribute, among them, 
and fine horses, among which were the colts f (Jsh) : (2) is 
sometimes red. (R, I A), not restraining it from govern*, 
ment, which is rare (IA) : and it is [then] made op. (ML), 
as 



• Itr * s A * t A/ 



jVaal &i*kj gyO* v^> * J**"* "- "A "" * *>/«* W) 
* fi a ' <* ' e 

(R, ML), by 'Adi Ibn ArRa'ld alGhasaani, Many a stroke 
with a polished sword amid the places of Busrd chancel 
to light, and thrust whose wound was gaping! (Jsh), 
like £M (j/* (R, IA). The v. is sometimes suppressed 
after *+>.) , when there is a context [to explain it], as 

t/ht * / sA>* •A/ A > I / 

sSS-PS .0h* A/D/ « ^ ^ ^ 

I%en that man, jf A« nseei disaster, will meet U praise* 
among men; and, if he become rich cm day, (that is.) 
often (to be expected), i, e. %Jio fSyt l+if0fy* ^*j 



( #5 ) 



has [16 (ML)] dial. vars. t [ *->; (R, ML), the commonest 

f a a a ha S * * / h * @ a 

R)>] v;» vo> v;» v^> vj> C^o* v; (ML),] 

**0 j "*-*>; (M, R, ML), o>; , i&-^ , «wj , uw; i «w; t 

A // S J 

and u&~?j M, ML). The p of i_j>j , [ as in. 

9f S 9 * t& A /A^» A/A A// 

&J^uJ— ^^f jaaJI -j*/ JjJ^ 

/A/ aatiiO sh$ m ** 

jz»f rr€ n d fyu ^ 

(ML), by Imra alKais, And (many) a night like the watte 
of the sea, that let down its curtains upon me with divers 
kinds of trovbles to try me/ (EM),] is prefixed [only 
(ML)] to a [qualified (IH)] indet. (IH, ML); as &±bj 

M S t t * tit * 

g\ «-juI l# **rf [88] (R): and is really the con. ), 

' ' Sa 

the gen. being governed by •_>) suppressed, contrary to 
the opinion of the KK [515] and Mb. Their argument 
is that odes begin with it, as in 

A »« ah* / /KibfB ** 

A • • A»« Sx y'A?A«» /»< 

[608], by Ru'ba [Ibn Al'Ajjaj, And (many) a place tfwAy 
as to the edges from the dust, empty as to the wide thorough- 
fart, confused as to ike marks of the way, mitc'h glistening as 
to the quivering of the mirage (have I traversed)/ (J)}-: 
but the coupling may be to something in the mind of th& 



( 356 ) 
speaker; and that it is a con. is made manifest by the fact 
that the con. ^ is not prefixed to it, as it is to the . 
of the oath, as iJl v) 6ii\^ [482] (ML). 

§ 506. The ; [of the oath (M, IH, ML), used as a 
subst. for the u-» denoting adhesion (M, R) in siib is~**«Sf 

(M), only (IH) upon suppression of the v. (M, IH), depend- 

* *$ 
ing only upon a suppressed (ML) **»*( (DM) ; denot- 

ing only swearing (IH, IA) not being adjuration (IH) ;] 

is prefixed only to an explicit n., [as «A&&J| ^f^tj 

XXXVI. 1. By the wise Eur' an : and, if it be followed by 

another j, as ^jkfl) ^h XCV. 1. By the Jig-tree 

and the olive-tree, the 2nd is a con. ; otherwise each of 

the two ns. would need a correl. (ML)]. The «y , [used 

as a siibst. for the j (M, B) in tilG exclusively (M)j like 

the 3 (IH, IA) in its three peculiarities (R), (but) peculiar 

to wonder (ML) ;] is prefixed only to (M, IH, IA, ML) a 

[single (M)] explicit n. (M, I A), 6ii] (IH, IA, ML) : 

tu / /AyA sAsA*o hi ^> 

and [to v,) j»re. to £**#! , so that (IA)] £**#! »_»J 
is (M, R, IA, ML) transmitted by Akh (M, R), [being] 
sometimes said (I A, ML), and ^3 [498] (R, ML), 

which are anomalous (E); and l j*s-^ By the Compas- 
sionate (IA,ML); and, as Khf mentions in the exposition 



( 357 ) 

of -the Book, LjStasJ By thy life, which is strange. 
The v. of swearing may not be mentioned with them 
(IA). 

§ 507. ^ is firstly a p. Many assert that it is only 

a n., [an adv., i. q. Jjy (DM)] ; and ascribe this [asser- 
tion] to S : but we have (1) the saying [of 'Urwa Ibn 
EizaUi al'Udhrl (Jsh)] 

(S • / • **• 

[SAe utters a yearning cry, and reveals what is in her of 
desire : but I conceal what, were it not for examples to 

take comfort by, would kill me (Jsh)] i i- e. ^ l g£& , so 
that it is suppressed, and its gen. made an obj., [whereas 
suppression of the adv. of place, and substitution of the 
post. n. for it, is not only rare, but peculiar to the case 
where the post, is an inf. n. (65) (DM),] and, as explained 
by Akh, II. 235. [433], i.e. y» J* meaning UC», and 

t /A S\-£ f * f AJV Si s9t>i* 

similarly f*HL-»Jf \^io\yf ^ ^^ VII. 5. Assuredly 
J will lie in wait for them (upon). Thy right way, i. e. 
x^SioSyo ^ ; (2) their saying sstJy g&S ^ isJ'y , i, e. 

iul* , like. &)>.)£> ***» v/H? XXIII. 35. And drinketh 

' ' J>A 

of what ye drink (of), i.e. &*-» (ML), whereas suppression 
of the rel. governed in the gen. by the like of what the 



< 358 ) 
conjunct is governed in the gen. by is authorized when 
the word governing the gen. is a p., not a n. [177] (DM). 
^ denotes (I) superiority of position (M, IH, I A, ML), 

A A *> /y $ Ay 

often (I A), (a) really (R), as fX*~A\ ^ o*j Zairf w 
ttjjon the fiat roof (R, I A), with respect to the gen., mostly, 
as XXIII. 22, [498], or to what is near it, as ^ **»•! jf 
g&b ^UJJ XX. 10. [Or shall Jind upon (the place near) 

* 

the fire guidance (K, B)] and 

^ / t k / Ay *Ay S s 9 

y / y / * 

j>u« y SktO/ y i>" 3 «*> xy y yy 

(ML), by AlA'sha, That is kindled for two frozen persons, 
who warm themselves thereat. And munificence and 
AlMuhallih have passed the night upon {the place near) 

$ Ay Ayy 

the fire (Jsli); (b) tropically (R), ideally (ML), as ^o 6Ae 

$ ? yAyy {/< ' 

He owes a debt (M, R), ^»f UaLs ^Ui SwcA a one is ruler 

5 Ay #Ay / u/ ss • s * 

over us (M), U-oL, UJo. u^ ; ^ ^W XIX. 72. [Zf ft 
an ordinance decreed imposed wporc /% Xwrf by Himself 
(K, B)], and &W ^ ^ f J\ XI. 59. Verily I have 

$ A y Syy A*yy 

relied upon Qod (R), whence v-^ ^* f€^ XXVI. 13. 

yA 5/ 

.4ttd tf/tpy Aa»e against me a charge of crarae and LU-aJ 

Ay // «J/*/ 

jojo ^jU *£«£*> II. 254. We have made some of them 



( 359 ) 



superior to some (ML): (2) i.q. ^ , as &u.*J! Ja*Oj 
**** u** 2 * u5^ XXVIII. 14. And he entered the city in a 
time of inadvertence [and ^jl* ^jaIoU&JI JUJ U f%*yfj 

• /Ax J A* ' 

^UaL* i_CU II. 96., i. e. And they followed what the devils 
recited in {the time of) the kingdom of Solomon (ML)] : 

A * 

(3) i. q. ^f , as 

(IA, ML), by AlKuhaif Ibn Khumair al'Amin, When the 
Banu Kushair are satisfied with me, by the life of God, 

" " / /A/ 

their satisfaction pleases me (Jsh), and £lf ^y If &LJ ; 



/•• a^4 a a / A/ 



' " ' ' ' *»*— w ■*" rt • A/ 

[88] (ML): (4) i.y. £* (K,ML) in ^a ; ^JJf 4U j^f 
^ i « / /. i • / «^ // ' * / 

/£»««!. Jasu-«I ^aXII J* J XIV. 41. /Vazse fo to Qod. 
u i * *' ' ' ■ 

Who hath given to me notwithstanding old age Ishmael 

and Isaac, like 

a ,h*>fsM> s *t a .p/aS • A /A// • , f m 

(K) Verily I notwithstanding what thou seest, beloved, 
of mine old age know from which end the shoulder is 
eaten, zprov. applied to the sagacious man (N), as in ^ f y 
&«*. ^gb JU| II. 172. And giveth property notwithstand- 
ingf *&? fot?e ©/"&, and ^ j* 1 * 1 * *;**• ji* u£>) ^ 

A A S * * 

*gJU2> XIII. 7. [1 6] for men notwithstanding their wrong- 



( 360 ) 

doing: (5) causation, like the J, as U ^J* &Uf S^^jSSS^ 

** ,, 

*T|i*a> II. 181. And that ye may magnify Qod for that 

He hath guided you and 

Sx ^ A /■ A^> y A * A £ A/ •£ / 

>-,/ Ja==J| Jo! **I*t j Uf fjf 

[by 'Amr Ibn Ma'dlkarib azZubaidi, Wherefore thinkest 
thou the spear burdens my shoulder, when I thrust not 

when the horsemen cliargef (Jsh)]: (Q)i.q. ^*, as to! 

t 9 A/ A / C.-0 •• .P • A«» / £ 

^f^i j»W J^ lytXTl LXXXIII. 2. When/they take 
by measure from men, take fully : (7) i. q.the ^ , as -3&a»- 
* M ' J 1 * Jfl V J J* VII. 103. Meet not to say of God, 
[like j»?H J* *>**) I shot with the bow (508) (B),] 
read by Ubayy with the »_>, [i.e. ^b (K),] and their 

Jj,a A^» • • A / A ' 

saying &U! *->! ^ t-r-0* Mount thou in the name of 
(fed: (8) emendation and digression, as 

JJA .0 ^ /■ • A? • $i¥Ott 

A?A»*> '/ » / / / ^ • 

/ U» -^ , r f° / 

UJ! 3 r yb3f jisJ t$if JL: 
a^ • s • a • *f&t>0 #a ts 



( 301 ) 
[by Abu Khirash alHudhalf, And, by God, I shall not 
forget a slain man that I was bereft of in the region of 
Kusd so long; as I remain upon the earth, although the 
fact is this (167), wounds become effaced, and we areoc- 
cupied only loith the nearest event, even if what passes 
he great (T),] aud 



• h» it 



t * 



&* J^ ^ V/ J J* 



s h* & *h* A • 



°J ^ J-4 1 ^ yT 4 B> tf ,J> ' 
[by 'Abd Allah Ibn AdDumnina alKhaih'nml, With every 
medicine have we dosed overselves, and it has not healed 
what ails us, although nearness of the abode is better than 
distance. Albeit nearness of the abode is not profitable, 
when the one that thou lovest is not affectionate (T)]: and 

the dependeace of this ^J* upon what is before it is like 

that of l£k> , because it conducts the sense thereof to 
what is after it by way of digression and exclusion ; or it 
[with its gen. (DM)] is enunc. of a suppressed inch., i. e. 

liif ^e. jjAaaaXJf^ , which construction IH prefers. It 
is red., (1) for compensation, as in 

A •A.' * i r * *tisa £ 

J+**i <-&iit) ri>Of d 
* ' ' g 

A if A / • • # A/ A / hs A 

2;} a 



( 362 ) 
[Verily the generous, by thy fattier, himself works, if he 
finds not one day one that he relies (upon) for that work 

A tt S 3s A s 

(Jsh)], i. e. &*1* J&4 ** , as IJ says; (2) otherwise, as in 
the saying of Elumaid IbnTbaur [alHilall asSababl (Jsh)] 

S/sAsS^S *i^» /i 

*' & 

9 Sf s A.-0 ,t,t w » s s 

* S " S "^ 

*s s 

as IM says, which requires consideration, because &»! \ 
i^^SJl means pleased him, which has no sense here, what 
is meant being }*> and (Juy (ML), Gotf dislikes every- 
thing but that the tree, i.e. wife, of Malik should overtop 
all the branches of the great thorn- trees, i. e. the rest of 
women, in beauty (Jsh). And it is [secondly (ML)] a 
n. (M, IH, IA, ML), i. q. £? (IA, ML), (1) when ^ 
is prefixed to it (IH, IA, ML), as 

s -PA (JJ/ / /«/ As s A Ass 



/As /<»s As A ss OS 

* " e * 

(M, R, IA, ML), by Muziihim Ibn AlHarith al'Ukaill, She 
went in the early morning from oven- it, i. e. her chick, 
after that the term of her abstinence from water was com* 
plete, making a sound from her intestines from severity 
of thirst, and off an egg-shell in rugged ground, a place 
wherein were no marks to guide the wayfarer (J), i. e. 

As A 

*»/ uT* (^j 1&) x ( 2 ) & ^ -^h, w ^ en * te S en ' anc * fc ^ e 



f 1 ,■> -» \ 

c/#. of what it depends upon are prom, for one dencmi- 

• • Ay dhs * • a£ 

uate, as i-fo-jj i-^' 5 L-&*»*f XXXIII. 37. Keep thou 
tin) wife, to thyself and 

[by Aklizain as SimbisI, J/k/ reckon thou matters easy for 
time; for verily matter*, their measures are in the ha ml of 
God (Jsh)], because Ibe V. of the attached pron. is not 
trans, to its attached pron.. except in the eat. of >& and 

• •• y y 

in oii and ^ [41GJ ; but this requires consideration, 
because, if it were an., jjj* might take its place, and JS 

/■ Ax AJ> A/^V £ 

Mould be a n. in uXJ( f***^ XXVIII. ."2. .4?z</ rfw«; 
towards thee aijd XIX. 25. [503] ; and all such e.vs. are to 
be explained by dependence upon a suppressed op., [i. e. 
uXJf aejJ or i_X*l* (DM),] as in uXJ Uiu» [ o 04], or by 
suppression of a pre. a.,, i. c. t_X««A> JU and i_X — iJ j| 
(ML). It is then ntthtjl. (R, J) upon quiescence (J): 
anil is not -inseparable from prothesis. as 



& Ay /K y A^» ^ J/ /It' 



y^A^s / • • A2 J> /A/ $S Ay 

UiJf jl.&d £JbiS s> li J 

^4w(/ A-//e irt/ccj? the water of Me cistern with a taking 
from above [201], «??7A a taking by means whereof ihc 
traverses the mhldhs of icutcr.'ess desert;: (li) 



( 3G4 ) 

§ 508. .# [is firstly aprep.: and (ML)] denotes (1) 
[distance and <M)] passage (M, IH, I A, ML) from itsg-ew. 

AsA,o * S fit/ 

(R), often (IA), as «*^l ^ «■"£*•; I shot from the bow 

SfisB t Sit fit 

(M,R,lA,ML), £fF*l j* &**lo| [He removed him far from 

' ' t A t t t t 

hunger by means of feeding (U)], &*•£•*£ ^ c j~H" [& c 

1 1 t 

held back from the position of %is right hand in sitting 

fit Ay • S t S 2/^ * A /A/ 

(R)], M cj* u)^ 12 ^. j*>« ^»i^ XXIV. 63. (M, R) 
Then let them beware that transgress His commandment 

ttfiiO t ft fit / 

(R), fcjijJl rf ufc>jil- / journeyed from the country, and 

t t H t * h * 

\6f ^e u^jij / was averse from such a thing (ML): (2) 

' ttfii° * * fi* * ' 

causation [in gtffi ^f $*H ^ LIII. 3. Nor speaheth 
Ae q/ his own inclination, as in *1* *e Jjjb is-*» / wn'rf 

y IA #/A fit& t t ss 

this from knowledge (R), whence fi^l ^la*£~l Jp L«^ 

^* fit fit a t ' * ' 

So^j* .* Vf &jyV IX. 115. And Abraham 's begging for- 

* ' %. ' ' * 

givenessfor his father was not but because of a promise, 

t fit fi ' t t f * S A t tt 

c_£Jy>" .* li*$M ^JH ^jj 3 ^ I") XI. 56. Nor are we for - 
t * ' tt * 

sakers of our gods because of thy saying, and, says Z, 

tfit ft t fi Zr» tSZ't* 

IgJU ^UaA^JI l*$J)t» II. 34. Then the devil made them to 
slip because of it, if the pron. belong to the tree, like 

A< A t St fit t tt 

iS>*' cJ* ***** ^ XVIII. 81. Jnd I did it not of mine 
own judgment (ML)]: (3) «, q. the iy , as LIII. 3. iV'or 



( 365 ) 
speaketh he his own inclination (R, ML), says AU (R) : (4) 
i. q. ^J* (IA), superiority of position (ML), as 

/ X / A • A? / * wt S b*o * 

* ' < ' ' 

JR h f S in X s Afi ss to/ 

ft t 

[by Dhu-llsba' (ML) al'AdwanS, To God be ascribed 
the excellence of Jhe son of thy paternal uncle/ Tliou 
hast not exceeded me in ancestral glory, nor art thou my 
master that t/iou shouldst rule me! (Jsh), and J-saw '*>li 

Ar A / £ 

&«& ^e XLVIL 40. Is niggardly only to himself, 

wt A Ax A t A^> S3 S S fis n i mi 

whence, it is said, ,£*; fo >* ^a=J| »_^a» <as~A«».i Jf 
XXXVIII. 31. Verily I have pre/erred the love of wealth, 
above the remembrance of my Lord (ML)] : (5) i. q, 
o*5 , as LXXXIV. 19. [498] (I A, ML), ^u^Jj JjJG &> 

yj^oO XXIII. 42. After a little [565] assuredly they 
will become repentant, and 

J[«rf {many) a watering-place that I came to after a water- 
ing-place I : (6) exchange, as II. 45. [144] and in tradition 

W* Ax J* 

«-£•! yj* ^y* Fast thou on behalf of thy mother i (7) 
adverbialify, as 

A*/ / ^ A / oi xA^ * * / <«/ 

^XjuJ vi-xa. ^gSaJJ Sfj* ««,f. 

• y y y w#o A^ Ay * * s * 



( 366 ) 
[by AlA'sha, And give unto the chiefs of the tribe where 
thou meetest them, and be not slack in undertaking pay- 
ment of the bloodwit (Jsh)], as is said to be shown by 

A / ' t • 

S?^ ^ Ui3 Vy XX. 44. And flag not in rememberance 

' ' ' * a /A/ //ACa * ti,f S,o ,s* 

of Me'. (8) i.q. if*, as SoL* ^c &ytff JaSj ^Jlf y&j 

XLII. 24. And He is the One that accepteth repentance 

from His servants and U ^^ {&* J***i u)*^ *~&$ 

I^Uff XLVI. 15. Those are they from whom He will accept 
* 

the best of what they have wrought : (9) instrumentality, 
says IM, exemplifying it by j-^l ^jf c^**) I shot with 



A/A«*> f htt 



the bow, because tbey say also j-jSJk i»-i*> , botb trans- 



A/A<^ */ J> tttt 



mittedbyFr, who transmits also ^-jSJf ^ *>*;*) [507]. 
It is red. for compensation for another suppressed, as 

* J / / r% 9 *>* A *• A /£ 

■9/h* / A/ As A/ Ax £<o itt 

[Dostf tfAow repine, if a soul, its doom come to iff Then 
wherefore dost thou not defend that which is between thy 

Si^ t S/ A / 5// 

two sides? (Jsh)], meaning, says IJ, ^1 ^ g>S> U$» 

/»/»/ /Ay 

fcjOuJLa. *a> . It is secondly an infinitival^. [580] (ML). 

9 , 

And it is [thirdly (ML)] a n. (M,IH, IA, ML), i. q. ^Jta. 

A * ' 

(R, IA, ML), (1) when ^ is prefixed to it (IH, IA, ML), 
frequently (ML), as 



( 367 ) 

uS* Uf ; V l/*** j* ^ * ***>> r u P Jb* *& 
(R, IA, ML), by Katarl Ibn AlFuja'a, And assuredly I 
see myself to be like a jmsting-ring for the spears from the 
side of my right hand at one time, and from before me at 
aaother time (J), i.e. ^Xjuj l-^ ~* (IA); which .-♦ 
is red. according to IM, but denotes beginning of extent 

f A / 9 h/f 

according to others, who say that &*i**> ^ «yj*> means 
I sat on the side of his right hand, closely or the contrary, 
whereas, if you put ^ , the sitting must be close to the 
beginning of the lateral space: (2) when ^J* is prefixed 
to it, rarely, the only ex. preserved of it being 

8* 3 S St, 3.-C 3/ s A • ,/• 

(SSJUU JjddJ kS-»^-» ,<*£*•> >* J« 

[Upon the side of my right hand passed the birds, passing 
from left to right (DM)] : (3) says Akh, when its gen. 
and the ag. of what it depends upon are prons. for one 
denominate, as in the saying of Imra alKais 

* t / * ' &h* * A/ *// 

*£<" * • /ft t* \* 

[And leave thou alone the mention of 5/?oi7, iy the sides 
whereof shouting was raised. But tell me a tale: what is the 
tale of the riding-camels f ( Jsh)] ; but the reply to this has 

A / 

been given before [507], and one proof that ^ isnot a n. 



( 368 ) 

here is that *^^ may not take its place (ML). It is 
then uninfl. (R, J) upon quiescence (J) ; and is inseparable 
from prothesis (R). 

§ 509. The <S denotes (1) comparison (M, IH, IA, 

/f»f"/ $A / 

ML), often (IA), as u—U tf *i) Zaid is like the lion : (2) 
causation, [when conjoined with U , infinitival (ML),] as 
J]i&> UT 8yf3U IL 194. And celebrate Him because 

' t/ht t sSi tt 

He hath guided you (IA, ML); or red., as J*i V &*\ l*f 

*kf til so ft • •• 

&* &IH jj^F** [For that he knows not what he does, Qod 
forgive him!, the iJ being red (DM),] transmitted by S: 
and when denuded of U, as ' ^yfW ^h * *# & 

A /t // A t Ajs 

XXVIII. 82., i. e. J^ f ^i ^acj [Imarvel, or Jfaroe? 
Mo», because the unthankful prosper not (DM)]: (3) 
superiority of position, mentioned by Akh and the KK, as 
fsaS Well, i. e. >£*» ^ , mentioned by them as said in 
reply to "How hast thou entered upon the time of morn- 

t A? y/ A J> 

ing ?", and, it is said, o~»l ^ ^ Be thou conformable 
to what thou (art, or wast, conformable to), i. e. U J& 

A// • A? ' / t 

sAa utJ! : (4) fowfe, whea conjoined with U [see Lf 

' f^A/ //Am/ 

below], as J**>S l**" ^-< Salute thou as thou enterest, 
[i. e. hastening to do it upon entering (DM),] and Uf J-o 
u>J>J! Ja.O£ fVcsy rfAoM af /Ae rime seisin, mentioned 



( 369 ) 
by IKhz, Sf, and others, but very strange : (5) corroboro> 

§ A t At t At 

Hon, which is the red., as s,J» &**$ j»*S XLII. 9. Not 

' ' ' *tA 4 A s t At 

aught is like Him, i. e., say most, &&• s^ «-aJ ; but 

' A 

some say the kJ is a n. corroborated by j£+ , like the 
converse in 

A 3%s A ,t s A Sm S t A tt A §A * h * St 

(ML), by Ru'ba Ibu Al'Ajjaj, -<4»d foVefe sported toith 
them, bevies ; so that they toere made to become like leaves 
eaten into holes (Jsh). It is red. (IH, IA) for corrobora- 
tion ([A), when not liable to be confounded with the 
essential (R), as 

A ttAiBt * /A^ArO S it 

[by Ru'ba (IA), These horses are lank in the bellies: in 
them is mush length with slenderness (J)], i. e. $&S ^i» 

■P /A * A * mt* * 

(R, IA), XLII. 9,, i. e. &&♦ j»rf , and ^f Light, i. e. 
Ua2> , transmitted by Fr as said by an Arab in reply to 
"How make ye dried curd?" (IA): and is judged to be 

§ A $A 

red. upon prefixion of it to j£# , as XLII. 9.; or of JJU 

s- t 

m A / , , A ■■* /A?y 

to it, as ii\ iJ**S JJU f j=yu-oG (R). The ^ is peeu- 
liar to the explicit n. (IH, IM) : it is not prefixed to the 

4 A 

pron. (M, R), j£- being used instead (M), contrary to 

Mb's opinion, since it would lead to combination of two 

i^S s, when you compared to the 2ndpers. (R); and such as 
23a 



( 370 ) 

tthi Ki // tht Z&t »* t 6 t //u^ S* 

S> t / , 

[by Al'Ajjaj, jfite fr# the places named AdhDhindbSt 
on the left, near lrim, a»d the high place named {/mm .^tt'32 
#&e <Aem w nearer (J)] is anomalous (M). It is some- 
times [anomalously (IA)] prefixed [in poetry (R)] to the 
[gen. (R)] pron. [of the Srdpers. (LA.)], as 

• / 2 Z»t /t 9/ tmtt tt fint tt t* 

1U&U iff <$ v ; */ * wir v . u« «y; % 

[by Ru'ba Ibn Al'Ajjaj, .4rae? Mom wilt not see a husband, 
nor wives, like him, nor like them, save a jealous husband 
(Jab)] and ^J( ^Js* ; [and to the detached ace. (pron. of 
the 2nd pers.), as 

fS . t 5 * A$/ A A £/ 

$ ' ' ft t 

S «• • S ,/ A A/ A// $ / 

Wherefore be thou moderate and kind to thy captive: verily 
he is weak; nor has any captor like thee taken captive 
which belongs to the cat. of substitution of one pron. 
for another : and sometimes in prose to the nom., as 

/ hit ti t 

is^tf U| J am like thee (R)]. U affixed to the t*S (1) 
restrains it (R, IA) from government, as 

t t £t * t t *r° tt ///IW«/ J /A.PA#oS # 

(IA), by Ziyad alA'jam, For verify the he-asses are of 
the worst of the riding-beasts, like as the children of Al- 



( 371 ) 
Habit are the worst of the Banu Tamlm (J): and then 
U$* means (a) comparison of the purport of one prop, to 

§s n h9/ tt 01 /y A/A' 

the purport of another, as S$M ^ US' W & J*M VII. 
134. Make thou for us a god x like as they have gods and 

/ «l ft h 9 

^t L$" ^J* meaning Be thou : {in the future) as thou 

S tr t n 1 1 A yA 

{art now); (b) l q. jj , as l-^I U" ,y>M Jfc- 
pec£ tfAow me.- perhaps I shall come to thee transmitted by 

* / **o Sat 9 , , A 9 SO 

S ; (c) coincidence of the 2 acts, as *»Ul/f *L*a UJ* JSoJ 
Enter thou as the ImSm pronounces the salutation and 

Ja//// 5a/ // // 

^j*c ii*» t»£J j»C Lf ^s Zend stood up l Amr cat down : 

. * /•» 9 t ft 

(2) is sometimes infinitival, as .JjJ ^.jj UT „4s */mw 

9,f& tt A sA 

dealest shall thou be dealt by and J*»f Lf J*H Do thou 

t A? / / K» ' 

as I do; and is^J UT J" may be of this sort [below] 
(R) : (3) is sometimes red., not restraining it from govern- 
ment, which is rare, as 

9 tt Ass $ .PA s j^ // J>3£ 9t*tt s sA s 9 9htt 

+js*s &aIp *yf?* ifW t*f * &5| JbJ^ Ulf^* j«aJl>« 
(IA),by 'AmrlbnBarraka [IbnMunabbih (ID)] anNihtni, 
4»«? we AfiJp owr confederate, and know that he is, like 

s s 

men, sinned against and sinning (J). In t*5" (1) the t_$" 

s 

governs the gen., U being (a) an infinitival p., which with 
its conj. is in the position of a gen., as in Ka'b's saying 



^ J>A,o s /A* JSss // * 9 9* / tt 9 9 1 t* 

J" 



J^i Wf\ J &? ur * (« «>/? J^ > r; ^" u5 



( 372 ) 
So that she is not constant to any state that she is in, i. e. she 
& changeable t {with changeability) like the she-devil's chang- 
ing color in her garments; (b) a conjunct »., as allowed in 

h9t $ / I- *S mr°/ 

VII. 134., L e. *$J &4S jb ,3^ iifce w ^ at ** S ods f w 

f 3 9h* / 

them] (c) red., (a) not inseparable, as in £M r^J » (P) 
inseparable, as in their saying U^a> uCJI US' **- loJD 
This is true, like that thou art here, where, says S, Khl 
asserts that U is red., except that it is not suppressed, 
from dislike that its letter should become like the letter of 

Si/ s 

^ : (2) U restrains the •_£ from governing the gen., 

/ A * tht A s ht 9 * a 

^^ f £ J'f** f ***** f 1 

,» /• ' * '- 

AjP • t Sh 3 / A/ A* ,PA / // 

$J\La* &A33J J .J*£ I-A^wi US' 

(BS), by Nahshal Ibn HaM [anNahshalS (Jsh)], (He is) 
a glorious brother, who shamed me not on a day of assem- 
bly, like as the sword of 'Amr Ibn Ma'dikarib, its edges 

t / A* 

failed him not (T, Jsh). The GG thus parse US" ^ 

t hi / a hi 

iaJ| : ~- U is (1) conjunct, i&Jf being (a) an inch, whose 

Ay/ 

enunc. [ &J* , as above (DM),] is suppressed ; (b) an 

' / hi * 3 a^, 

enunc. whose inch, is suppressed, i. e. ut^l jB> g&$ [like 

the person that was thou (DM)] : (2) red., made otiose, the 

m 3 3hft * hi 

lJ governing the gen., as in £H /*&;> and ta^Jf being 

* hi* ,i f 

a nom. pron. substituted for the gen. t as in i&-# UJ U 



( 373 ) 

/ am not like thee, i. e. Be thou (in the future) like thtf' 

t hi 
self (in the past): (3) restringent, u^l being (a) an inch. 

whose enunc. &Ae or Jtf is suppressed ; (b) an ag,, the 

o.f. being \s^»$ US' , and ^J$ then suppressed, so that 

• 
the pron. becomes detached, which is improbable, U being 

then apparently (4) infinitival [above], KtS often occurs 
[literally or constructively (DM)] after props, as a qual 
in sense ; in which case it is an ep. of an inf. n., or a d. s. t 

both admissible in 8j^so jla. J^f U|j^ UT XXI. 104. 

Jjike as We began the first creation will We restore it, i. e. 

8UJ.JJ U Ji* &il*J $*• Jjt i>a*> [properly Ufjj , i. e . 

8/!i*aI! j£* , unless the pron. relate to £&■ J^( , not to U 

(DM),] or SU!^ ^viU ItfU* Sj#u : and U$6f also occurs 

ret , , 

thus (ML). And the \J is [sometimes (IH), seldom 
(IA),] a n. (M, IH, IA, ML), uninft. upon Fath (J), 

§A 

governing the gen. t and syn. with JjL» (ML), as 

' ' X s A s A / s J S> /l\,£ 

f^ iS/* cs^- c**; ^j^f 

9»9h*B/ fi Mi fO * , S, AS *0/ 

[by Al A'sha, What! will ye refrain f And the like of 
the gaping spear-wound t wherein the olive-oil and the tents 
disappear, will not restrain authors of injustice (J)l i e 
j*laJ| j£* (IA): only, however, according to S [and 
critical judges (ML)], in poetic license (E, ML), as 



( 374 ) 

<U/KSb*> t/KJOt A * * A / A t lUfi t t § ** % 

/ ' * # * * 

(M, ML), by Al'Ajjaj, Tbey are three white women like 
hornless wild cows, laughing off teeth the like of melted 
hail-stones (Jsh) ; but, according to [many, among them 
(ML)] Akh [and F (ML), followed by Jz (R)], allowably 

in other cases, [Z (and B) saying on &*» jJ& III. 43. 

And I will breathe into it that the pron. relates to the i*S 

A Si /« /ht* 

of }*kJf &Z$g The like of the shape of the bird (ML)]. It 
must be (1) a p., when [red.; or, with its gen. (ML),] a 
conj., [as 

/ t f S * 3 ft / / t<B * 

•• AyA^a/ ASj^s 2^ /Ax 

(ML) He Aas combined what is hoped and what is feared, 
so that he is the one that is like the lion and the rain 
together (Jsh) : (2) a n., when governed in the gen., as 

£j| jXaa-aj ; or nom., as £J! ^jjS^I (R)]. And, [when 

o» /ft 

2 t-£ s are combined, as (R)] in ill c^Wto. [134], (1) 

both [^ s (ML)] are ps., like Jl UU J/1 [134]; or ««.; 
[the 1st being in either case corroborated by the 2nd 
(ML)] t (2) the 1st is a [red. (R)] p., the 2nd being a n. 
(R, ML), like XLII. 9.; or the 2nd is a red. p., [the 1st 

ht / J A 

being a ».,] like u* <a *f J2+ : but they may not be both 
ns. or ps., one of which is red. (R.) 



( 375 ) 

A * *A.P 

§ 510. «i* and JJU denote {time (IH), />&?* or p-c- 
s«m* (Jm),] beginning (M, IH) 0/ earteMi «» time (M) in 
the past, and adverbiality in the present (IH). o-* and 

* AJ> A 

iU* , when followed by a gm., are preps., i. q. *♦ if the 

'a 

time be past, i.q. J if it be present (IA, ML), and i.q. ** 

t A/ A 3 S3\it f 

and J\ together if it be numbered, as p*j J-« &JuK U 

• A^> * l\t A * 

ji mjusd H / Aawe »o£ seerc Aim since Tliurday or U-«^ j* 
in our day or fty &H2 <*+ for three days, [i. e. from the 
beginning of three days until this present day (DM)] . Most 
of the Arabs require the present to be governed in the 
gen. by them ; and prefer the past to be governed in the 

flit A f 

gen. by &** , and in the nam. [203] by o*. An ex. of 

J>AJ> 

the common usage in t>i* is 

•Ax X xA A 



A/ / 

.IS 

• A? £ A J SS> *M A •/ 



.U)( JJU 8jL>( ia-i<5 ^^ 

[by Intra alKais, Tarry ye two: we will weep because of 
the remembrance of a loved one, and l IrfSn (a celebrated 
songstress), and an abode whose traces have become effaced 
from past times (DM)] ; and one of the rare usage in 

A J> 

\±* is 

A / A P* t A * * tistii 



( 376 ) 

[499] (ML). They govern only the explicit w., and only 
ns. of time [498] (IA). Their being ns. has been men- 
tioned among the uninfi. ns. [203] (M). 

§ 511. tail (M, IH, IA, ML) (1) denotes (M, IH, 
ML) freedom from imperfection (M, R) in (R) exception 
(IH, ML), as £\ 'J>f jt &L [below] (M) ; [and] is 
mentioned in the exc. [88] (IA) : it is held (a) by [Fr, 
AASh, AZ (ML), Akh, Jr, Mz (IA, ML),] Mb, [Zj (ML), 
and many, among them IM (IA),] to be (a) [seldom 

(ML)] a [trans. (ML)] v. (M, R, IA, ML), i. q. Ljti, 

/ ft ' s K £ s A 

J*t» from l£*xjJf , i. e. ^laaJj (M), aplastic, because 
implying the sense of Vf (ML*) ; the ace. governed by it as 

fit f t A fi <o f f SfHf A / • A A«o SAL / 

in (IA) tyj yjUai^J! ^k- £m«j ^jjj ^ fi\ ^UJ 

yA ?A^> ' ' ' 

^-ysMf God, for give me and him that hearkens except 

f 

the devil and Abu -lAsbagh being transmitted (M, IA, ML) 
by [Fr (IA),] AASh (M, IA), and AZ, whence 

mf°t /A hi° S f*f° ff f/£/ titfo S t 0htP t t 

*joJ|^ j.U-.yU &>jJJ ^ * *$La5 $Uf ^G l&ijS ^Uw 

(IA) Except Kuraish,for verily Qod has made them to excel 
the rest of creation because of Al Islam and the faith (J), 
and 

A/ „•'*■' ' A/ ' '*' '^ S f tut tS f f 

g»iji &*% j«J ^0^5 # tjf ^jf ^Oy bf ^b. 

A S ^"/ X A /A^> * S £ A.« A / .Pft **/ 

JLfcJf. SbaLIf rf ILi # & J «Jf| O.W v .„,* 

£ • T * t* £ • , * UJ* *r^ 



< 377 ) 
[by AlMunMdh alAsadi, Except Abu Thavban; verily 
Abu Thauban is not tongue-tied, stammering. l Amr Ibn 
Abd Allah, verily in him is refraining from quarrelling 
and reviling ( Jsh)] : and its ag. is then a latent pron. relat- 
ing to the inf. n. or act. part, of the preceding v., or to 
the [vague (DM)] part understood from the general n., so 

that lijjj ^k* f^yi f£ means The people stood, it or lie, 
i. e. their standing or the slander of them or pari of them, 
being apart from Zaid (ML) : and (b) [often (ML)] a 
prep.'.Qi) [commonly (IA), by S (R, ML) and most of 
the BB (ML),] to be only a p. (R, IA, ML), i. q. ft , but 
(ML) governing [the excepted in (ML)] the gen. (IA, 
ML), because they say ^l&ta- (R): (2) denotes freedom 
from imperfection [not in exception (R)],as &U «fcb. XII. 
51. How free is God from imperfection I: it is then a 
n. \syn. with "is\f, (ML), as proved by the reading [of 
Abu-sSammSl (R)] &U Uil^» [like 6li hty (ML) ; being 
an inf. »., i. q. l&j" (R): so that lbn Mas'iid's reading 
&Uf j&U is like &UI ol** (ML), i. e. &1H «jji5 syj aa( j 
&Uf 6Um o«*f (DM)] ; and the Tan win is omitted [in the 
reading of the Seven (ML)] because ^l»- is uninfl., on 
account of its resemblance [in letter and sense (R)] to 
thej?. tits. (R, ML): (3) is a plastic trans, v., whence 

the tradition ^M i*M [88], U being neg. } i. e. He did 
24a 



( 378 ) 

not except Futima, whereas IM [followed by IA] imagines 

/ . * * 

U to be infinitival, and ^J&*. exceptive, supposing it to 

be part of the Apostle's speech ; and the proof of its 
plasticity is 

S-9 A 9 S f» * *$ ** 

&$a-£j ^UJf J> Ibis gj Vj 

* * * * 

* * * ' * * 

(ML), by AnNabigha adhDhubyanl, And 1 see not a doer 

among men that resembles him, nor do I except of the 

* * 
peoples any one (Jsh). And $&*. is [often (R)] said ; and 

(R, IA) li^- (R) [or] JiL (IA) seldom (R). 

ft * * 

§ 512. IfcW and Hi. (M, IH, IA) denote exception 

** 
(IH) ; [and] are mentioned in the exc. [88] (M, IA). Ui. 

is (1) a p. governing the excepted in the gen., its position 

[with its reg. (DM)] being an ace. from completeness of 

the sentence: (2) a trans, v. governing it in the ace., its 

ag. being like that of ^^ [511], and the prop, a d. s. 
' ******* 

[when not preceded by U (DM)]. You say f^jj Hi. SyjS ; 

" A * 3 9 tt 

or use the gen., except in such as jJ\ s^L Jf Mf [88], 

* ** * 

because, this U being infinitival, Ua. must be aw.: and 

the position of Ui. U is an ace. as an adv. What is men- 
tioned as to its place when governing the gen. and ace . 

* *. * , // 

holds good in the case of ^k* and f ** , [And] fa* is 

like Ui. in the two divisions mentioned, and in its predica- 
ment with U (ML). 



( 379 ) 

§ 513. Few mention ^J , J*! , and ^ among the 
preps. [498] (IA). J is (M, 1A, ML) a prep. (M, IA, 
DM), i. q. the causative J in sense and government (ML), 

y A /A y 

when prefixed to (1) the interrog. U (IA, ML) in &*i/ 
[498], i.q. &J (M, IA, ML): (2) the infinitival U in 

y uj y 2 *• A yA y Ay y A? y 

U»l* jo* jaJu J ctJ| |j| 

-P yAyy lu Jy /Ay / yAr*> 2 y.0 

[by AnNabigha alJa'di, When thou benefitest not, injure; 
for the yoiith is hoped for only on account of injuring and 

A $ 

benefiting (Jsh)] : (3) the infinitival ^J understood, as in 

y A* A y ' 3 A 

J^pjUte*. [411,498, 596] (ML), and [similarly] in 

I* A/ y A^ «/ ■» A 

fojj f/f t5^ us -^?' (IA), the subj. being [then construed 

/ A $ 

to be (ML)] governed by ^ (IA, ML) understood after 

Ay A ? 

J" , and ^1 aud the v. being eonstrued to be an inf. n. 

Ay Ay /A A y 

governed in the gen. by ,_,/, constructively ujj ^l^f ^f , 



i. e. o-i) (»l/y (IA). J*J or J* governs [the inch. 

*" <= S- Si yj 



in (ML)] the #en. in the rfia/. of 'Ukail, as ^1 J*J 

<• yA AyO ' 

^J! ; iyuJ! [498] (R, IA, ML) and 



s hs* fifi/ 



[PerAa/w God has made you to excel us by something. 
Verify your mothtr is a woman having the vagina and 



( 380 ) 
tectum united (J,Jsh)], J*J being a [quasi— (J)] red. 

' $/ A / A s 

prep, prefixed to the **ncft.,like the ^ in JfcjJ lXj ^ s s j [24] 

(IA). ^** (IA, ML) is &p., I q. uf* or ^ (ML), [and] 
governs the gen. (IA), in the dial, of Hudhail, whence 
ijf ysuJf ,*U* .*j£ [503] (IA, ML), as is said, and 

is ' 

by Sa'ida (ML) Ibn Juwayya alHudhalt, I imagine rain 
through looking at lightning from, or in, a cloud near, 
having a sound of thunder (Jsh). And IM elsewhere 

/A/ 

mentions My [169] among the preps. (IA). 

§ 514. The prep, is [sometimes (I A)] suppressed, 
the [intrans. (IA)] v. becoming self-trans, (M, IA), as 

iL^ ■jj*** - ' &*f {J"y* )***~h ^^ 1^ # ^^ i#b*es 

' Ay A 

chose {from) his people seventy men, [i. e. &*y ^* (K, 

B >'3 

& ^u«m jt^yi ^if ^^t u*j 



JP ^3#* JP /i«^ S / 



[by AlFarazdak, -4nrf of us is he that is chosen (from) 
men in liberality and munificence when the violent winds 
blow (SM)], i« )*3=Jt U2 r \ [432], and ^yo *1M fkL»S 

/ S.O 9 Ax • 

[432] ; and hence ;foif cviij [64] (M): the poet 
[Jarlr (Jsb)] says 



( 381 ) 

9 tt & & St 99 8/* OStKtt/twBt £fis 

[ Ye pass (by) the dwellings, and have not tarried. Speech 

with you is then unlawful for me (Jsb)], i.e. ^boJb (IA). 

t * / 

Suppression of the prep, is (1) regular (a) [in the case of all 
the preps. (Sh)] with ^jt and ^t (M, I A, Sh, ML) and their 
conjs. (Sh), provided there be no fear of ambiguity (IA), 
as cylia. -$ ^ cylsJUa/f \$~*y \f-«\ wJJ| y&>. IL 

23. And gladden thou them that have believed and 

wrought righteous works (with) the tidings that they shall 

a? 
have gardens and LXXII. 18. [below], i.e. A> and 

Jl) , [and L# «-!/*» ^1 &^ ^ U5 H. 153. There 

shall be no sin against him (in) that he perform the 

hi aj> S /• / J> C*> a a A 9 

circuit of them, i. e. ^ ^ , and ^bfj Jy~f] ^^.^sot 

ajw l*o 9 *9 ni £ ' 

£>) ilib \yl*p ^ LX. 1. Driving forth the Apostle 
and you from Makka because ye believe in God your Lord, 
i. e. Jl (Sh) (or) J* (B),] and IV. 126. [64], i. e. J 

H$ A$ A r 

u>' or «>' cJ* y e are unw ^^ n S th ai V e should marry, 
as variously expounded (Sh, ML), and 

cite. JUJ) J*i J ^fo 

r*/£Ki*> f f * hf A £ J» /A// 

JU1M ^aLo^jJ ^f w«*^ 



( 382 ) 

[And Khalid desires, or is unwilling, that he should build 
lofty stations ; and is unurilling, or desires, that he should 
like the deed of the basest (Jsh)], which, if ^ be supplied 

A, 

first and ^j* second, is prnise, and, if the converse, is blame 
(ML); whereas, if ambiguity result, the suppression is not 

allowable, as j,yu ^1 ^ «*-**> or J& uGf ^ , so that 

^ may not be suppressed, because the suppressed might 

be uf (IA) : Khl, as also (ML) Ks (IA) [and] most of the 

as a? 

GG (ML), holds the place of ^f and ^f [and their 

conjs. (ML)] upon suppression of the prep, to be an ace., 

[Akh holds it to be a gen. (515) (I A),] and S allows 

(I A, ML) both constructions (I A), the {ace. and] gen.', and 

the assertor of the gen. is supported by the evidence of ^U 

fj^l SIM £* \f±i Ui 6ii j^UJI LXXII. 18. [And. 
* ft* 

because the mosques belong to God, invoke ye not in them 
any one together itith God (K, B) the lJ being made otiose 
(B)], the, ace. of the v. not being allowed to precede it 

when the ace. is ^1 and its conj. [517], and of 

* / / t tt si ,s, j> a a /s 
***f* ^ «»' ^ **» ^ 

St t fi * Sy // 5, 

&Jlb U! l# ^> If u 

[by AlFarazdak, And I have not visited Laild because 
she is dear to me, nor because of a debt owing by her that 
I have been demanding (Jsh)], related with ,,jo in the 



/ 3/ A t 



\ 383 ) 
gen. as coupled to the place of ^^ ^ , since its o.f. is 

y -fy A 5 

. Jo .1/ (ML) : (b) iii the case of the causative J , 

' A * 

when governing [the infinitival (Sli)] ^J [and its conj. 

/ sa A t .PA ft , 

(Sh)]; the GGr allowing in ^fi* ^ <^¥ that ^ 
should be infinitival, and the J supplied (Sh, ML) before 

A / 

it (Sh), i. e. ^JS (ML): (2) confined to what has been 
(IA) transmitted [by hearsay (IA)] with other [gens. 

CIA)] than J and J [and J"] (IA, ML), as XXXVI. 
39. [504] (ML). 

§ 515. i~>) [prefixed to the (explicit) indet, not to 
the pron. of the 3rd per*. (Sh),] is suppressed, its govern- 
ment [necessarily (Sh)] rcinaiuiug, [iu poetry exclusively, 
(1) regularly (R),] after (a) the ; , [often (IA, Sh), as 
^ ?L*Ui JS, (505) (R, IA), like £« ^ &^ 

' ~ A/," *> ' 

(1), £» uW; (505), and 



• .PA • • hr& t*S m r*> 



lgsu~Zx\ /U-Jf JX* &;.j. 



• A ^3 J>A£ ^ 



.-4nrf {many) a waterless desert like the ski/ have I tra- 
versed at random, ivhen the night has dyed the pebbles 

A s 

with blackness/ (Sh)]; (b) the lJ and J? (R } IA, Sh) 

« A A? A / 

seldom (IA, Sh), as g\ ^&*>\ .J* [419] and £\ X J, 
[505] (R), like £J! lJ0*J [505] and 



( 384 ) 

hSth/t S9 Sy yyA-P y h£*t y A*> SIS ft »y- 

&*)&>.) &JIXT £)*£>z V * &*£> _bpsJ| iJU oL J> 

V y y ^ 

(IA, Sh), by Ru'ba Ibn Al'Ajjaj, Nay, {many) a city, 
whose dust is the fullness of the roads, whose linen and hair 
carpets ofjahram are not bought, {have I traversed)! 
[545] (Jsh): (2) anomalously, [without these ps. (R), not 

« y * y 

preceded by anything (IA),] as g\ $4 f~; [505] (R, 

t> ' A, 

I A). The gen. is not governed by the t-i and Ji, without 

S a 

dispute, but by t_>j supplied after them ; nor by the y 
[505], according to S : but, according to the KK, the y , 

s J> 

becoming i. q. v_^) , governs the gen, by itself (R). The 
prep, [other than »_»j (R, IA)] is suppressed, its govern- 
ment remaining (R, I A, ML), regularly (R, I A) in 
J*ilf &U| [503] (R, ML), i. e. m, ; and (ML) in JO 

y Ayy /lr° /A 

ts^j&l Jio JFbr Aou; wwmy dirhams boughtest thou?, 

t ^ a 

[i. e. f&)6 ^ (ML), according to S and Khl (IA)] : and 

\ ' ' Ay 

[not regularly (IA)] in Ru'ba's saying y£- Well [503] in 

s» 
reply to "How hast thou entered upon the time of 

Ay Ay yt 

morning ?" (IA, ML), i. e. [ y{±» or] jvi J* , and 

S s$k<a w titi-" AyJ> A y y£ *y y a y S<« «5S y > 

[by AlFarazdak, JPAen it is said, " Which of men is 
worst as a tribe ?", the fingers with the palms point (to) 

AyJ y 

Kulaib (Jsh)], ie- l-^ ^1 , and 



( 385 * 

' * • * 

[And {many) a noble soul of the family of the tribe 
named KaU, diptote because of the quality of proper 
name and feminization, being meant to be a proper name 

for the &U*£, have I given a thousand camels to because 

of his poverty, the pron. being made masc. in &£tf| upou 

k, A * 

the ground that the «-&> is renderable by jaaai person, 
to that he exalted himself, and ascended {to) the moun- 

tains I (J)] i. e. r U*lM J\ (IA). 



26? 



CHAPTER III. 



THE PARTICLES ASSIMILATED TO THE VERB 
J ETC. 



§ 516. These are [a division of the ps. annulling 
indication, vid. six ps. (IA),] ^1 , ^ , ^ , ^S , ct-J , 

vtJS > 

and J*f (M, III, IA), which S reckons as five, dropping 
as s 

yjt , because itso./. is ^1 (IA). They resemble the att. 7 

plastic, trans, v. [33, 97] in letter, inasmuch as they are. 
of tbrje letters and upwards, and have their finals pro- 
nounced with Fath, like the pret.; and in sense, inasmuch 
as ^jl and ^f contain the sense of lbJuu* and cwo/f , 

5i I ^ ^ A/ A / A 3£/ J> Aui • /A/ ,0 A3 /• 

*£J of ei^-jX*! , ^tf of is^ftjii , i»^J of u>«£w , and 

C /t S A 2//- 

J.*J of o^^* (R). Being prefixed to the inch, and 
enunc. (Sh), [and] governing with the converse of the 
government of ^JS (IA), they put the [inch, named their 
(Sh)] sub. into the ace, and the [enunc. named their 
(Sh)] j>reof. into the nam. (IA, Sh), as &JI &*UJf ^f 

XX. 15. Verily the hour is coming, i>jj-S &ii\ »f I jJLf 

' A«o ' £ 

*_>&«){ V. 98. Know ye that God is severe in punishing, 

% /3 • * § -» ^ AJ>3«^ 

8k>L»* j^«V:L j^jU' LXIII. 4. ^s though they were logs 
made to lean against the wall, and XLII. 16. [535J (Sh). 



( 387 ) 
They [must (Jin)] have the head of tbe sentence, except 
^1 , which is the reverse [of the rest (Jra)J of them [517] 

(*H). ^1 , ^JS , jjj^jJ } a nd J.*J are not prefixed to an 
inch, whose enunc. contains a sense of requisition, 
whether that enunc. he a prop, or single term : nor can 

the pred. of ^f and Jtt be a single term implying the 

$ ' 

sense of requisition; but I see nothing to prevent the 

requisitive prop., like command, prohibition, and prayer, 

the prop, headed by the p. of interrogation, request, and 

wish, and the like, from occurring as pred. to them, as in 

the enunc. [26, 34], even if it be rare, as &>?& If Iojj ^f 

.P^AX / A / J'A Ay / ^A / S 1/ fi A/ A A 

or 6jL>yj> J2> , and «j^oj V !^*c *£Jj fooj VJ*^ W* 

\^ affixed to them, [when neither conjunct nor infinitival 
(IA. Sh), both of which are admissible in XX. 72. (2) 
(Sh),] makes them inop. (M, IH, IA, Sh), necessarily (Sh), 
being restringent (M), according to the chastest [dial. 
(Jm)], in which case they are [often] prefixed to vs. (Ill), 
except us^aJ (R, I A, Sh), which may be made op., [ U 
being red. (R),] or inop. (R, IA), U being restringent 
(R), as [ &UI ft>l&i **>' LX. 9. God forbiddeth yon only, 

XXI. 108. (517) (M), IV. 169. (2), cy/j! J\ '^fL* ull/ 
VIII. 6. A* though they were being driven to death 
(Sh),] 



• < 388 ) 

*S*s A / * A * / 0t t A t 

Ul*J ^**#* «*** *i l^k! ***! 

(M, Sh), by AlFarazdak, Repeat looking, 'Abd Kais, 
peradventure the fire has lighted up for tliee the tethered 

he-ass (Jsh): or sometimes, [as many GG hold (IA) U 
being made red. (M),] tbey are op. (M, IA), seldom 

(IA) ; oftener, however, in U^tS" , l*£J , and L1*J than in 
Uf , UI , and UiXJ (M), the verse [of AnNabighn (M, 
Sh) adhDhubyani (Jsh)] being related 

* r ' % 

(M, R, Sh) She said, Now would that these pigeons were 
ours with our single pigeon, and [541] the half of them 
again / Then it would be sufficient for me (Jsh) : but, [as S 

• A* 

holds (R), correctly (IA),] only et-J is made op. (R, IA, Sh), 
because they preserve its peculiarity to the nominal prop. 

§ r" S Kt * / lis «! A/ /Wly 

(Sh), as fiS <*i) UXJ (IA, Sh) or Lv.j (IA), not LajJ 
^l) j.6 (Sh). Li I denotes restriction (Kon II. 10., XXI. 108., 

i 

B on II. 10.) of the predicament to a thing, or o///te £Ai«g* 
to a predicament (Kon II. 10., XXI. 108.), [in either case] 

$ A/ ■» * Us fS 

of what it precedes to what follows (B), as %H) j^-St Lif 
Only Zaid departs (K on II. 10., B) and JltaJU i*jj Uif 
Zafrf is onZy departing (B), [and similarly] as a^j ., JL UJf 



( 389 ) 

%n/ $ A/ /« 

Only Zaid stands and J&* o-jj ^' Znidisonly standing, 

' i 

both ear*, being combined in this text [517], because U»f 
^1 ^^i with its [pro-] ag. is equivalent to iJj) ff-i U>{ , 

* »» • !? $ ~y $ A/ /C i 

and ^! UJ! to Jt» ^) LJ! (K on XXI. 108.), so that 
the 1st denotes restriction of the predicament to the thing, 
and the 2nd the converse (B on XXI. 108). 
s a* 

§ 517. ^jl [as also ^ (M, IA, ML), aderiv. from 
s £ ,s* 

yjl , for which reason Z is right in asserting that UJf 

^ ,55 

imports restriction (516) like U>| b >fch being combined 

i 

in ^! ; &M J$\ Ui\ JS j±yi Uif XXI. 108. // is 

* £ £ £ £ 

revealed to me only that y>ur Gd is only Oae G>d, the 
1st denoting restriction of the quality \ to the qualified 
(DM)j, and the 2nd the converse (ML),] denotes corro- 
boration (M, R, IA, ML), and verification (M), of the pur- 
port of the prop. (M, R). It is said that ^f sometimes 
governs both terms in the ace. in one dial., as 

AP/A/ b-s*s ASr« J>A.P 2sti*> * 

ȣJ. eyUli JJJf fx*. jJ !of 
t * £ 

s A € / t * a 2 * f ' f * 

[by 'Uniar Ibn Abi Ra'bi'a al Makhziiml, When the portion 
of the night becomes black, come thou, and let thy steps be 
light: verily our keepers are lions (Jsh)] and in tradition 

f f t A • rZt * * sl\s Si 

ljb%£. ***>— *^»» _)*» ^)t [Verily the distance of Me 
bottom of Hell is a jouruey of seventy years (DM)] : but 



( 390 ) 
the verse is explained as a case of d. s., the pred. being 
suppressed, i.e. fo—! *tfQj {thou wiltfind the in) lions-, and 
the tradition [533] on the theory that y*> is the inf. n. of 

• A Hi" 3 h/ 1 / A / 

yji\ ct>^« , and ^jW*" an adv., i. e. Verily the reach' 
ing of its bottom {will come to pass) in seventy years. The 
inch, is sometimes in the nom. after it, its sub. being a 
suppressed pron. of the case, as in the Prophet's saying 

case is this,) of the severest of mankind in punishment on 
the day of resurrection will be the makers of images, like 

/**• • & r*s s shs Ay • / s ah» S A • A x 3 

(ML), by AlAkhtal, Verily {the case is this,) whoso enters 
the church one day will find therein women like the young 
of wild cows and gazelles in largeness of the eye (Jsh). 
^t does not alter the sense of the prop., [nor exclude it 

from being a prop., *ȣ !l>jj ^ importing i. q. f>& <H) 

s i 
with the addition of corroboration (Jin)] ; but ^1 with 

its prop, is in the predicament of the single term (IH). 

^1 is [a conjunct p. (ML),] renderable [with its two 

regs. (ML)] by the inf. n. of its pred. [pre. to its sub. 

§ t»t jS Ax S 2 * " 

(E), if the pred. be deriv. (ML), so that JlS |ojj ^f ^5**** 

A^ St. /'•/ ^o • S? /// 

means <>d3 p*** ^5*^ (^)> whence ^o-M ^y «-Xi| ^iik, 



( 391 ) 

constructively $\A\ ^ i^l^S***! , because the pred. is 
ft / 

C' * a & • A * 

really the suppressed yiX-f or yiw* (ML)]: and, if 

ttt 

the pred. be pr$m. (R, ML), the case is similar, as ^h 

Sbt tGi / s>Z r\, 

i*i5 t-£M , i. e. i_X*iJ-ij , since the ^ of relation affixed 
to the n. and followed by the S imports the sense of the 

A • $ Ax t I Si ? /// 

inf. n. (R); [or] ^y is supplied, as t>i3 ^ d cS**^ » 

^«z jja^ as ' 

i.e. U>j ^V (ML), ^jl is not put at the head (M, R, 

IA) of the prop., as ^f is [516] (M), even if it be in the 

place of the inch., whose right is the head (R); but (M, 
IA) must be postpos. (IA), [and,] even when it occurs 
in the place of the inch., must be preceded by the enunc, 

it / % ft *A / S $ 

so that "la. J6 foj j J is not said (M) : though some 
allow it to be put at the beginning (IA). 

§ 518. [The Hamza of] ^\ must be pronounced 
with Kasr or Fath, or may be with either (IA, Sh). ^f 
occurs [in the position of the prop., vid. (M, IH)] (1) in 
the beginning (M, IH, I A, Sh) of the speech (R, I A, Sh), 

A yl\f" y/tt St Usui 3 

as CV1II. 1. [1] and ;jSM &J ^ sliJ^I Uj XCVII. 1. 
t t t % 

Verily We revealed it in the night of power (Sh)j or of 

fw ui hffbs / *.9 A t tt 

a fresh sentence, as iJf ^1 *gJy LXi'/xu 1/^ X. 66. 

[1] (R): (2) after JG (M, IH) in [the beginning of (Sh)] 
the prop, imitated by the saying, as XIX. 31. [1] (IA, 

titt A * / 1/ *A $ I in A JA «»/ J// 

Sh), **^r> *i)»J "-^^ & 'J J isT* *" l^' ffc*" 4 J** t£*) 

' <■ /• /• ft *"• t tjt ' t US 



( 3<J2 ) 
XXI. 30. And whosoever of them sayeth, Verily I am a 
god besides Him, then that one, We wiU requite him with 
Hell, and XXXfV. 47. [523] (Sh); whereas, if JG be 
treated like ^ , ^1 Las Fat!i, as JS \j-tj ^1 J^f > 
j. e. J&\ [441] (IA): (3) after the conjunct (M, HI) 

t f.\*o , 9tt,,m, 

in th'.' beginning of the c«»y. (IA, Sli). as j^"^' lJ"* 5 ^b 

.PA Jy/ S / / f m / 

syT>S bate. ^f U XXVIII. 76. ,i«// fl^ ^*ffe Am o/ 
treasures that whereof verify the keys would weigh down, 

$ /> ■*£? A m**,~ f 

[but J-& &»! ^J^ ^tSJf Jla. (Sb)]: (4) in [the begin- 
/• ft, 

ning of (S!i)] the complement of an oatli, [when the 

$ •• £ A /• £ w^9y • .P A • /> 

J is in its prerf., as JlHJ fjoj ^ &U|^ (IA) aud .yjlasuj 



AJ>A • A.S5 



^XJUI .gil &Uo IX. 56. .-!«</ chey swear by God, verily 
they are of you; aud wheu the v. is not expressed, whe- 
ther with the J, as J\ J y^\\ CHI. 1. 2. (469) 
By time, verily <$•&, or without it (J), as <~JZ&\) *=>» 
SUJ^I U| ^aJ! XLIV. 1. 2. TJa-Mlm. By the clear 
Scripture, virily i'Ve revealed it (Sli, J)]: {!>) in [the 
beginning of (Sh) a prop, occurring in (IA, Sli)] the posi- 

tion of a d. s., [as ^1 U| ^jaX^jJJ ^ i_Xlo UL*y Uj 
r ULaJf ^^L-J XXV. 22. -4«</ fPa sew* not before thee 
any gf the Apostles, but verify they ate food (R), whence 
VIII. 5. (80) (IA, Sh) and 



( 393 ) 
(IA), by Kuthayyir, They two gave not to me, nor asked 
I them, but when verily my generosity to others was 
debarring me from accepting their bounty (J), but J-j*f 
jitla &i] j^i*; i*ij (Sh)] : (6) in [the beginning of (Sh) 
aprop. (IA, Sli)] an enuac. to a concrete substantive (R,. 

IA, Sh), a8 ^k^fj ^-^^ f^ la c r*J J 'jtj i '»t c ji**'l ^J 

// *■ / fi. 

** **> ,K* kttht e *s sli^S st si , *,*>/ / a *n*>t 

XXII. 17. Verily they that haoe believed, and they that 
have been Jews, and the Sabesans, and the Christians, and 
the Magians, and they that have been poJytheists, verily 
God will distinguish between them on the day of resurrec' 
Hon (Sh) : (7) when prefixed to an inch, in whose enunc. 
is the J of inception [521] (R), [e.g.] after one of the 
mental vs. suspended from it by the J L445] (I A), [and] 

$$1*°/ *2 */' s£ 9/hs fih^s 

before the suspensory J , as &U|^ &iy<~jl \-£>\ *X*j &UJj 

* 9 s* * e9h*& ** J* s A s *" 

,^3'jCI ♦JuiUJ! ^1 ^£j LXIII. 7. And God knoweth, 
verily thou art His Apostle ; and God heareth witness 
[522], verily the hypocrites are liars (Sh) ; whereas, if it 
were not for the J [in its pred. (IA)], ^\ would have 

Fath, [as &***a- &U ^ -^ ^j- 1 f***'* l * J ' !j*kij VIII. 
* p > * 

42. -Jnrf Anow #« £/m£ whatsoever thing ye take as 
spoil, it is meet that the fifth thereof be for God and oqp, 

j2) 1/| &J| V &J| *Ut III. 16. GbflJ Ao/A fiorrae witness that 

t i 
the case is this, there is no G*d but He (Sh)]: (8) [in the 

26a 



( 394 ) 
beginning of the post. prop. (Sh)] after [ of, KM, and 

J A, 9 t **' S J> A , .» A • / 

(SIj)Icx^ (IA, Sb), as «-N=- 1^.) Ji &-&» o-~U 

$ t t § r / -»3* Ht * ■> fir" 9 A • f h t t 

but — *=». ^l£-« $•>! tjjj o&**J *£**£=- us^-«*^ (Sh) : (9) after 

^ ,t * 

tlie inceptive W [551], as II. 12. [63] (IA): (10) in the 

§ t ss st a *t t » i>" 

beginning of the ep., as J^>& &»l J^-p **s)y , but <^)y» 

i , sZi a tr a i 

J*& tJf joJL* Ja.^ (Sb). And ^' occurs (M, III. I A, 

, , ' t 

Sh) in the position of" the single term (M, IH), [but only] 
when it is cons'.ruei'vuly :in inf. »., vid. (I) as a nom. of a v. 

(IA), as an ag. (M, IH, Sii), as XXIX. 50. [497], i. e. til'lpl ; 

i 

h t S • Ay A t as n t *S$ a t t %t 

orpro-ag., as ^ ^i lX»j» ^ ^jj ^J &J| y J] j>.fo 
' '- *.'. * ' ' ' * * ' 

*-»! o5 XI. 38. ^nrf ?7 was revealed unto Noah that the case 

is this, not any o/ thy people will believe but he that hath 

ht 

already believed (Sh) : and [similarly (Jm)] after y (M, 

/£? lit 

Jm) they say uXJJ y , because it is an ag. (IH) of a [sup 

• tt 
plied (R) suppressed (Jm)] v. [23] (R, Jm) is-w [or the 

J S,, A^3, $ / A« • £c A/ 

like] (R), since italic; U jp°** i_X>I y is constructively 

m ,i.i ttt A/- t* t tu° t ft */ 

2i\ uXM ^5 j y ,i. e. i_j3UM ^ y (M); and similarly 

/ i r»t the Zi t A A 

after the ehronometrical U , as Jl» Ju^j ^f U «-k.l eon- 

•• „ >t tt 

n ii f t tt t 

etructively ^i ^ ux£ ^ (R) : (2) as an ace. of a v. (IA), 

x • t 9 t t tj 

as an o'j. (IE, Sh) of a t>. other than J$, as ^f^ V) 
&UU *aT*&| *CI VLSI. When ye fear not that ye have 



( S95 } 
associated with God (Sh) ; and similarly in <-: Ci t£,.x»i& 

i s a «/ * 

•-.-2>!i3 by suppression of the 2nd obj., orig, o£JJ& 

s 

- , , , , , 

tt-sb* ljOU&o (M): (3) as a gen. (M, R, IA, Sli) goveraed 

by a p. (R, IA, Sh), as XXII. 6. [1] ; or by prothcsis 

t S A/ AJ>£? t t A !i / / 0£ 

(Sb), as a post. n. (IH), as ^f^ 3 ** *&1 U JZ* j=J &J| 
LI. 23. Verily it is true like that ye speak (Sb) : (4) 

/ A?A»*> ft t Zi si* A r 

as an inch. (IH, Sb), as j^l gy t~C>i £&! .*•* 

t.' ' " ' 

&*£>te* "KIA. 39. And of His signs is that thou seesi the 

' ,A, 

earth dry, depressed (Sh); and [similarly] after Uy (M, Jin) 

y S£ /A/ 

they say uX»! Vy f because it is an inch. (IH), the enunc. 
being necessarily suppressed [29] (R): (5) as ehunc. of 
an abstract substantive, as J-^l» u-#f ^Gu^f : (6) as 



* SA SSht 



appos. to one of the above mentioned, as ^Ji+xJ U/61 

t / ,t**a t* at si\ Us <uit hsfist t hssi £*> ' ' 

^j^JUM Je fZ&& JS, f&le c»+*X JU\ II. 44. Re- 
member ye My favour that I have conferred upon you, 
and that I have preferred you above the worlds and 

A St f*i Assr"Sr° /A ■* 1"^ SSS t A * 

Ji t^Jf ^w&Udf ^o^f &U( f^ jf ; Vni 7. And 

' ' &. ' i 

remember tbou when God promised you one of the two 

m i 

bands, that it should be yours, ^ in the 1st [text] being 

• A 

coupled to, and in the 2nd a subst. for, the obj. ,Jl+*J 

,a • ' ' 

and ^via-t (Sb). Sometimes the single term supplies 

the place of ^i , but [the Hamza of] the latter must bo 



{ 396 ) 

§ *s ei * lit a A t «< 

pronounced with Kasr, as J6 &>i | jo} u^SJJb ; because it 
is in the position of the 2nd obj., but is not constructively 
the inf. n. t since &*US jijjj ct~*iJ& is not correct 
(IA). 

S3 

§ 519. iJl occurs [in positions admitting of both 

i , 

prop, and single term (M, IH), vid. (It) (1) after fjf 

denoting suddenness of occurrence (R, IA, SU)], as 

sS^>* *,AJ> M/ PZi * »m, * *t * At /? * A** 

{M, IH, IA, Sb), by AlFarazdak, And I was wont to 
think [441] Zaid to be, as was said, a chief. Lo, verily 
[or that] he was the slave of the back of the head and of 
the jawbones projecting under the ears ! ( Jsh), related 
(IA, Sb) with Kasr, [as an inceptive prop., constructively 

— tsAr° J Ax t P t 

£M Ua I jo* y& fof (IA)]; and Fath (M, R, IA, Sb), as 

& t 

an in/", ra., an inch, whose enunc. is fof , constructively 

#*3 SS tt *»S St ^t ft /«.» x A/M y> 

4aj0^a* loG , i. e. & n J^« S^aaaJJ ^g&i [or isJ>yi J& 

t £ r t ts* 

j^olaJI (J)], or is suppressed, constructively a&Oj** foli 

£ ' **' 

toy*-}* (IA) : (2) as enunc. to [an «»cA. that is in sense 

* t A 9 

(IA)] a saying, its own />re<£ being a saying, [like u-*a-f 
and the like (Sh),] and the sayer [of both the sayings 

(Sh)] one (IA, Sh), as [S exemplifies by (IA)] Jf\ C j]l 
&ll| a*=»»i ^1 The frst of what I say is, Verily, ox that, 



( 397 ) 
I praise God (M, IA) : (3) after the «-i of the apod. (R, 

A/ A ft Sf t t / #n» A *» t t It t 

IA, Sh), 88 &>** ♦* ^G J &I^3B> f/y-. jCU J*rf ** 

$ / i 9/ *$$t tt Kit ■ 

*«w) )Jie &Jtf ^JUsf. VI. 54. Whosoever of you doelh 
eot7 iy ignorance, then repenteth and maketh amends, 
Verily He will be forgiving, merciful, or forgiveness (shall 
be his requital) or (his requital shall be) forgiveness, read 

with Kasr, [as a prop, correl. of »* (I A)] ; and Fath (IA, 
Sh), as an inf. n., an inch, -whose enunc, or enunc. 

"whose inch., is suppressed, constructively tyf* u)l***^. 

or u j'/*'l 5J!}»* (IA); (4) when following the j after 

|JjD or t_£!3 for confirmation of the preceding sentence, 

$ » tii* S it h» I 

aB >;* &IM Ji, J^o VIII. 18. ( The case was) that: 
and (<Ae ctwe was also) that God was weakening, J33 
being enunc. of a suppressed «ncA., and ^1 coupled to thia 

m mi #*i SKthi^t AJ I Jtitit 

enunc, i.e. g)S ^1 t^dl ;-»Wj f*^ j*Ml ; or and verily 
Gtorf #c, ^f with its two terms being coupled to the 



preceding prop. : a ] 


poet says 






t Sfi 

* * * 


i t 
P 

* t 

t 


A t J> t 

%***&■ lot 

<a t sA$ 

J 5 eh 
* * * 


HI 

'i 

J* 


* t 


tt 


* 


tt u>i 


t si 



v°* ^ is; 1 ^ J* Jh ,lia> 

•»,« •• * A * t kt t 1 kt 

flail ^ tS* 30 ^ **J **** y*l 



( 398 ) 

Verily I, when afire is hidden for a widow, am found in 
a very high hill raising my fire. ( The case is) this: and (the 
case is also) that, or and verily, I am an author of kind- 
ness to my neighbour: I take compassion upon him because 

,i 

the neighbour is taken compassion upon: (5) after Uf 

53 ? £ s m 

[551], which before ^f is i. q. &=» , and before ^ is an 
inceptive p. lilxe Mf [518], as c^&Jo 6S\ &U{^ Uf } i. e . Is 
it in truth, by God, that he is going away f or Now, by 
God, verily he fyc. (R) : (6) in the con-el. of an oath, when 
the J is not in its pred., [and the v. is expressed (J),] as 

111 A 'A^» ># ' * '*"° ' w "> /A^> / sA / m 2 h*f 



nl / J>0 u*f 



• • • / '£ t * f * f /* 

(IA), by Ru'ba, By God, assuredly thou shalt sit in the 
seat of the person distant from me, the doer of unclean- 
ness, haled, unless thou swear by thy sublime Lord, verily 
or that, I am the father of that little boy (J). 

§ 520. (ji occurs after the inceptive ^a } [as o» 
&Jyjjtijjj ^1 l5 X=w u_XJo f$b\ J6 Tlie people have said 
that, so that verily even Zaid says it (M)] ; but ^t after 

the jwep. or core., as ^JUo i_C»f ^Xa. ^;.H *>■*)* &> I 
have become acquainted with thine affairs, even to, or even, 
that thou art well (M, R). And ^t occurs after (1) J* 

* h* * ts x • **a33t Ci f / t f 

and oJU [203] : (2) f y* V , mostly, as ^UJf ^ ^t f ^ IT 



( 399 ) 
XVI. 64. Nay, it, or It, is due, or There is no escaping 

s 

(from the fact), that the fire of Hell is for them : V is a 
refutation of the preceding speech, as KhI holds ; or red., 

fi A? t ft t 

as in p*£] M [566], because -^ contains the sense of the 

x ft/ 
oath: and ff* is a prel. v., according to S and KhI; and, 

s , a? 

says S, means jf», so that ^ is its ag. -. but Fr says that 

/ S S t SP t ff t t * 

j»^ 3/ is a phrase orig. i. q. ^ ^ and &Jt=o.« V } because 

/ A * * S AJ> iff 

ff* ^ is transmitted, and J*» and J** participate in 

i a* it, 

inf. ns., like o-S^ and o-&) ; and is then so often thus ap- 
plied that it has become in the sense of the oath, because 
S i "t t£i tf t ,. 

of the corroboration' in it, so that J G oC*! *& V 

'' & 

is said, with Fath from rrgmd to the original sense, 

ft P/Af S S? 1 1 t t t f Si h 

like Ktf J** ^i * ,ba - ^, i. e. l-&| ^.andKasr 

t 

because of the adventitious sense of the oath. And you 

i f / Sf / S / $ "t / *Z / if 

say (1) t_^2>to lX>! U oA and J£ oG| U \e It is 

m t 

in truth that thou art going away and standing : o£ 

S/ / '»/ tt / 

and j* are vs. restrained by U , like Uli' and Ulk [565]j 
and, both being i. q. iSa. , the sense is i»J| »_X»! 13U- , i. e. 
£*■ jj : or U may be a complete det. n., How hard 
is the going, thy going I and How grievous is the standing, 

t » f s f * ,f , , * 

thy standing 1 1 us S holds in u&*&^« Uu and uJUc Uwdu 



( 400 ) 

/ » , » m * t 



[180, 471], i. e. v_£*aJu« £y-*aJI **> ilfo^ excellent, is the 

, ft t 9 / s**' t A 

, thy deed I and i_-Cl** J**J I j>£> Most evil is the 



work, thy work ! ; for the whole con jug. of J*» may be used 

• A , A $ ./ «; S S • /• $ • $ St 

like j^o and j~Z> [468] : (2) £»-» \y* ^ W J~G jjj 

• 

Zairf w wicked^ as 'Amr is good: Khl says that U is red. 
[509], and ^1 governed in the gen. by the «-/ : (3) 

$ t , %i i , 

t-^lo l-£»I &*• /£ is in truth that thou art going away, 

tu / f t t hi t 9 * m* 

because L^. 3=>" ■ $* » but m ^^^ cjCi ^ ***• ^ Whatever 

* ' ' ' i 

be the case, verily thou art going away in truth the pronun- 
ciatiou is Kasr, because with Ut you are not forced to make 
the arf». an e?umc. to [^1 ] ^ , as you are without t«f , 
since ^jf may be preceded by the reg. of its reg. with Ut , 

$ M/ / 5 • / * *A^» •A/ sS i t t it ^Av 3? 

as oL, «_X& &»^=JI j.^i ^«i aid v^ "-^ '**») *"*' » but 

' & ' ' ' £ 

% ttZ.it %t S< 

not without it [593] : S says ^M o uC»U ^.f; ^ UJ is 
allowable with Fath, but the pronunciation is Kasr : (4) 

i ft t 58/ S & SS 

JS uX>t» ;lw>Jl ^ U| Whatever be the case y verily thou art 
* % * ' 

standing, or {the story or news) that thou art standing is, 

in the house, with Kasr when you mean that the standing 

comes to pass in the house, and Fath when you mean that 

t ASft 1 1 

this story or this news is in the house (11). And t-£»j*d U» 
£)| [523] is related with Kasr of the Hainza of ^ , on 



( 401 ) 
the ground that it is an inceptive causation ; but Fath ^ 
by subaudition of the J of cause would be allowable, 

/ j> tZi * f A / S Us A SP S 

and both versions occur in j3> &»f Sj*oj J^J ^ liT Uf 



j* S ^£/A^ 



J 



*)La.yi jJI LII. 28. [ Fm///«,*e fcere «?oni 6e/bre in the 
world to pra/j to Him; verily, or because, He, He is the 
Benign, the Merciful, &>1 being read (K, B) in the sense 
of &j^ (K) by Nafr and Ks (B)] : and both are allowed 



'/»<i^ /A /-A^sce / AS/ 



iu l-JJ &**iM^ o .* aa Jl ^jl uX^J .4* Tfty service/ Verily, 
or Because, praise oiid blessing belong unto Tkee ; but 

Cf 

^1 is preferable, because multiplication of props, in the 

i 
place of praise and magnification is desirable, aud because 

non-restriction of praise is better than restriction of it. 
And J in j*)l tX J 15 ; [146], being with its 2 regs. either 

a subst. for U^tfM [ ^ J , like ^Jl ,>;! <J Jy! [1], or 

in the position of causation, is, if the causation be 
inceptive, pronounced with Kasr, as iu the case of the 
subst. ; but, if it be by subaudition of the J , with Fath 
(BS). 

§ 521. The J [of inception (SI, R, I A)] is prefixed 
(1) with ^ [only (M, K), out of all the six ps. (R), 
because it denotes inception (SI)], to (a) the sub., [when 
posterior to the pred. (IA), (or) wheu separated from ^f 
(M, IH), as l^y jtoH ,/ ^1 (SI, IA), III. 11. (498) 

27 a 



( 402 ) 

(M), and ^ji- ^ \fj Jo j\ LXVIII. 3. And verily 
for thee is a recompense not cut off (IA), by an adv. that 

s£A/ /A/ s Si 

is either the pred., as ,5^ Uud* ^J XCII. 12. Verily 
incumbent upon Us is the right direction ; or dependent 
upon the pred., as ^1* fjjjf ;W! ^ ^| (B)]: (b) the 

pred. (M, IH, IA), as ^13 1^3 ^j (M, R, IA) and J 

^yii! $lff XVI. 18. Verily God is very forgiving (M): 
but not];when the pred. is a [plastic (IA)] pret. not 
conjoined with J$ [604], or is negatived, [because the 
corrob. J is not combined with the neg. p. (R),] though 

[by Abu Hizam Ghalib {Ibn Harith al'Ukll (Jsh)}, And 
J know, verily salutation and omission of salutation are not 
alike, nor equal (J, Jsh)] occurs (R, IA) anomalously (R) 
in poetry ; nor when prefixed to the distinctive pron. 
[166] or postpos. sub. (IA) : nor is it prefixed to the cond, 
p. or n. containing the sense of condition, because the J 
and condition, both requiring the first place, avoid each 
other ; nor to the correl. of condition, because it alone is 
not the pred., but with the condition ; nor to the y of 
accompaniment supplying the place of the pred. : and, when 
the nominal prop, occurs as pred., it should be prefixed 

to the 1st term, as {& KyV l«±ij ^1 j and, when prefixed 

to the pred. beginning with the J of the oath, it must be 



( 408 ) 
separated from the latter, as uC?j fi^^ l** Uf ^1; 

A*/ xAf ' i 

j^U*l XI, 113., [the 1st J being subsidiary to the oatli 
(K, B), and the 2nd corrob. (B), i. e. And verity all (of 
them, by God), assuredly thy Lord will fully repay them 
their works (K), or the converse (B), and] the two 

J s being separated by the red. U (R) : (c) what is between 
them(IH), the [prepos. (M, R)j reg. of the pred., [when 

*h/ s 

intermediate between the sub. &ndpred. (IA),] as Wj ^f 

f 

% n ** // s t 9* b* h **> * * APS sfihts 

Jf\ oUUIol (M, R, IA), ^yfrH r j?/~ Ji ^1 l^J 

XV. 72. By thy life, verily they were in their drunkenness 
bewildered, and 

*A/ JAy A .* rt/ZrV ft S»S// tit St ?•*-*> S 

»■*• & &*** J™* J* * ^r '•*** J***- W J 

' ' ' ' . ' ( 

(M), by Abu Zubaid afla'S, Verily a man, wlwse love has 
purposely distinguished me exclusively of others notwith- 
standing our distance one from the other, is not unt hanked 
with me (Jsh): but only when the pred. is [such as the 
J might be prefixed to (IA);] not [otherwise, as when 
it is (I A)] a [plastic (IA)] pret. [v. (I A)] not conjoined 
with *» : [IM implies that the J may be prefixed to every 
intermediate reg., like the obj., prep, and gen., adv., and 
d. s. ; but (some of) the GG disallow its prefixion to 

§ r # * • £ Ay S 

the d. s., (75), so that you do not say i^TIj K*-^ !i*ij ^t 

(IA) :] (d) the pred. and [its prepos. (R) intermediate 

% * > It* * * * * 
(IA)] reg., [ J\*& *W J-»saJ ^f Fer»^ / by the praise 



( 404 ) 
©/ Qod am well being transmitted (I A),] which is rare 
[disallowed by Mb, but allowed by Zj regularly (It)] : 
this J ought to be prefixed to the beginning of the 

sentence, [and there lore to ^ , as *&' Lv} ^ (IA)]; 
but, the J and ^1 each deuotiug corroboration [and 
verification, and each beiug an inceptive p. (Li)], they 
dislike to put the two [synonymous ps. (IA)] together, 
so that they postpone the J (It, IA) to the pred. [&c] 

(I A), and put ^f at the beginning, because it is op. : some 

£ A St a/ / 5 * 

of the Arabs, however, say J5J-* J^y i-*^ [690]; and 
sometimes the [2nd] J is suppressed, which is rare, as 
^j^saJf JJs ^JU Jj» U« b V\ 

J / 3 // Ay A '•Si/ 

r*/ Li u J# j* LXi ^ 

[Now gleam of lightning upon the heights of the in- 
accessible pasture, verily thou as lightning art generous 
unto me (Jsh)] : and here S holds that the 8 is a subst. for 

the Hamza 0/ ^f ; so that, the form of ^1 being altered 

s $ 

by the conversion of its Hamza into 8 , the J may be 

a 1 
put together with it (R): (2) with J3 [529] (HI, LI), 

to the pred. (IA), allowed by the KK (R, IA), because, 

s 1 
as tbey say, ^i does not. alter the sense of inception 

[523], like ^ (R); but with weak authority (IH), 

because it dees not agree with the J , like ^f , in its 



( 405 ) 

sense, i. e. corroboration (Jm) : the saying [cited by them 
(R,IA)] 

// *** HI * / 9 9* 

S j* * * fi A 3 \/ 

***** l «**- m-» iJ^y 
* * • • • 

[Mine upbraidsrs blame me for the love of Lai Id. But 
I am broken from love of her (SM)] is (M, R, IA) 
explained [by the BB as anomalous (R), on the theory 
that the J is red., as it is anomalously red. in the enunc. 
(IA),] like 

A/sS/O Ax A 5-o ' s »' A//A / $ 3 // Us 4A^ ■&% 

<WjJl Jhso *sall| ♦* ij^/ * *^^" 3^?*** ^rA'^' (•' 

(R, IA), by Ru'ba Ibn Al'Ajjaj, Umm AlHulais is a 
decrepit old woman, pleased with the bone of the neck 

, aJ 

instead of meat (Jsh), and in tliepred. of ^^^ , like 

AP f at s s A • fi ss s s J ui/ 

*J\jju- cJuS - !yta» ^1?^ '^/* 

s 9 1\ // / Ki 9 9 a s / " 



(I A) They passed, making haste; and said, How is your 
chief f Then said they that were asked, He has become 

S A '• 

sore distressed (J) ; or as (R) orig. ^\ Sl^ , [then 
lightened by elision of the Hamza and of the ^ of *£f 
(R),] as J>; &UI ys> UXI XVIII. 36. [fl«rt J, /A« caw is 
this, God is my Lord (E, B) or But I, He, God, is my 



( 406 ) 
Lord (B)] is [by common consent lightened by elision of 

'* « ' . * hit 

the Hamza, baing (R)] orig. U| ^i (M, R), like i JJ^*y^ 
£»1 [569], i.e. l-^|" » 6f ^ (K): (3) with ^f , to the 
pred., [allowed by Mb (IA), anomalously (R),] as *#l Vf 

^1 XXV. 22. [518] but the case was that tiiey $c., 
[anomalously (I A)] read (R, IA) by Sa'ld Ibn Jubair, and 
*JU ££*«J &U| .(^ VIII. 44. And because God is all- 
hearing, all-knowing, likewise anomalously read (R), 
[both] being also explained by redundance of the J(IA). 

§ 522. You say J$ fo-ij ^1 «»*1* ; but, when you 

put the J , you pronounce with Kasr, and suspend the 

v., as LXIIL 1. [518] (M). In tin Jy»'j U$\ o^J 

* 
LXIII. 1. We bear witness, verily thou art the Apostle of 

Qod *%& is suspended, like is~*l* in (jjj ^1 us^JU 
JtSf . And you say J& l**i) ,J ua~J* [445] and og&f 
v^JfcJii Ijj^ ^ , though the pronunciation commonly 



obtaining is Fath in both. But «yi*$£ with the ^ may 

9 ft * § —ft # AV m 9 1 A $ 

not be treated like u^*l* , as *51aI \jh\ Jj o^I , be- 

§ • aSt * t a t 

cause the prep, is not suspended; nor is <***&>lo «■»! <*$£f 
JO uXJf^ allowable, because you couple the prop, to 
the single term (R). 



( 407 ) 

§ 523. Since the place of ^ and what it governs is 

the nom. (M), the n. coupled [to the position of ^f with 

its sub., as some, like (Z and) Jz, say, or rather, as some, 

s 
like IH (and IM), say, only (R) to the sub. of ^ 

(IH, IM), pronounced with Kasr, literally (IH), (as) in 

*A, f $ s # As 2 # t * $ • * A 5 At 

\y**) uJu>& \&i) ^1 and fa**.* V %^S\) \j£*> ^f or Jj 

* / Ci 

fujutw (M), or predicamentally (III), i. e. (R) ^1 (R, IM) 

' .3* 

after the mental vs., ^ being then in the predicament of 
yjf , because it with its sub. and pred. is equivalent to 

* * A , S 

two n*., the two oZi/s. of is^*Lc , as ,^1 with its two terms 
is equivalent to two ns., the ?nc/t. and enunc. (R), or J3 
(IH, IM), after the p. takes its pred. (IM),] may be put 
into the [ace, as !;**; ^l> U'j J, ^" I***; m' is-*k 

•' i ' * 

*A,, * /' § f AP # A, £ I * M* %hf t 

\r*y and fjJla._3 J 112 *- I/** ^ ^^ ^3 t -», being 

S 

coupled to the sub.: or (IA)] worn. (M, IH, IM), as ^1 

§Afs § *t/ * A* iAts $ *»• & Ar Si *Ar 

y ^ f tt f^j [538] (IH, ia;, ; ^ ^e 1^5 ^1 »*j* 

$ , , § , A» #A/ S I * r*t §As * 

(R, IA), and jJlij JllaU 1^ ^ Ut* j^j U (IA), 

being, [as commonly reputed (IA),] coupled to the place 
(M, I A) of the sub., because orig. a nom., as being an 
inch., which IM's language appears to notify ; but, as 
some hold, an inch, whose enunc. is suppressed, i.e. 



( 408 ) 

i_X)iif yj**) [or oJtL^ ], which is correct (IA). Jartr 
says 

Verity the Kkilafa and Prophecy are among them, and 
the dignities and pure princes. There is, however, an- 
other construction in it, of weak authority, vid. coupling 
it to the pron. [158] in the pred. (M). IFI is led to this 

elaboration by seeing S cite ^1 &y)) **[! ^ ^oSy 

* t 3 ,t t A IK*> / f» / i^ «J ,Kik/a m , K ^a , At a ^r 

XX t ' t ' 7S 

IX. 3. .4ra^ ara announcement from Ood and His Apostle 

to men on the day of the greater pilgrimage, that Goi is 

free from the covenant of the polytheists, and His Apostle,, 
i ,i i •* 

^lol being i. q. j.tt*t , and 
$ 

, t t t § tt hssir S$ 9, **>s 3/ 

V / / ' i 

[by Bishr Ibn AbiHazira alAsadl, And, if not, then know 
ye that we and you are wrong-doers so long as we remain in 
opposition (Jsh)] by assuming the pred. to be suppressed 

$ tt KShtt § fS Si 

from the 1st, i. e. &*; j&S) &l*> Uf , as evidence of coup- 

ling to the place of the s«fl. of ^! ; which citation, if ^ 

after the mental vs. were not in the predicament of ^jt , 

si « 
would not be correct : and some GG, seeing S cite ^f as 

3 9$ g 

evidence of ^f , say that ^,1 is unrestrictedly like ^f 



( 409 ) 
in allowability of putting the n. coupled to the place of 
its sub. into the nom., because they are two corrob. ps. 
whose o. f. is one, as ;;-*j *>$ \-H) ^ ^Q : but Sf 
and his followers, disregarding the citation of S, say 

that the n. coupled to the sicb. of j1 may not be put into 
the nom. at all, since the sense of inception does uot 
remain with it, but it with its regs. is reudcrable by a 
single n. in the nom., ace, ox gen.: and the view of Sf 

is correct : so that &J^-^ , as he snys, is coupled to the 

* A , 

pron. in s^tf , because the separation by the prep, and 
gen. stands in the place of corroboration ; or, as we say, is 

an inch, whose enunc. is suppressed, i. e. uXJJi* &)-)) > 

a« 
the prop, not being coupled to ^\ with its regs., but the 

j being parenthetic; and Jl U, as lie says, is prcd. of 

1*1 , while m> f*JI) is a parenthetic prop., [that we — and 
you are wrong-do rs — so long as we remain shall be in 
opposition (AAz)] : and, though such an explanation is not 
perfect in the saying [of Ja'far Ibn 'Ulba alllarilhl (T)] 

J/' f r" «£ J} y ; ^ 

J /A ? *^A^ A /«^> Zt , * 

■26 i 



( no ) 
because, j*JI C ~*<1> ,<wl «3 being coupled to <~ ; f 
l ^*~=em. if we made £M ^J ^j a parenthetic prop., V 
would be prefixed to a det. [^IJ wtihout repetition 
[100,5-17], still, if £N ^^k ^ ^; were related, tjio 

difficulty would be removed, £\ l>f Vj being inceptive, , 

and M reprinted, T/«'« deem thou not that I have cringed 
in i/our absence, for aught, nor that I am afraid of death. 
Nor am /one of them that i/our threat unsteadies, nor 
u:ri.'if am I distressed bi/ ivalking in the shackle; [but 

(lu- version in the T is ^2>o}j l y»iti ^1 tfj nor that wi/ 

.soul, your threat unsteadies /'/, nor that I am distressed 

3 i r, 

ffc] (R). And ^l is like J (M, RJA) in [allowability 
of (R)] coupling to [the place of (K)j its .v«6..(R, IA), 
contrary to llie opinion of some, because tlie sense of 
hieepl'nm nP.er it does not pass away, since the emenda- 
tion. [-">£-•] i« really a sense relating to what folluivs it, 
being the preservation of the preceding predicament , nvg. 
or aft'., from inclusion of the n. governed in the ace. fa/ 

^ in it. no that in j»<* Sy+* ^ o^j r& ^ yon preserve 
the non-standing from the imaginary inclusion of c Jmr 
in it, and similarly in JL» J \y>e ^ti 4>j fti (R). The 
ep., [as also the synd. espl. and corrob. (R),] is like the 
coupled, according to [Jr, Fr, and (R)] Zj, who thus 



V 411 ) 

Sth^ fit w / h^ * n, ai/ i ht 

explains v ^iJ I ^ Jalt oJA, ^ \ Ji XXXIV. 47. 

' ' / ' ' £ 

Say thou, Verily my Lord inspireth the truth, the mighty 

knower of secrets, [saying that ^jmM -He is ep. (147) 

■>* ' 

of J>) ; and by analogy the mist, should l>3 like the rest 

of the apposs. (II)]. In the coucord with the plac*. (M, 

E) thejwetf. must placode (M, III), according to the BB 

(R), literally, [as y^y f& !.wj ^1 (Jm),] or cous-tuc- 

£ 

tively, [as f$ ; ^ ; lj->j ^1 , i. e . f$ ;rC; jg |^j ^f 

t ^ * . /■ ^ 

.. «/ 4 A • • * A, J 

(Jul), so that l j'*to' •>»*; l-V.; ,3' is not allowable, bcicuise 

' ' £ 

two different opt. iiidjpendont in government would 
govern one nom. in ^UjU" ; whereas, if the pred. and 

enunc. were separated by a con., as #»l» oifcj !t*ij J 

i" " ' * ' 

*^*»j , the evil they mention would not come to pass, 

so that it must be allowable : and, when you make the 

pred. precede the coupliug, you giva the C3upled a pred., 

■ I , 4 A •/ if/ 9K.S 3 

expressed, as i_#J«f ^* c ; f'l» fjjj ^f ; or supplied, 

' ' £ 

in , , 4 ~s * a, 3 

which is more frequent, as *>**_? f'** f-H) ^ , which 
may not be a c-mpling of tiie single term, because Jtf 
is not a jjrerf. to tho two subs (.1):] contrary to the 

y ,./ $A,/> «/ S 

opinion of the KK, [Ks allowing ^^G ^**^ f-*.j ^ , 

3 ' ' * 

because the op. of the pred. of ^ according to him is 



( 412 ) 
what was op. of the enunc. (33) ; while Fr says that, if 
the inflection of the sub. be latent, through its being 
uninfl. or infl. with assumed inflection, concord with the 

place before the pred. is allowable, as ^kfcfo ^i^ i_X»f 

t t*s ih * s ***** 3 ' J? 

and ^^6 )T*y J&) &U because one pred. to two 
(subs.) different in inflection is not reckoned abnormal 
when the inflection of the ant. is latent, his opinion 

as to what governs the pred. of ^1 in the nam. being 
that of Ks (R)] : and the sub. 's being uninfl. has no 

effect, contrary to the opinion of Mb and Ks [nppa- 
iw /Si 

rently Fr (R)] on ^M u^l (III). Ka'b says 

JTTien /e< «ci what she has made J hoe uis/i, and what she 
has promised thee, </r.-p;.' f/w : »tn-^' [520] ukhes and 
dreams arc, or uifhcs — ontl c're>n;s (are so likwise)—are, 
or wishes {are misttadfaig) and arcams ars, misleading, 

wtere f.lkJ/} is coupled to the tub. of ^jf , and may be 
put into the rwm. If ycu soy that only Ks allows that, 
while his pupil Fr dissects troiii aim, requiring the inflec- 
tion of the sub. to be later.:, as jJ\ i_#f . and all the 
BB dissent from both, disallowing that unrestrictedly, 
I say that this is a position where mistake is frequent, the 
dissent being only wain: the pred. must belong to the 
two subs, together, as ^\ t»X : f : whereas jj*^ f«*j) „)! 



( 413 ) 
y^l^J is allowable by common consent, whence ^ji^M ^ 

ii*B t '" Ax t t Z r*> t X S Zi J* t ft t w^Ox * X «» 

t t X X 

f J>X A X A ■» XX A »/' § A X XX ^ X / XX i~AX= A'**'' 

..JjaaJ ^ y^ *$.vL; UJ7*- ^ laaft-a J-**; ^-^1 fj^'j 

V. 73. Verily M^y /Aarf believe, and they that are Jews, 
and the Sihaians, and the Chiistiuns, or Jews, — and the 
Sabxans {are in like cast) — and the Christians, or Jews, 
(those of them <$•<;.), and the Sibceans, and the Christians, 
those of them that believe in Gol and the last day, and do 
good, no fear shall b". fir them, nor shall thry grieve and 

f x A 'A 4 Ax 

Ka'b's vorse when ftt^l/l is put into the noia , since J-^*^ , 
being an inf. n., is predicable of one or more, the dissent 
being only as to the explanation of that (BS). In V. 73. 
[and Ka ; h's verse] (R) it is, [as the KK. say, coupled 
to the nlac of the «*';.: but, as the BB say (BS),] an 
inch, whose enunc. is (Lj suppi essecl, [because the pred. 

of ^ supplies its pine:.- and indicates it, the ^ in 

/ 9 iS *&t -PtAtAi^t 

^y^[-ai\^ (aud j.U^.1/1^ ) being p:ir.Mithetic, not copula- 
tive (R), (mid) the prop, being a pur. between the sub. and 
pred. of ^! (BS),] as in 

.» XX t 4 S'tt ui X > 3 Ax X xArf x A? ft A t t 

' ' x > t t t 

(R, BS), by Dabi'Ibn AlHarith alBurjuml, Then whoever 
has become such that /t£s aiocfe is in AlMadlna, 1 am not 
of his quality, for verily, I — and Kayydr (is in like case) 



( 411 ) 

—am a stranger in it (DM), i. e. iJI l& i_X^ ;USj 
(E), since tlie J is not prefixed to the enunc; (2) what 
follows, [jj/^J bsing coupled to it, and ^*\ g* their 
. enunc., and (B)] theprerf. of ^1 being suppressed, because 
the enunc. indicates it, as in 

/ y . sthj> S »s A/ Ax ,thZ, <u* & « / </ / 

[A/y two friends, is there a remedy? For verily I (am love- 
sick), and ye two, tlwugh ye divulge not the passion, are 

lovesick (Jsh)] and the reading ^jkaj &XXJJL*. &*J|^I 

^yJl^jb XXXIII. 56. FfriJ/ God (blesses), and His angeh 

bless the Prophet with &x£>lL» in the r/om., [which is plain 

s 

according to the opinion of the K.K, and according to the 
BB is by suppression ot the pred. (of ^f), because ^y^i 

indicates it (K),] i. e. jJ\ ^J"&t &W| ^ , since the du. 

and pi. are not predicated of the sing. (BS). And S 
[asserts that he (M)] iieard [the corrob. of the uninft. 

sub. of ^ put into the nom. before tho pred., and aimi- 

t 
larlythe coupled when the enunc. was not meant to be 

• s s s SsIkZ AJ3 *•■/*• 

understood, as (R)] ^,^'0 e) >**=?•! ^ an(1 £ J ' «- x; ' 
(M,R); which are extraordinary, but made partly allowable 

by the uninflectedness of the sub. (R). [Or] ^f in the 

sayings £M *-XJH and iJl *$>\ is imagined not to be men- 



( 415 ) 
tioned [538] (ML), because, the speaker's meaning being 

f hi A J> 

that of inchoation, he thinks that he said [is~JI and] <^> 
(M) ; or the nom. is appos. of a suppressed inch., i. e. «-X>f 

/ / % \t* /A? , SsSikflySu £ 

^Ulfclo jjJj oJI (ML) and ^f^ ft> ^ (DM). And 
he says ^yLUaJ?^ V. 73. is by hyst.—prct., as though 
^jLlal^ were an inch. a(ttr the pred., [^^LaH bDingin 
the nom. as an inc/i. whose enunc. is suppressed, i. e. yjf 

oCJ/ Verily tluy that believe, and they that are Jews, 

s 

and the Christians, those of them etc; and the Sibceans 
(are in like case) (iC, B), and being with its suppressed 
enunc. a prop coupled to the prop. iJl ^1 (K)]; and 
cites £*• Wj (M) in attestation of it, i. e. **j!^ ^m Uf 
Jdif (K). 

§ 524. ^f occurs as sub of these 6 p.?.. but must 



hi separated from them by the pred., as i_X»! ei**-* ^f 

$ »" ' ' i 

JG; and is a sw&tf., as THE. 7. [518] and XXXVf. 30. 

31. [445], 1$>I being a subs/.. for c ,^y^lLal| ^o^-f , and «$>( 

i ' ' i 

for UXiaj f . And in XXIII. 37. [504] ^J^> is 

A.*££ hfSi 

pred. of the 1st ^."1 , and the 2nd f&l is repeated for corro- 
boration of the 1st, because the interval batween [the 1st 



( 41G ; 

of (B)] them and the pred. is protracted, as ȤU~*sb5 UJ is 
repeated because the interval between ihe 2 objs. of M 

3 • A / 

^"'^ in III. 185. [131] is protracted; and like it is 
XL 22. [134]: this is Jr's saying, which is the truth. 

25 

And ^1 may occur as ],r,d. of the Gj?5., as 

' / " f ' i ' ' i 

[by Jarlr, Verity the Khalifa, verily God has invited him 
with a vestment of dominion : by him the ends of govern- 
ment are pushed on (X)] and 

,9 t iu **' £3 t *•» ' SS t 3 t ,*J> £ / A^> , , A ,, 

l^oJa^. J| Jou Ul etJi' lot * ^jiil ^JUaM ^aaJl J* aSi 

(R), by SahbiQ Ibn Wail, Assuredly the Yum&ni tribe 
knew that /, w/icre /*'# "After these preliminaries", verily 
I am Vieir orator (Jsb). 

§ 525. ^1, J, [ "J* (530) (<1,), and JS (532) 
(IM, Sh)] are contracted (M, HI, IM, Sh, ML), redupli- 
cation bsing deemed heavy in what is frequently used, 
by elision of their vocalized ^ , because it is a final (Sh). 

A 

The contracted ^t is (1) [prefixed to the nominal prop., 
and (M, ML)] (a) inop. (M, IH, IA, Sh, ML), allow- 
ably (IH, Sh), often (R, IA, Sh, ML), as U Jf ^ 
..j*aaa* tijiiJ £**=»» XXXVI. 32. And verily all of them 
shall be an assemblage [147] presented before Us (M, 



( 417 ) 

' A 

ML), U being red. for corroboration (K, B), whence ^1 

I • rA/y ." A/ St £ 

i&JL. I^aL: U j~£J J/ LXXXVI. 4. F<?»% every soul, 

oyer «7 is a keeper (Sh, ML), £l** U i_£Jj J*' ^1^ 

UijJl 8^3=^1 XLIII. 34. And verily all of that is the 
/ 

A 

furniture of the present life, and the reading of Hafs .J 
^^.LJ yj'iito XX. 66. Verily these two ore enchanters 

t t r 

(-ML); (b) made op (M,R, IA, Sh, ML) by some of the 

a i 
Arabs (M, ML), oftener than ^ (M), [but] seldom (FA, 

ML), as in the reading [of Nafi', Ibn Kathir, and Abii 
Bakr (ML)] g\ UT J, XI. 113. [521] (M, R, Sh, ML) 

£ $ /Sit *t>/ A 

and the citation of S Jl!^*J f^ ^ (ML): (2) pre- 
fixed to the verbal prop. (M, III, ML), r.:id necessarily inop. 
(ML), The ». [after it (M, R, IA)] is (21, III, I A', ML), 
(1) according to the B3 (R), one of the vs. prefixed to 
the inch. (M, IH) and enunc. (M, Jin), an aunuller (R, FA, 

A 

ML) of iuchoation (R, IA), in order that ^,1 may not be 
wholly excluded from its o.f (R), often a put. (ML), as 

• •• A 9 x/a£ * fi / s A • 

£*J& f>yS\ Uj^. ; ^ VII. 100. [440] And verify We 
found most of them to be transgressors (M, IA, ML), ^L, 

f / ft A • • ^ 

S^xaXJ i^JU" II. 13S. ^?fci ren'/y i£ was a great matter 
(IA, ML), and XVIL 75. [465] (ML); and [less often an 



•Ae*» • • • «*-P • A x 



at*. (ML),] as ^oUII ^ uXifejJ J XXVI. 186. And 
29 a 



( «8 ) 



verily we think thee to be of the liars (M, ML) and ^^ 



A * 



/ • S AJ/ f/S S 



J&jL^li U^joi^ \)ff ^jiiJJ ! olXJ LXVIIL 51. And verily 

' t t t t * 

they /hat disbelieve well-nigh make thee to slip with their 
evil (yes (IA, ML): which 2 sorts are regular (ML): (2) 
of another kind, [allowed by the KK (M, R), seldom 
(IA, ML) apret. (ML),] as 

# A// • Aft A t * * A 2 X 

lUttPAfO J*t fifi t At t A % t 

l3»*xa*)| &f*ii* i-^i"* ut-lafc 

[by 'Atika Bint Zaid Ibn 'Amr Ibn Nufail al'AdawIya, 
Tliy right hand wither! Verily thou hast slain a Muslim. 
The punishment of the wilful offender light vpm 
thee! (Jsh)] ; and [more seldom an aor. (ML),] as in the 

A t t t S f A t t 9 Aft t 3 t A 

saying &a^J y*J.'yJ& ,A^ i_X««£xJ l, Cuy ^f Verily thy 

soul embellishes thee, and verily it blemishes thee (M, R, 
IA, ML): which are not regular (ML). The J [G05] is 
inseparable from it (M, III, IA) in its enunc. or pred. 

A 

(M), to distinguish it from the neg. ^1 , (1) when it is 
made inop. (E, IA) ; though the J is sometimes dispensed 
with, if the [kind of p.] intended by it be apparent, as 



A S *e J> tf S A 



X/A^o • • A t t § t A /■ 

ft t t j. 

[by AtTirimmah, ^«<i we ore Me disdainers of wrong of 
the family of Malik. And verify our tribe Malik were noble 



( 419 ) 

of origins (J)], in full cJW , the J being suppressed, be- 

A 

cause ^f is not liable to be confounded with the neg., 
since the sense is off. (IA) : (2) when it is made op., if 

A 

confusion of it with the neg. ^1 bs feared, as when its 

sub. is uninfl., or infl. but abbreviated : (3) when it is 
prefixed to vs. ; though the J is not introduced in the say- 

^A/ sit <** / // A •£ 

i°g '>£*■ *W ^'fi- u)' W Now verily God recompense thee 
ttttY/t good/, because the neg. is not introducad in prayer 

A 

(R). And, wherever you find ^jl followed by the J pro- 
nouueed with Fath, as in these exs.^ judge it to be orig, 
yj' (ML). F forbids a pron. of the case to be supplied 

* A 

after the inop. contracted ^ ; but some allow that by 

A J * A S 

analogy to ^ (R). The contracted ^f (M. IH, IA, Sh, 
ML), which occurs after the v. of certainty or what is 
treated as such [52G], as XX. 91 [410], LXXIII. 20., 
V. 75. with the ind , and 

f,H ' / ' .» A a£ 

* fi ' ' ' 

[by Jarir, AlFarazdah strongly opined that (the case 
would be this,) he should slay Mirba % . Rejoice thou at glad 
tidings of length if safety, Mirba' (DM)], and is tril. in 
origin, [bil. in usage (DM),] and infinitival (ML), is inop.; 
but is made op. by some of the Arabs (M) : [or] necessarily 
(Sb) governs (IH, IA, Sh, ML) as before, though its sub. is 



( 420 ) 

suppressed (IA, Sh, ML), a [supplied (IH)~J pron. [ol 
the case (III, IA)]; and sometimes (III, IA, ML) ex- 
pressed (I A, ML), something else (III, I A) than the pron. 
of the case (IA, Jui), but still only a prim. (Ft, Jm), as 



<-• m *> Hf 



/' ' f / t 

J- * fits S / A? ft/ / *s 

JjU-rf» cJI^ Jasw! J L_*3Ub 

(M, R, IA, ML, Jm) And if it had been that thou in the 
day of plenty hadst asked me for thy divorce, I should net 

have begrudged it, when th.su wast true (J), and i»f| i_XJU 
[below] (R), anomalously (IH), in poetic license (R, ML, 
Jm) exclusively (ML). It is prefixed to props, [suitable 
for being expos, of the pron. of the case (Jm), unrestrict- 
edly (IH), nominal or verbal (7,1, Jm), whether their v. 
be prefixed to the inch, and ehunc. or not (Jin)] : and, 
. [when conjoined (Jm) with the {plastic (Jm)} v. (IB), 
contrary to the aplastic, as LIII. 40. and VII. 184. (497) 

(Jm),] has oi\ the j- , lJ^., or the neg. p. (M, IH) 
inseparable from it (III), as a [quasi-(Jm)] compensation 
for the lost ^, [aud as a distinction between the COU- 
tracted aud the infinitival ^ governing the subj., except 
in the case of the neg. p., which is combinable with both 
ofthem(Jm).]as[ f £) *JiL.) L/Lf oS J ^J LXXIL 
28. That he may know that (the case is this,) they have 
delivered the messages of their Lord ( Jm),] LXXIII. 20. 
[410] (M, Jm), 



( 4*1 ) 

, m S / Jj %* '*' A * *»**■* A/A,c JA • A/A-*/ 

(Jm) .4«d /fcnow thou— for the knowledge of the man 
profits him — that (the case ii this,) all of what has been 
decreed will come to pass (J), and XC. 7. [410] (M) and 
XX. 91. (Jm); and, [when prefixed to the nominal prop., 

IU • J> S A , A^o ? AJ> /s * 9 r-t 

has the prop, hare (R),] as [i_^ &U t**aJJ ^jl p&f^o yL\y 

*' * * * t 

S t *HrO 

>aJUM X. 11. (M) And the end of thtir prayer tcill be 
that (the case will be this,) they will say, Praise be to God 

f J> A / A-O Smi 

the Lord of the worlds, orig. £J| osbJ\ <si I , the/;ro;i. 
denoting the case, like (K)] 

J * A / A A*o *.»• >t ^A 

x * * / ' i * x 

.# /A// *li * h * 3j> 5 ,» A ? 

(M, R), by AlA'sha, Among youths like the swords of 
India, who knew that (the case was this, ) every one that 
is barefooted and every one that wears sandals it mortal 

j /IJ )»/ »( J »/ mi i A/ SZi 

<Jsh), and /jUaL» jj} ^1 dJ« , i. e. £Jf ^j &J| (M), 

• ****** hi 9 h* 

or headed by V , as u# ^^ V ^ c>**l* , or a cond. 

M *$ sAAsAsA£,»As 3 .» 

instrument, as &j^1 i-O^aj ** ^1 ex*!*, or «— n, as 
• * * 

A * S 9 A 5 9 A / 

J **ai. w-j) ^jl CS—J.C , according to the opinion of the 

A* *9 fi* A $ 9 A * 

KK, or *f , as ^ pM* **" ^1 vx-J* (E): ifspred being 
aprop. (IA, Sh, ML), (1) nominal, [in which case a 



( 422 ) 

si 

separative between ^1 and its pred. is not need d (IA), 
as X. 11. (Sb, J) ; except when negation is intended, in 

/ A ?/ 

which case they are separated by the neg. p., as ^ ^y 
2$> U| &Jf xi. 17. And that (the case is this,) there is no 
God but He (IA)]: (2) verbal (IA, Sh, DM), the v. beirg 
(a) aplastic or [plastic but (IA)] precatory, [whether, 
benedictory or maledictory (Sh), in which case a separa- 

a2 

tive is not put (IA),] as LIII. 40., VII. 184., [ J 

; ljJ ' J cT* ^>f- XXVI1 - 8 - That i the cas e « this,) 
Messed be He that is in the fire (Sh),] and the reading 

[of Nafi' and Ya'kub (B)] t&l* &Uf l _ r ~a£ A jL~, list J j 
XXIV. 9. And the fifth oath shall be that (the case shad 
be this,) God be wroth with her : (b) [plastic, but not pre- 
catory, which, as many say, must be (IA)] separated [from 

. £ Ax a/A / • Ay hi */ hss 

A (IA)]by («0 <■>>, a s l***** *>» ^ fl*>) V. 113. And 
we may know that (the case is this,) thou hast spoken 
truth to us-, (b) the p. of amplification, i.e. the j», as 
LXXIII. 20., or J^'as £\ ^\y, (c) the neg., 
[heard only in the case of J , jj, and V (Sh),] as 

4 ft f>/f • A/ A • A 2 * A •£ 

[LXXV. 3. (82) (IA), o^l iO* ; j*i J ^f w-^f 
XC. 5. DorfA he think that (the case will be this,) not any 
one shall have power over him? (Sh),] XG. 7., [XX. 91. 
(IA), and V. 75. with the ind. (Sh)] ; (d) y , [mentioned 



( 423 ) 

A/ b//i 

by few of the GG as a separative (I A),] as <±&. J*\ 

s ' 

A 9 / A s£ S**S s As A $ s A$ As A , A$h*£> S * s S S 

f a>LLw>1 ^i^j y ^| igijDj ^ „ i vi * .jjj 

f&.?<i J . VII. 98. And hath it not been a guide unto them 
that inherit the earth after its people that (the case is this,) 
if We tvilled, We should smite them with the retribution 



t J/ A^o * A : 



of their sins (IA, Sh) and S^y^! ^ l^-itiu-»! y ^Ij 
LXXII. 16. And that (the case is this,) if they walked 
uprightly upon the path (IA); (e) a condition, as J/ ^ 

*'*'*" ' •»'** i-° v~ AJ>A / - *J / A^> AJA,x 

Up* c j j>a^ // s * 

f&* \y±& U* t# IV. 139. ^(nrf J& hath revealed unto 
you in the Scripture that (the case is this,) ichm ye hear 
the verses of God disbelieved in and scoffed at, sit ye not 
with them (Sh) : but, as some, among them IM, say, may 
be separated or not, separation being better ; and occurs 
without a separative in the saying 



ft* Si A* A * • A/ 



Jj» Ja*i> jyu,* ^ j.3 * fjji»» u»Mi c) f '.J* 1 " 

[They knew that (the case was this,) tf/tey ore hepedfor; 
and they lavished, before that they were asked, a very great 

&w» (J)] and the reading idJ>}\ ^Xj> ^1 o!y ^jJ II. 233. 

For him that desireth that (the case should be this,) he will 
fulfil the time of sucking (IA) : not a single term, except 
when the sub. is mentioned, in which case both [prop, and 
single term (DM)] are allowable, and are combined in 



( 424 ) 

/ •«/» t St * /a • hi, § * $ As/ $ / / hi 

s / t * 

(ML), by 'Ainra Bint Al'Ajlan Ibn'Aniir al Hudhallya, 
That fliou art spring rain and plenteous rain, and that 
thou there art the support (JVii). 

mi 

§ 526. The v. prefixed to ^1 , unconnected or con- 
tracted, must conform to it in denoting verification [517], 
as ^*J| J»M p &1M J ^Jk; XXIV. 25. And 
they sha'l know that 6)d, He is the manifest truth and 

s , hi s hi 

XX. 91. [410]. If the v. be not so, like £*M , y^;f , 

* , i A ? 

and t-ifcM , let it be prefixed to the ^t governing the v. 

S/ , a s a i Shi 

in the «&&;., as XXVI. 82. [410], J^\ ^*hss3 ^J ^| , and 

$, , h s hi s ,i i ' s h/ / 

ls" s \S^ ts)' '""^ ' an< *> ^ equivocal, like u&~iiJ&, 



AS S As / 



t-^AM**. , and o*kL , it is prefixed to both, as ^f chaJLIs 

,»h t S Sh , ,-gi s *\ ,, hi 

jasw and e )=w uXil and £>==£•*< ^t , V. 75. [410] being 

$ ** hi 

read ^>fi> with the ind. and subj. (M). When ^1 occurs 
after *1« and the like denoting certainty [440], the v. 
after it must be in the ind., and it is then contracted 
from the heavy; and this i3 not the one governing the 
aor. in the sufjj., because this is literally Ml., orig. tril. 
[525], while that is literally and orig. bil. : but, if it occur' 
after ^ and the like denoting probability, the v. after 

A i 

it may be in the subj., ^ being held to be one of the [ps.] 



( 425 ) 

a i 
governing the aor. in the subj. ; or ind., .f being held 

to be contracted from the heavy (IA). 

a .a ,t 

§ 527. Jt is also syn, with (M, R) J*f (M) [or] 

f*> [556], and does not govern (R). And ^ is \syn. 

with (M, R), & dial. var. of (ML),] JJ [537] (M, R, 

ML), and governs (R), as in the saying i_X<! £yJ\ uv»if 

/• A* ' ' 

gfi&Z Come thou to the market : perhaps thou wilt buy 

* A fmr * sS£ H» * A * * i 

(M, ML) and the reading V cy/la. fof l$>( Sjx&j Uy 
^jji*^, VI. 109. (ML) ^nrf what maketh you to knowt 
Peradventure it, when it cometh, they will not believe 
in it, [as says Imra alKais 



r >A<* */ tr s/ into A/ 



(K) Tfern ye <mdfe towards the altered ruin : may -be we 
shall bewail the abodes, as Ibn Khidhant bewailed them 

(N),] l?J being Vead (K, B) by Ubayy (K); and Kais 

and Tamlm change its Hamza into £ , saying ^ 04&I 

^ii [580] (M). 

§ 528. The BB hold ^3 to be simple: but [Fr says 
a a 1 ' 

its o,f. is ^jl yj^, the Hamza being then rejected for 

5 ' 'A I 

the sake of lightening, and the ^ of j£ because of the 
30 a 



( 426 ) 

2 quiescents, like £Jf ^y (530) ; and the rest of (ML)] 
the KK say it is compounded of V , the red. v-£ , and ^ > 
iorig- ^ ^, the Kasra of the Hamza being then transferred 
to the lJ , and (LI)] the Hamza being elided (R, ML) for 

s I 

the sake of lightening (ML). *£J denotes emendation 
[523] (M, IH, IA, ML), i. e. removal of an imagination 
eugeudered from the preceding sentence, with a removal 
like [that of] exc, for which reason the disj. esc. [88] is 

SI 4 lis "~ s 

rendered by ^ ; so that, t^j ^^ Zaid came to me 
seeming to produce the mistake that 'Aiur also came to 
you, because of the fellowship between them, you remove 

that mistake by saying i jbj J \^a J3 but *Amr did 
not come(R). It is interposed between 2 sentences differing 
[629] (M, IH) in sense (IH;, i. e. (R) in negation and* 
affirmation ; [and amends negation by affirmation, and 
affirmation by negation, as ^ t*. \y>c ^i jjj ^Jils*. U 
Zaid came not to me, but 'Amr came to me and .y/k. 

£ * h, *A/ s ' in, ' 

Jfi f» ^ cJ? ^3 (M)]. 

<~ § h. 



§ 529. The difference is lit., [as £Jf oj\ ,*>/%. 

(528) (R)] ; and id., as f*'}& } JOULtf \^S ^\A J. 
J^, *Uf JJ ; r l/f ^ VIII. 45. ^«rf, (/-.He had shown 



( 427 ) 
them to thee many, ye would have become faint-hearted, 
and ye would have disputed one ivith another in the 
matter: but God saved, i. e. [but God (R)] did not show 
them to thee many [585] (M, R). It is not necessary that the 
2 [sentences] should be really contradictory j but it sufr 
fices that they should be somehow repugnant, as 6£f ^f 

* 33 A • * St»**l<i 3 I* 3^ ,, f,, 3* £ 

..Xij 1/ ~LU| JtTI J3. ~liJ| U JU« .Ji II. 244. 

Verily God is an author of bounty unto men: but the 
moat of men are not thankful, thanklessness being incon- 
guous with bestowal of bounty (R). The sub. is sometimes 
suppressed, as 

h3 * * f s ti i* £ I / / /• * n* * 3 hi / / If 3 k** 

g^»UU* *Aia* jyEuj uj^j * tS^'>* *=>»>>* tft*** us^W Jii 

• • • t / * • 

[by AlFarazdak, Then, if thou hadst been of the tribe of 
f>abba, thou wouldst have acknowledged my kinship. 
But (t'tou art) a negro, whose lips are big (Jsh)], i. e. 

* m >* 

lJ&Q) , whence the verse of AlMutanabbi 
* 

3*H* 3 A A»o 3 3 A / Aw 3 hS ** 

/ A/ s 9 3 A AJ A • £ ly 

* * ' * 

[ <<»«? / kk*a- no/ one 0/ //tern tcAo.se heart love enters ; but 
(the case is this,) whoso sees thine eyelids loves (Jsh)] 
and the verse of the Book 

3*S$ /«/ A A/ £3 S3 9* S>aS •*• x " A * j» 1/ 

****** * - 

[by Uruayya Ibn Abi-sSalt, Bui (<Ae case w this,) whoso 
meets not a thing that befalls him with his accoutrements, 



( 428 > 
it will light upon him when he is weaponless (Jsh)], the 
sub. not being «* , because the condition is not governed 
by what precedes it. The J is not introduced ia its pred. 
[521] (ML). 

. § 530. It is contracted [525] (M, IH). The contract- 

A I 

ed yjXI is [an inceptive p. (ML),] inop. (M, IH, fcJh, 

'a a? 

ML), like ^ and ^1 (M), as in the reading [of Ibn 
'Amir, Hamza, and Ks (B)] ^ illf St] VIII. 17. 
But God slew them (Sh), because of its prefixion to the 
two props. (ML); but Y and Akh allow it to be op. (R, 
Sh, ML), which is not authorized by hearsay (R, Sh), 
nor required by analogy, because its peculiarity to the 
nominal prop, ceases, as ^ j + l fcu ^ «»., fti f S^S ^Jj II. 

54. But they were wronging themselves (Sh). The y is 
allowable with it (IH), when contracted and uncontracted. 
Elision of the ^ of the contracted because of two qui- 
escents occurs in poetry, as 

* P t Aj / / r* » A t* 

/ * <» * 

A t * t *"t * t A A<*» / 1 

(R), by [Kais Iba 'Amr (ID)] AnNajasbl (DM, Jsh) 
alHaritbi, Wherefore I am not an undertaker of it, nor 
am I able to accomplish it : but give thou me to drink, 
if thy water be possessed of blessing (Jsh). And it occurs 
among the cons. [545] (M). 



( 429 ) 

S it 



§ 531. yjtf 16 a comp. p. according to most (ML). 
s , if 

The *S is compounded with ^ , as with fo and ^jl in 

*t A HI?./ & 

Stf and ^tf [226] (M). As Khl holds (R), [and] as they 



^/SM * At Stt 



say (ML), the o.f. of J—Vl IlH; ^ It is as though Zaid 
were Me /«m is twVtf' l^j ^1 Verily Zaid is like the 

lion : then, the i*J being made to precede, [from solici- 
tude for it (ML), in order to notify the intention of com- 
parison from the very first (R),] ^1 [in letter (M, R)] is 

[necessarily (R)] pronounced with Fatii (M, R, ML with 
t,s ,i, 

o~>! and ^—^ ) of the Hamza (M, ML), because of the 

prefixion of the prep. (ML), from observance of the letter 
of the iJ$ , because it is prefixed only to single terms 
(R); but in sense is as with Kasr (M, R), not becoming 
an infinitival p. by reason of the Fatha (R). The distinc- 
tion between it and the o f. is that here you construct 
your sentence according to comparison from the very 

first, but there after the passage of its first part accord- 
is s 
ing to affirmation (M). The lJ , becoming with ^1 one 

word, has no place, as it had when it was in the place of 
the pred. of ^ , because it becomes like a part of the p. ; 

it, hmit 

as the «-* of !o^ and ^V lias no place, because it be- 
comes like a part of the n : nor does it require anything 
to depend upon, as it did when it was in the place of the 
pred., because it becomes excluded by reason of the 



( 430 ) 
quality of part from its being a prep. (R). Zj and IJ say 

s i 

that what is after the i-5" , [i. e. ^f with its sub. and 
pred. (DM),] is [in the place of (DM)] a gen. by it. IJ 
says that the i-S is a p. not dependent upou anything, 
because of its quitting the position in which it depends 

/A A ««• 

upon ^)IX«.l/! , while no other op. is supplied for it, be- 

/ t 

cause the sentence is complete without it ; and not red., 
because of its importing comparison,', and his saying, 
[though improbable (DM),] is not more improbable than 
the saying of Akh that the lJ of comparison is perpetu- 
ally independent [498]. Zj, however, holding that the 
property of the non-red. prep, is dependence, construes 

the u* here to be a »., equivalent to J*+ : so that, being 

t 

obliged to supply a place for it, he construes it to be an 
inch.; and is therefore constrained to supply an enunc. 
for it, that is never spoken, nor is needed by the sense, 

, 9% lit s $t 

Baying that i-Sf*\ Wj u>^ & * s as though Zaid were 

§ ft t S »/ M S*l J« 

thy brother means Jtf lJ^) ^ XyL\ J&» The like of 
Zaid's brotherhood to thee (is existing). But most say 
that ^1 with what is after it has no place, because the 

lJ and yj! become by composition one word; which 
requires consideration, because that is the case in original 
composition, not in composition supervening in the state 
of att. composition (ML). And [tb.3 way of escape from 
the dilemma, according to me, is to assert that (ML)], 
as some say, it is simple (R, ML). lKhz says " Mauy hold 



( 431 ) 

its Harnza to be pronouuced with Fath because of the 
length of the p. by reason of the composition, not be- 
cause it is a reg. to tlie ^J , as IJ says; otherwise the 
sentence would be incomplete, whereas by universal agree- 
ment it is complete" : but, as above shown, Zj holds it to 
be incomplete (ML). ^ denotes (1) comparison (M, IH, 
IA, ML), prevalently, and by common consent, and, as 
applied by the majority, unrestrictedly (ML), whether 
its pred. be prim, or deriv. (DM) : but, [Zj says (K), (and) 

many, among them ISB, assert (ML),] only when its pred. 

i / i e * * at * 
is a prim, [substantive (ML)], as o—l fi*ij ^S , [con- 

trary to J£ W.3 ^ or ^JjJ| ^ or cJoi* or-^a» It 

seems, or Methinks, that Zaid is standing or in the 
house or with thee or stands, in all of which it denotes 
opinion (ML)]; and (2) doubt [and opinion (ML), when, 
its pred. is deriv. (R, DM), whether it be a single term, 
prep, and gen., adv., or prop. (DM), (as) in what we 
have mentioned, IAmb thus explaining ' /U4JU «_X5tf 
Jaa* , i. e„ J /Am& i£ fo 5e approaching (ML), by which he 

intimates that the ±S is a p. of allocution, and the w 
ra*., as will be mentioned on the authority of F (DM)] : 
(3) verification, as is said (R, ML) by the KK and Zji, 
who cite 
r i£Jb (q j-J j^IM JS * 1/t^S*. *£* Ja> ^c\i 

And the belly of Makkahas become trembling : verily the 
earth, Hishdm is not in it, i. e. because the earth, like 



( 432 ) 

fAk* /^ &=LJt &JjJj ^f s» m y \Ju\ XXII. 1. Fear your 

Lord: verily, [i. e. because (DM),] the quaking of the 
hour will be a great thing'. (4) approximation, as is said 
by the K.K, who thus explain iJI \-&$ Almost, or Well- 
nigh, winter is approaching, where, as F says, the lJ is 

S tt 

a j9. of allocution, and the ^ red. in the sub. of .15* , [the 
sense being The time of the approach of winter has 
become near (DM)]. Some assert that ^ sometimes 
governs the 2 terms in tbe ace, citing 

•£• 9 2/s t& $ * / /S •• X A /A£ Sits 

f As though his (the horse's) two ears, when he looks up, 
were a front wing-feather or a pen unevenly nibbed(DMj] ; 
but the poet, Abu Nukhaila [the Rajiz (ID)], is said to 
have made a mistake [533] ("ML). 

§ 532. It is contracted [525] : in which case it is 
inop. (M, IH), according to- the chastest (IH) usage 
(Jm), as 

£j> J>sAs A %/ AS.* A » A ,, 

J^ **** J* * ^ Jr 1 - J**; 

(M, Jm) Many a &mo»i brilliant in color, as though its 
two breasts were like two small round boxes (N, Jsh), 

y3J> 

orig. ^j)*** 3 - (N) : but [is made op. by some of them, for 

• 

(M)] a poet says 

i_jU. fil&> *4**.'oj c>^ * fc-""-^*M <■*•** &**£ ^ai^tf 



( 4b8 ) 

(M, It) A lion, that thou wilt meet on the occasion of 
wrath, as though his two jugular veins were two ropes of 

palm-Jibre (N); and another says ^^- &&t<J«2 ^ (R). 
When you do not make it govern literally, it contains a 
supplied pron. of the case, according to them, like the 

A $ 

contracted ,^1 : or it may be said that the pron. is not 

A 5/ 

supplied after it (R, Jni). The inop. [ ^ ] is followed 
by a nominal [/»'op.]» as 

■P t * J> t t /AJ> i tt A it eCi* s* t 4 tiS St ■ 3 %tt 

[by Mujamma' Ibn Hilal, i" Aaye prepared for him a long 
spear, and a javelin, as though (the case were this,) fire 
is raised by it when it is directed (T)] ; or a verbal; as 

A*A,o / ht A/ A it 

«~J/l> JJ J AS X. 25. ii* though (the case were 
this,) the seed-produce of it had not existed yesterday 

M fi£ tS fO / J X A s s A / A ?/• 

and £»l J^f oil [577], i. e. l« i»Jf j Jf ^ (R). 

a it a S 

When ^jtf is contracted, [what is necessary for ^ is 

prevalent for it (Sh), (or) it must be made to govern, as 

A t 

^t must be (K.N), (so that) its sub. is meant to be under- 

% Mt i At Hit 

stood; and its pred is & prop., nominal, as J& i*j£ JS , 

1 1 

A/ A/ «• / * 

or verbal, headed by f , as X. 25., or *» , as ^1 oil , i. e. 

A / / A , A its * * ' 

utJI ; oi' ^^ : the sub. of ^w m these exs. being sup- 

« («/ **£/ A/ JAS* 

pressed, the pron. of the case, i. e £*! oj.; &M . ^ &>U* 



w A/ .PA*/ 



£j| , and £M & &M ; and the prop, after it being itspratf. 
31a 



( 434 ) 

(IA)]. Its sub., however, is sometimes expressed (IA, 
Sh, KN), but seldom (IA), [though] oftener than the sub. 

A * 

of yjf , aud need not be a pron. (KN); and its pred. may 

<- l/A/ A ?• A/ tit 

be a siDgle term (Sh) : and hence ^S 5wjj ^JS , &*&-£ 
being sub., and ^12*. pred., of ^tf; which is also related 
*V>*> ^ , [the pron. of the case being suppressed (K, B 
on X. 13.),] i. e. &»tf , [the prop. (J)] yj&a. fcboS being 

' AS/ 

an inch, and enunc. in the position of a nom., pred. of ^tf 
as though (the case ware this,) j& etc. (I A). If it be fol- 
lowed by a single term, as 

t/ h 9 9 / A / tnt/hZrO , at t* 

A* A/A? • /* t t l\, \f, 

m *£* .jjifjl uwf3 tS^" uJ^ ,j}^ 

Wherein the hare walks, trailing her gut, as though (her 
belly were) a bally of a pregnant female, having two 
loads, bearing f.rin :,il.<- suppressed is not the pron. of 
the case, i. e. £tt J-*> ^^> JS (R). The saying [of 
Ba'ith Ibn Suraim alYashkurl (N, Jsh)] 

Ay S*« * t *** */l* ' «»/ 3 /9 t t ,9 + nt, 

is related with [ &£*£> in (R, Sh)] the worn., [as the jamf. 

*tit 
(Sh), y^w (R) thejprop. after it (Sh) being an ep. t and 

■ i t S * t\i* 

the sub. suppressed, i. e. k^b \$s (R, Sh), And one day 



( 435 ) 
she comes to us with a beauteous face, as though (she 
were) a doe-gazelle thai stretches its neck up to the leafy 

1 1 *A/ j/«/ 

tree of the **«« (N, Jsb) ; or ^»sw &**& boing a nominal 

*mit 

prop. (R), the o. f. being &S\$ , aud the pron. the pron. of 

the ease, as though (the case were this,) a doe-gazelle 

were stretching etc. (K on XLV. 7)] : and ace, [as the sub. 

si* e ti/ 

(Sh), by making ^JS govern (R), the pred. being jla*3 

as though a doe-gazelle were stretching etc. (N, Jah); 

t t #/»/ A St 

(or) the pred. being suppressed, i. e. iuloU &xJ£> ^tf 
SfjJ | &iib a* though a doe-gazelle stretching etc. (were 
this woman), by inverted comparison, which is more inten- 

A* 

sive (Sh)] : andgen., ^ being red. (M, R, Sh) between the 

.. '* " 
\J and its gen. (Sh), i. e. &&*&*" like a doe-gazelle that 

<* 
stretches etc. (R, Sb). When [the sub. is suppressed, and 

(Sh)] the pred. is a [single term or (KN)] nominal prop., 

it* t it St 

it does not need a separative, as [in the version &**£> ^ 
and (KN)] J&*- 8^ ,J$ : but when the pred. is a ver- 
bal prop., it [is always enunciatory, and (Sb)] is [neces- 

A St *t 

sarily (KN)] separated [from JS (KN)] by (J, as X. 
25. [and 

y S t" t * t A«« t ht h *t h* hSt 

S t tit «>»/ A// $** 



( 436 > 
(KN), by 'Amr Ibn AHJarith a1Khuza% At (hough (the 
case were this,) not a familiar friend was between 
AlHajun and AsSafd, and not a nightly converser con- 

versed by night in Makka (J sb)] ; or a» (Sb, KN), as iwl 

#»» A// A/ a;/' 

£M , i. e. oJlj &* ^$y , tbe v. being suppressed (KN). 



§ 533. ct-J denotes wish (M, IH, IA, ML), as VI. 
27. [2] (M), in the case of tbe impossible, [mostly (ML), 
as 

£ Shi" t*' ' */ »*/ *>*/ Si, t ,Z ^J , A, ff 

. -^ f e s J ' . .... 

(IA, ML), by Abu-1'Atahiya, 77iew, would that youth 
would return one day, so that I might acquaint it with 
what hoarinesshas done! (Jsb)] ; and possible (R, I A, AIL) 

§ r*r It/ /A/ 

seldom (ML), as ^G> l^j ux^J (IA). According to Fr 
(M, E, ML) and some of bis school (ML), it may be treated 
like ^i^l (M), it may govern tbe 2 terms in tbe ace. (R, 
ML), as^SG loe; c^a' (M, R), like U3G Jooj ^f 
J" wish Zaid to be standing (M), because, it being i. q. 

* AC// 

l-^Uj [516], and its oi/. boing the purport of the jpratf. 
pra. to the sub, j i t e, J^J j»l*S c^*aa.«J , it governs the 2 
terms in tbe ace, for the same cause as that which we 
mentioned for the mental vs.' doing so, [vid. that, " the 
2nd term implying the real obj., and the 1st being what 
that real obj. is pre. to, since U3G' 5»>j>; o*l* means 



( 437 ) 

kt t * * A /. 

i*ej jtU* u*-*k ,' the inflection of the 2 terms is that of 

the one «., vid. that real e6/., for which reason ^ , which 
makes the 2 terms constructively one term, is prefixed 

to these two terms"]; and therefore J& Ijjj ^ t=-^ 

occurs [534], as JG Joju J ct«*** does: so that aceord- 

ing to him it is like the montal vs. (R). And Ks allows 

t / / A/ • 

that by subaudition of ^JS (M). The poet says o*d k 
j>J| lS ^] |.b| [35] would that the days of youth' 
ful folly were returning! (M, R, ML), which is what has 
misled them (M); and Ibn AlMu'tazz founds his saying 

// * lift I* J * s / AS/ 

[A bird passed by tis a little before daybreak. Then said 
X to her, Good be (for) thee ! would that I were thou! 
fjoodbe (for) thee! (Jsh)] upon that (ML). But, accord- 
r g to the BB, [in the 1st (ML)' £f±l)) is a d. s., and its 
:>?;. (R)] the pred. [of us^J (R)] is suppressed (R, ML), 

i. e. ^"'^ **•' ; while Ks supplies ^jtf, i.e. C^f^) us-Jtf 
(R) : and the verse of Ibn AlMu'taz;'. is correct on the sup- 
position that the ace. is made to act as a subst. for the 
nom. pron. (ML). And, according to some of Fr's school, 
the retnaiuing 5 [ps.] may govern the 2 terms in the ace, 



( 438 ) 
as l«£ja* | ^***^ f^f )*> ^ [517] and j»l| 4u»ot ^tf 



• * A y . 



[531]: but the true version is ^f^ or Aq*. j*S ^ .f 

X A,, ' # 

^&xa«J ; and the verse was coudemned at the time of 
its recital (R). In the saying of Yazld Iba AlHakam 
[athThakaft (DM)] 

Then would that (thou), or (the case were this), thy good, 
all of it, were withheld, and thine evil, from me, so long as 
a quencher of his thirst shall quench his thirst (/row) [5 14] 

water ! the sub. of ui^J is suppressed by poetic license, 

/ tttt/ s * tit* * % 3^> * Uss 

i. e. lXX**» , or 6lS i. e. ^l^M us*aU , as in the saying 
[of 'Adl Ibn Zaid al'Ibadl ( Jsh)] 

** * t <u t SsAr° * A / / / a // 
t t> / ' b /* / / // / 1\ / 

Then would that (thou), or (<Ae case were this), thou 

hadst repelled care from me an hour, and we had spent 

the night, notwithstanding what it, i. e. the soul or the 

case, imaged to us, happy in heart! (ML). 

i * * a* s t / t\* 
§ 534. You say ^^ Ji>j,j ^ c^ Would that 

' I / tht Zi * t>,, 

Zaid were going out, pausing as upon ^li. I jj j ^ ^^J>i±> 



( 439 ) 

(M). ^f with its sub and pred. supplies the place of the 
2 regs. (R). 

§ 535. J*l denotes (1) expectation (D, M, ML) of 
something hoped or feared (D, M), i. e. (ML) hope (IH, 
IA, ML), and eager desire (R), of the liked, and fear of 
the disliked; and is peculiar to the possible (R, IA, ML), 
Pharoah's saying in XL. 38. [411] being said from 
ignorance or mendacity (ML) : (2) causation (R, ML), 
as Ktb and F say, when it occurs in the word of 
God, because of the impossibility of His expecting any 

thing not sure to be realized, as f&*l >#»M 1^**'^ 

* s hi 

ysaliu XXII. 76. And do good, in order that ye may 
attain felicity, which is not correct in JjJ i-^tw. U« 
±~*lf &«LJ! XLII. 16. And what maketh thee to knowf 
Haply the hour is nigh, since causation has no meaning 
here (R): many, among them Akh and Ks, authorize 

it, and thus explain ^ "- aa * y\ f&H &** IUI Vj> &J V JIj 
XX. 46. [431] in order that he may remember or fear 
God (ML) : or verification of the purport of the prop, 
after it, as some say, which is not applicable in XX. 46., 
since remembrance was not realized from Pharoah: but 
the truth is what S says, that the hope and fear belong 
to the persons addressed; so that J*f from Him is an 
inducement to ns to hope and fear (R), XLII. 16. and 
XXII. 76. Peradventure ye will attain etc. being a hope 



( 440 ) 

for the servants (M); while, [according to him that does 
not authorize causation (ML),] XX. 46 . Peradventure 
he will remember etc. means Go ye two in your hope (M, 
ML) of that from Pharoah (M) : (3) interrogation, as is 

said (R, ML) by the KK (ML), as jlLaJU K**)' jd Is 

Zaid departing?, i.e. uXtef yfc JJt> (R); for which reason 

/til i& Stss A • * 

the v. is suspended by it [445], as in&Uf J*J £y£ M 

#aS • I / *' * A •» ' 

\yt\ i_xij i**i vi-»j^Ku LXV. 5. TAow knowest not 

whether God will bring to pass after that a matter and 
ass *Sss , . t> » ** 
Jfjj &LJ u£j)J«i U^ LXXX. 3. .<4rcrf tflAa* matseth thee 

to know whether he will purify himself? (ML) And [Z 
says (ML)] the reading ^iLu'xL. 39. [411] (M, ML) 
with the subj., [as correl. of hope (K, B), by assimilation 
of hope to wish (K),] alludes to the sense of wish in it 

t A • 

(M), [and] imbues it with the sense of u^jJ . Some of 
Fr's school say "It sometimes governs the sub. and pred. 
in the ace; and Y asserts that this is a dial, of some of 
the Arabs" : and they transmit [on his authority (DM)] 
OiUaJU l-SI;I J-** , which is explained, according to us, 

by subaudition of y^-f.. ; and, according to Ks, by sub- 

» *> 
audition of ^^>. (ML). 

i ~, <s A/ 3 * i/r 

§ 536. Akh allows f$ \*>.) ^ J-** by analogy to 
ct*J [533, 534] (M, R). And [its pred. is conjoined with 

A i 

(I) yjl , often (ML):] a poet says 



( 441 ) 

[May-Se tfAow one dViy, a calamity may light upon thee of 
them, that will leave thee mutilated of the nose, i. e. abased 

(Jsh)] by analogy to ^^w: (M, ML) ; and some explain 

• St, A i /3l\i 

£*blj XL. 39. by supplying ^1 with £b! [538]: (2) 
the p. of amplification, seldom, as 

• / ># X A/ A S , A/ / • £•• & f £*t ,, , p, 

[And say ye two to her a soft saying. Mny-he she will 
take pity upon me from sighing and wailing (Jsh)]. Its 
pred. may be a pre*, v., contrary to the opinion of* II [in 
the D] : the poet [Imra alKais (Jsli)] says 

[.4/u/ / Aaf e been changed into a bleeding sure after health. 
May-be our fates may have turned into calamities (Jsh)],- 

and S cites <Jl \^ jJ! [516] (ML). 



§ 537. It has the following dial, von., J.sJ , j. c 
[the 2 best known (R),] ^ , [ J& , ^*; , ^ j (R),] ^1/ ? 
[iW, as £1 ^Oii iW *W (513) (B), ^*' (M),] and ^ 
(M, R); and sometimes the <a> of feminization is affixed 
to J*J [607], as in c^>; , so that o<A*J is said (R). Ac- 

cordiug to (M, ML) Mb (M) [aud] him that asserts the J 
32 a 



( 442 ) 
tobeaw#. (ML), J*f [or J*J (ML)] is orig. J* (T, M, 

/ 

ML) or J* (ML) augmented by the J of inception (M); 
but he that holds the J to be rad. says that J* 1 is the 
o. /!, which is the truth (DM). A poet [AlAdbat Ibn 
Kurni' asSa'di (Jsh)] says 

A / t/ fis $ •Si" • # A^ y / A/ a f xSx / xA,rO * 9 * 

&j»5^ 09 yBvsJt^ U^J £$" * y ^jl cjtfc jaJUM i; jA^ V 

[JDo noi thou despise (G14) tf/ie poor.* may-be that thou 
jjiayst le low one day, when fortune has raised him (Jsh)]. 

They [i. e. J*i and its deriv, (DM)] are i. q. ^-^ in 

'a a , 

sense, and i. q. ^J in government [513] (ML). J* with 

a* * , * a* 

^ imports i. q. ^g*-* ; but without ^f the act is nearer 

I, i 

in occurrence, because ^J denotes futurity (T). The 
subj. is correct in their correl., according to the KK, 
on the authority of the reading of Hafs in XL. 38. 39. 
[411] and 



[May -be the accidents of fortune or their turns will make 
us to prevail (over) the hardship of their hardships, so 

S A 

that the soul may find rest from Us sighs (Jsh), i. e. ^Ic 
aa /*» 
&JM (511) (DM)] : and IM mentions that the v. is some- 

a ss 
times put into the api,c after J-*f . when the tJ drops 

[420] ; and cites 



( 443 ) 

%>»/» A t A 9 ' *<o S rf 

y±&+ Si 313 * lXU OlftlM J*J 



* / /l\i& Av A 



' ' / • / f ' ' 

[Mny-be a turning from thee towards me is decreed : it 
will incline thee after hardness to pity (Jsli)], which is 
strange (ML). Nafi 4 Ibn Sa'd atTa'I says 

sC"$a£s/ a <• s */ * tSt fiih^ tt $s J> A ' • 

And qm not a frequent blamer of myself /or the matter 
after that it escapes me; but may -be m;y precede in 
realizing it before its escape ; the sub. of J* being uuder- 
stood, as though he said *oju] A JA*t (T). 



CHAPTER IV. 



THE CONJUNCTIONS. 



§ 538. Coupling is of single term to single term, 
and of prop, to prop. (M). Coupling [of two regs, (R)] to 
two regs. of two [different (IH)] ops. [with one p. (R)] is 
disallowed, [because tbe con. is like the op., and one p. 
cannot well be like two ops. (R)] ; except [where the gen. 
precedes tbe ace. or nom. in the ant. and coupled (R),] 

as in ))+* 8^»aaJ|^ tjjj Ji*Jl ^ [1], contrary to tbe 

opinion of S (IH, ML), because it occurs, [as ^ ^f 

A iS J>/ » »t 1/ x x AJ>A x<«x A*A-<=x x(S,e 

J'i^' //»{ XX /S>0/ A3 -"= / A,Ox ,99 Ax xiv S X 

&U| jp| U ; ; l$JU!j JudJI uiUXik ^ySy. r; aJ cybf &liJ 

x x ^ x '0'4p 

suir*> A xx x Ax x Ax x aSa^ x aSx A a »*X 3 fO X 

_bJ! tJjtjAflj^ l$>.,« u-v j*;^! ** V.^ j33) ut* -d****^-* 

x" x x x X XX rf X X X '""x 

X J A X Ax X** 

^jISxj j,^SJ eybl XLV. 2-4. Verily in the heavens and 
the earth are signs for the believers ; and in your creation 
and what He .spreadeth abroad of creeping thing are signs 
for a people surely knowing; and in the alternation of the 
night and the day, and what God hath sent down from 
heaven of rain and revived therewith the earth after its 
death, and the changing of the loinds, are signs for a 
people understanding, read hy tie two brothers {Hamza 



( 445 ) 
and Ks (B, DM) and by Ya'kub (B){ with the 2nd and 3rd 
ka*y in the ace, and 

s S S%/ / A • / '/ xiS A / * f t A/v 

1&}*«U L-fCi* y£& V) # ^6€^* «-^hV j**&** 

{by Akhzam asSimbisS, So Matf rffoir forbidden is not 
coming to thee^ nor their bidden falling short of thee 
(Jsh)j. Z, who disallows the coupling mentioned, meets 

the suggestion that in iSslIJ jo! y&\) Ufctxu*^ j~*£J^ 
U&JL, fjj jLqkiU XCI. 1-3. 2^ /Ae sun.-.and its rising 
light, and the moon when itfolloweth it, and the day when 
it display eth it !of is coupled to 13! governed in the ace. 

i * 

by {the suppressed (DM)} f «***! , and the gens, to 

ft 2 

j~*&Jf governed in the g-ew. by the ^ of the oath, with the 
reply that, the v. not being mentioned with the . (506), 
the latter becomes, as it were, the op. of the ace. and 

/ /■ A^> CS A^> .P a£ /• 

gen.; but IH objects against him jlfptt -.iaaJU **«>| U» 

/ Sss * a5 »o s t , a / • A3 **• 55 JA^s 

^^^ !o! £**aJ!j j**** lo! J*UI ; ^^JXM LXXXI. 
15-18. And I swear by the returning stars, running 
their courses, hiding themselves, and the night when it 
retireth, and the dawn when it breatheth ( ML)] . Coupling 
to two [or more (ML)] regs. of one op. is allowable (R, 

i J> s* A/ * $ t * A/ 5 * Ks $ A/ ••aJ 

ML), as ^^ !j* e ; L-^fcfj fjjj ^j! and lj*« wjjj j*f 

& *h9 & j s A/ fit* / tfA* 

IaUoJU IlSwm** JoJli- ^& ^ LJt&, f^X> ; but coupling to 



( 446 ) 
the regs. of more than two ops. is disallowed (ML). Cou- 
pling is not peculiar to m.\ but occurs in vs. also, as **Hj> 

a a tit, »h, / // $ a/ /*tf ttfs en* a a 

&*h) *i.) and 1--^;^ <*>j <*** and **j IwJj} i_ »>*e| (IA). 
The y>rei. is coupled to the aor., and conversely, as ^jitiHj 

s 15^ * sis * h*> * Sm/3 ' 

KjUlf |yif ; v UXJ0 ^yCM^j VII. 169. 4«d who hold 

Si 

^/a.*/ to the Scripture, and have performed prayer, ^f 
^y^o^y \)fS yjiJJ! XXII. 25. Verily they that have 
disbelieved, and turn away, and XXXV. 10. [404] ; and 

(1 t JAs J *As // $ A/ A •» As As 

similarly Ji>* jj>} u«Si Mj l^j w>*H> J and the converse 
are allowable (R). Coupling of the enunciatory to the 
originative prop, and the converse are disallowed by the 
rhetoricians, and IM, IU, and, as related by him, the 
majority ; and allowed by Sr, pupil of IU, and many on the 

S A.PA.0 m ,, 

evidence of II. 23. [514] and ^^pl y&iy LXL 13., 

•A A 2 fi 

[these being coupled to ^ifl&i *&***! II. 22. It hath been 

9 s § Ass ii*> s j As 

prepared for the unbelievers and *ft? £&y *Mf ^* y& 
LXL 13. Ye shall nave help from Ood and speedy tnctory 
(DM),] and of 

3/J A / A s /* A// 4s ssJ ,?' A/ "" S s 

Jj** ^ j^to ^ j^: j^j * &*^ 8ja* ^aa, ^ 

[by Imra alEais, yinrf verily my cure is a tear shed: and 
is there any place of weeping beside an obliterated trace f 
(EM)], 



( 447 ) 
y*l* *>\ v-jk ai* Iff j«s -cliu 

ft / * r * 

A X' A^ / «/ flu// 

[by Hassan lba Thabit, SAe soothes a young gazelle, 
i. e. £o#, o< Me door of Ibn 'Amir. And anoint thou the 
beautiful inner corners of thine eyes with collyrium (DM, 
Jsli)], and £M JJ^. &te' ; [29] (This is) Khaulan : and 

toed etc., the full phrase being ^f" &ifc according to S: 
but in II. 23. the sense is regarded, as though And they 
that have believed etc. shall have gardens: wherefore 
gladden thou them with the tidings of that were said; in 

/ 3 A3 

LXI. 13., says Z, the coupling is 'to ^^p LXI. 11. 
[1] because i. q. \<f-«\ , [as though Believe ye, andjight — 
Qod will recompense you, and help you —and gladden 
thou, (0 Apostle of God,) the believers with the tidings 

{of that) were said (K)] ; Jib in jJS J^» is neg., [i. e. 
and there is no use in weeping in this place (581) (EM),] 

/ 3 /A*0 .PA/A/O £ 3/l\3 A // 

as in ^f»M\ r; SJJ V\ uJ% Jg» XL VI. 35. And not 
any are destroyed save the transgressing people; 8j>2> 
^f» means Mark thou KhaulSn, [and wed,] or the i_3 
is merely illative; and i>JJ J-=a*\ depends upon consi- 
deration of the preceding verses, and perhaps is coupled 

/ * A /A«<7/ 

to a supplied imp. indicated by the sense, i. e. J J/ J*»G 



( 448 ) 

A m // 

J^f) (Then do thou likewise,) and etc. (ML). Coupling 
of tbe nominal to the verbal prop, and tbe converse are 
allowable [unrestrictedly, say some (ML)]; but with the 
j only, says [F, as reported by (ML)] IJ (R, ML) : and 
disallowed unrestrictedly, say others, IJ being reported to 

S A iu 

have said that L yy^\ in 

A t S A hi *>/ S / A?A,« t , t y Ay ' fi ,s SiirO , y / 

ft * 

[God gave her in compensation a hoy after that the locks 
hanging down over the temples were hoary, and the tooth 
decayed (Jsh)] is ag. to a suppressed [t>.] expounded by 

S A iv *> y /y 

the mentioned [i. e. j-^'l <J*>j (DM)]; which is the 
weakest of the thrOe sayings (ML). Coupling of the 
single term to the prip. and the converse are allowable, 
when they become homogeneous by paraphrase : but cou- 
pling of the prop, to the single term is better than the 

% / a sit / st s t./t 

converse, so that *d/ »j>f; «-«*;&» d^-f. &)y* is better 

' "' S> ' !» ' 

t t § t S Si St 

than *-Hy«) rif *}$ J^i-f. 5 especially when the prop. 

' ' * ' 4 tt S ti tSI\ 

and single term are eps., so that U&.I;; i-itM i_XXia. and 

%,,,%,/ si $h k t * si st 

&L vfi.. o*T lfi>»>1 im2> are not so bad as *>.f Sj>| J^-yi 
lJjjA. (R). Coupling of the v. to the n. [resembling the 
v., like the act. part, and the like (IA),] and the converse, 
[vid coupling of the n. to the v. occurring in the place of 
then. (IA,,] are allowable, [when the n, contains the 



( 449 ) 

sense of the v. (R),] as in ['Asim's reading -U-eVl Jto 
* * * /« a^ * * / * f £ ' 

U*-* J&W J**j VI. 96. He kath sundered the bright gleam 

of the dawn from the darkness of the night, and made the 
mg-A/ to fe c source of rest, i. e. _U-fllM ^U , and similarly 
c yAjSjj cwGLp LXVII. 19. Spreading out their wings, 

* t AS ft t f» /\f , Site's 

and drawing them in, i. e. ^^i, (R), tsw-d cy|^*Jl> 
***> *> .a^G C. 3.4, ^4nrf whose people mc^e a sudden 
raid at daybreak, and that stir up dust therein, [\. e. J>Wy 

/ bsls /«/ his thtt $/Ki/ sviUfih^/ t w 3 «A^> 2 

u))* 1 *^-^ 1 * i^ 1 ** ( K )»} ^/b uf^j-flJl. ^S^^aJf .f 

• JU» ' ' " s 

6lff LVII. 17. Verily the men that give alms and the 

a 
women that give alms, and lend unto God (I A), i. e. ^t 

(R, IA) He spent the night making her sup, i. e. smiting 
her, with a sharp sword keeping to the right course within 
her shanks, and going astray therefrom (J), i. e. )f*HA 
(R), and 
|jjI*J( "LsaX^j {Mae fa*) # BjtJ^ jX*j» UjJ» &AAflJ(* 

(IA)T ^inrf I found him one day to be destroying his foe y 
and granting a largess requiring to be carried in boats, 

put 

properly kfp« (J)« Coupling is (1) to the letter, theo:/, 
33a 



( 450 ) 

* // rrt i A/ t ht 

as iJ^G V . JGu uj} j"^ ? tne condition of which is the 
possibility of the op.'s governing the coupled, so that ojj 
in k*i] ^j *^i .^r* lJ*^ *■* mnst he in the nnm. as 
coupled to the place, because the red. ^» does iit.t govern 

dt'te. : (2) to the place, as fo^=l* Uj f$& i*ij j-*'. which, 
according to critical judges, has three conditions, (a) the 
possibility of its [i. e. of that place's (DM) J appearance 
in chaste speech, as in this ex., where you may drop the 
»_j and use the ace. ; but the op. need not bo literally 
red., as last exemplified, on the evidence of 

4 * / * ti * .PA A / t\t A s 

[by Labid (Jsh), jTA<?h, ff efow /nrf ho* /rom 6<-/ow 
l Adnan a progenitor, and below Ma'add, let the cemurers 
restrain thee from boasting (DM)] : (b) originality of the 
place, so that &*M; \<s*j ^>sU> JJjd is not allowable, 
because the ywa/. fulfilling the conditions of government 
is orig. op., not pre.; but the Bdd allow it on the 
authority of 

A •» A/ A A 2<0 * / 3 m * * 

e^* 4% ur* f 3 * 1 " ^ J^»* 

S ' * / A3 «v/ / > 



( 451 ) 

[by Imra alKais, And the cooks of the meat spent the day, 
some dressing slices of broiled meat laid upon live coals, or 
dressing boiled meat cooked in haste (EM.)'} : (c) existence of 
the requirer of that place, so that the following are diaal- 
lowed, (a) ^UJlS y^^ \^ f t because the requirer of 

the nom.. in iJJJ would be inehoation, i.e. denudation 

[24], which has ceased with the prefixion of ^t ; (6) 

))**) f& f jjj Jl [523], when you construe j;** to be 

coupled to the place [of \±*j (DM)], not an inch., 

*, j> , ' i 
though some of the BB allow this ; (c) jj j v_/;t^ !«ifi> 

4**f $A r / A/ » A/ /• * i\$ fiS/t 

Sy*y and (d) )?>*<) •>?.; v/"* (jM? 5 *! or S^y [accord- 
s' t A , ' A, 

ing as you consider ^y* to he pre. to i*ij as its ag. or 
obj. (DM)], both disallowed by line scholars, because 
the n. assimilated to the v. does not govern the letter 
[of the ant. in the ace. or nam. (DM)] unless it b^ svuar- 
throus or pronounced with Tunwln or pre. [to something 
else (DM)], but allowed by some on the authority of 

fi / A fi ftthjl/ /AS t"r * t r a3>*> 3 ft 

UU-a. j*2Hj j-^AJI^ UX*, J4J| J*U ; VI. 96. And the 

maker of the night to be a source <f 'rest, and the sun and 
the moon to be signs of reckoning and 

/ S s 9 fi * s h f ***** t s 

s / f s A/ A * A £ h f htt 

[ 7%ow lovedst praise, pleasant, renewed ; so that thou wast 
notfree from preparing of glory and supremacy (Jsh)]: 



( 452 ) 

/ / / *<"#}»<• 'A' 

(3) to the imagination, as i>*S lfj U5S *>„') jr^ . which 
is allowable upon condition that prefixion of the imagi- 
nary op. be correct, and is good upon condition that its 
prefixion be frequent; so that j& ^ J l*i [426] and 

[ The wary, sturdy man is not bold in attack, nor valiant, 
if he be not a subduer of passion with rectitude ( Jsh) ] 
are good, but 

JUL* ($>£ A*i* V. # *gx» ^^ to cfc*tf U* 

[.4nrf 7 was wo4 an author of tale-bearing among them, 
nor a mischief-maker among them, slanderous (Jsh)] is 
not, because the t_> is seldom prefixed to the pred. of 
^ , contrary to the pred. of j^fi and U [503]: this 
coupling occurs in (a) the gen.; (b) tlje apoc, as Khl 
and S say on the reading of all but Abu ' Amr in LXIII. 

10. [426], the sense of J^l* JZfA Ify and JZfA ^ 
* s a? t ' ' & 

^1*^1 being one, while Sf and F say it is a coupling to 

the place of Jo-al* , as all say on the reading of the two 
brothers [Hamzaand Ks (B, DM)] in VII. X85. [1] with the 

apoc, both of which sayings occur on £jf ^^ [426] } 



\ 453 ) 

A*S 

(c) the nom. t S saying that some of the Arabs say rffi 

/#//#/* Jl s * 9 Ay/ /i 

cJj* 2 ^ u),?**^ an<1 u) 1 **^ ^h "-^ [523], because, 

y / y £ 

the speaker's meaning being that of inchoation, he thinks 
that he said f> [and utJf ]; (d) tbe ace, Z saying on 

y ,»A/ y I A «»,/ A y ylA / /A £ // 

V^**i J 20 --' ■*!;; ^*j J 3 **"' 1 * ^U^Lai XL 74. ^t»i We 
gladdened her with the tidings of Isaac and after Isaac 

y -PAy // /Ay// 

Jizcofi " read with «— >j**a in the ace, as though (gf Uu&ij 

«» A / y I A 

^J| £*y 13*****' were 8a ' < i" i ( e ) tne *«fy'-> as in the read- 

» A*y 

ing fyufei*A» LXVIII. 9. [417] and they then deal gently 

' y AJ> A t ■&, 

in accordance with the sense ^^ ^Ji \y*y [571], and, 

/ S?/ 

it is said, in £*Ieti XL; 39. [411] and ascend, coupled 

/J>Si A i wy/ 

to the sense £*j! ^ ( J^i [536] ; (f ) composite express- 

AJy 9/ /u)/J> / yw.'O y Al A? /« A / 

ions, f*%*J. «wl^4 -kyi J«ri ^1 *3y -•« XXX. 
45. [And of His signs is that He sendeth the winds, that 
He may give you glad tidings of rain, and that He may 
make you to taste (K, B)] being said to be constructively 

w AS /us* A? / S//AS, 

^Jf J^UaJ, According to the BB, such as £ uXL*jlV 

uj y / A/ 

Ja. J^aJu Assuredly I will keep to thee until thou pay 

y / / 

me my due is a case of coupling to the sense, since the 

AS 

subj., according to them, is by subaudition of ^f , which 
with the v. is renderable by an inf. «. coupled to an 



A?/ 



( 454 ) 

• A iff t t hi m i PP St Pt* 

imaginary inf. n., i. e. i-XU iU» £ ^-» {•$ ^^ 
Jjeal, whence XLVIII. 16. [415] in Ubayy's readiug 

' ' . tt m t Pt t &r t 

with elision of the ^ ; and like it is 'U3a»X» ILJG U 

% t t % • * /A 9 9 , t P t t hP bt t 

[411], i. e. tS^.vMBi» ^LJ! uOU ^yo U . In K*~ J^C V 

a*t ti> tt. £ 

ULJ v^j) [416], if you put the apoc. t the coupling is 
to the letter ; and the prohibition is from each of the two 
[acts] : if the mbj., the coupling, according to the BB, is 
to the sense ; and the prohibition, according to all, [BB 
and others (DM),] is from union [of the two acts], i.e. 

Jt ft 9 tt 1 1 stii / K h 3r t 

•J *_>)£ £<• xX*-' Jf\ «-XU ^i, V , [while separation is 
allowable (DM)] : and, if the ind. [539], it is commonly 
reputed to be a prohibition from the 1st and allowance 

sSsO 9 h 9 f ,, 

of the 2nd, the sense being ^i\ »_>>£ t_dj , because, it 
being an inceptive [prop.], the neg. p. is not directed to 
it ; while BD says that its sense is like that of the. con- 
struction with the s«5/., but that it is after the manner of 

fcxUj «_>ySJ ufrJlj [416], as though he construed the j 

to belong to the d. s., which is improbable, because of 

its prefixion in letter to the off. aor. [80], and moreover is 

contrary to their saying; since they assign to each mood a 

[different] sense (ML). The coupled is in the predicament 

of the ant. [with respect to what precedes the ant., not 

p th, 
with respect to the ant. itself, { for which reason t^-J&iyi 

£H (112) is weak (R), provided that what requires the 



( 455 ) 

at / * 

predicament be not absent in the coupled, as in J^j b 
\&j)teAI) , where v*>^b=J| is not in the predicament of 

a / 

J«*) as to its being denuded of the J, because what 

a / 

requires J^.) to be denuded of the J is the combination of 
the J and voc. p i} which is wanting in the coupled (Jra) j ; 
or with respect to the ant. itself and something else, if 
the coupled be like the ant., for which reason the coupled 

an// an/ / 

must be unin/l. in ))+*) <H) *■£ (49), because the 
Damm of the voc. is with respect to the voc. p. and to 

if° / n/ / an/ / 

its being an aprothetic det., but not in *JJ| t***j ojj b 

§ n / i / // *•, § t. / t 
(R, Jm)] : and therefore in jj** u-^&lo V. Jlib ^j U 

" r- § * 

or U»b only the nom. is allowable [in v-^13 , {as prepos. 

in, ' ' 

enunc. of )y** (Jm)}, the prop, being coupled to the 
prop. (R, Jm), not the pred. alone to the pred., because, 
while ^>& or Lib* contains apron., as being a deriv. pred., 

U, *' ', 'U/ t / a , S, 

3) +e c^afj or ;> ** Lfcfo does not (E)]; and ji^^f 
^![27, 540] is allowable, only because the ci is illative 
(IH), not copulative (R, Jm), says IH (R), or illative 
and copulative, but making the two props, like one, so 
that the cop. in the 1st is sufficient, i. e. What files, 
so that, or and consequently, Zaid becomes angry, is the 
fiH (Jm). Difference in inflection is allowable when what 
is meant is known, as 



( «6 ) 

* * t tlf t /A t t l\l° t // ll// 

a $ t a hi & t h a £ thio f 

$ S / J> A , , A, 

£88], U >lre \« being a syllepsis, since the sense of ^ J 

C/ A » S j / «* u «/ « /'A/A/ 

IXsa-** If | is ia^s*»* Vf 8 ; ^a. ^ ^ J (R). What is 
not pardonable in firsts is often pardonable in seconds: 

/A t t ft t t ^ t £ a 

hence &y±l l$*i=o*«j 8l& Jf Every sheep and her lamb 
arefv'a £k m , ' 

t / / t A$ tmt A • tt S ft 

[And what youth of war art thou, and neighbour thereof f 

it St S a 

(Jsh)], *#M<> J^o »rO Many a man and his brother, 
* f * 

A S s* 0tM <»»/ £ /■" t A A// A m/fi i-tt A 

and uUfcw &j! jUJf w. r &k JyJ UtJ .f XXVI. 3. 
If We willy We will send down upon them from heaven 

t ts t S a 

a sign, and etc. [449]; whereas t gflfa w Jf is not alio w- 

t t S$ is* * * %ht hat a 

able, nor Ub *ta. »f , nor 8*M *_>> , nor *S *h\ A. „»! 
%*> ' ' ' ' . * 

))+* in the correctest [opinion (DM)], except in poetry, 

as 

e t* s * t 0t a s h t h 

t t ■ % 

a*t t a atht tt mt 

\y&0 {M*0 £* \f+"**l Up ^ 

[by rla'nab Ibn Datura, If they hear an evil opinion, they 
spread it abroad joyfully as from me} and, whatever they 



( 457 ) 

hear of good, they bury (T)], since J^ [meant to denote 
totality of the individuals (U7) (DM) J and ^1 [116] are 
not pre. to a det. swig., and %—>) governs in the gen. only 
indets. [505], and in prose the v. of the condition in not 
an aor. T»?hen the correl, is a pre*. [419] : and the poet 
[AlA'sha(Jah)] says 

;»// Ax A«« * St/ »/»/ A 

UjoU JaskiM ■—'jO' b^)" 1 c>' 

S a i / K s 3 / / 4 «/ A? 

[If ye ride to fight, //te riding of horses is our wont ; or ye 
alight from your horses, verily ws are a band oft alight- 

t 9 Ay A.»A? AC 

««§■ (Jsh)], meaning, says Y, ^^ j»^t ;' , and cou- 
pling the nominal to the cond. prop. ; apd they say «y^ 

A • • f $ • /£ **s S s 

oo^la M sf^l JS J.=»jj I passed by a man whose parents 
were standing, not sitting, whereas Sf^f «**£ V *a«$Ij> is 
disallowed (ML). What is coupled by the y [530], the o , 
-? , y , or W may precede the an*, by poetic license, pro- 
vided that (1) it do not precede the op. : for which reason 
it does not precede (a) a reg. whose op. must be understood 

t m t 'ilia's f A f ' jl// 

or attached to it, so that \*Sb\ i*»Vfj [60] or ct^yo o*>j^ 
ut-J| [158, 163] is not said; (6) an mc/t. whose enunc. 
hposfpos., whether preceded by an annulling p. or not, so 

/ »/ 9*/ *A// S , ,, \D, i l\y i A/ / Si 

that ^UG ! J{j f;*«; ^ or J«lkuL*» ojj ;;**; Uf is 
34 a 



( 458 ) 

not allowable: (2) the ant. be not conjoined with Vt 

or what is in its sense, so that ^y* V\ uw. jj ^ its. U or 

2y*e kjj»j^ lS^^ ***' IS notaa id- Every pron. relating to the 

' £ c * 

n. coupled by the j or ^a. together with the ant. agrees 

with them both unrestrictedly: and u-^fcJJI ^'y&i. uji^'i 
, , t f,» ,, ,_ a a,o, ' ' 

l^j^iiib lf^ &aaM^ IX. 34. ^«rf Mey that treasure up 

s s 

gold and silver and expend them nnt means and expend not 
the treasures ; while Xy&)i ^ Jj=»-! My)) & Wy IX. 63. 
And God and His Apostle, that they should please Him is 
worthier [571] means should please one of them, because 
pleasing one is pleasing the other. As for the tj and J , 
if the prcn. be in the enunc. of the coupled together with 
the ant., some say that the enunc. must be suppressed 
from the 1st, as *>$ ^y* f <JJj , or 2nd, as ^p*) ^6 ojj ? 
but the rest allow the pron. to agree, which is the truth, 

as LIS yp* f '***') '• an< ^' ^ not ' n tutJ emine - mentioned, 
the pron. must agree by common consent, as ojj J/L, 

,tt s hs/ 4*s, s fi I As nS ti£ ' 

Ugj oJ*» ;>*« . And as for V , ^i , J* , ^ , y , and 
LI , the pron., if you mean one of them, which is necessary 
in predicating of the coupled together with the ant., must 
he «»£., as ^Aj- ^/** ^ **»> an d in the non-enunc. 

&X*yG *^»i: ^£J l>jj • J-Jfe* L ; and, if you mean both of 



C 459 ) 

t ,\t file's 4 t AS 8 * h St h 

them, must agree, as U# JJ &UG JwJii .! Uii >& ^l 

IV. 134. If he be rich or poor, Godis nearer to them, i. e. 

t t 
to the rich and poor together, Ibe pron. being sing, hi jjfj 

• Ay S/M f'A.f ft? £• • Kit * 

IgjJI l^o&f J^J y s^tsw fy^ LXII. 11. ,4/id, tt'/*e« */*ey see 

merchandise or sport, they disperse to it only because relating 

to tbe &i)) sight: but the du. in the pron. relating to tbe 

a? 
«. coupled by y together with the ant. is not disapproved, 

a£ 

even if what is meant bs one of thetn, because y , being 
often used in allowance, where the 2 .matters may be 
united, becomes like the j [5433, for which reason 

£// stht t hi m t /t 

S £ *> £/>>*>* t S 3/Ks hi 

[by Abu Dhu'aibalHudbali, And it, i. e. the cane, was this, 
that they should not turn out camels to graze and that they 
should turn them out in it were equal ; and the regions were 

3 S t A st 

dust-colored (Jsh)] is allowable, properly v^.^^ (ft). 
The ant. is sometimes suppressed (R,IA, ML), beeau&o of 

A / • /A-«V tt t A^J t t t A A 

indication (IA),as u^jsa&l* jsmrM u^Uaau ^y*\ II. 57. 
<S2n£e thou with thy rod t lie stone. {And lie struck), and there 

S s * / +h# *** A .0/ Ayy£ 

gushed out, i. e. <— » v^5 (ML), whence v _ s *^ ^yy ^*S J*\ 

t ' 

n*A/^ 

*£*** XLV; 30. (I A) What.' (came not Mine Apostles to 
you,) and were not My wonders wont to be rehearsed unto 



( 460 ) 

r, htt as sp %■> s,i 

you?, i.e. £l\ ^ J* } ^b ^ [581](K,B): [especially] 

„ is,, ,, 

after Jb , etc. [556], as yy**) ^> Yes, (Zuid ha* stood,) 

is,,, „ 
and '•Amr in reply to " Zaid lias notstood," i. e. i>i) pi* ^i 

is,, si 

)***) 7 but not after the ps. of assent when the con. is J 

3 AS I 

or U| , because the conj. j»| , which is the co". [543], must 

* 3 S 

be preceded by the Hamza, aud U| by another M : and 

\ * * 

r>t ,n,r» i , , i a a£ 

sometimes when coupled to by j.1 , as s^S ts-Jt» ^2> ^*S 

JjJJ! XXXIX. 12. [(/* the unbeliever better,) or he that 
* is , * ,si 

is devout in the hours of the night? (B)], i. e. )*£- ;»Wf 

M Si ' 

£j| j.1 (R), and, it is said, III. 136. [410] {Have ye known 

si 

that Paradise hath been beset by things misliked,) or etc.fi ^ 

e* si , ,s,o A 3 1 ,Z > SJ> 2 i StS ,t 

being conj., i. e. i»M j.1 «y£JU .^ia. &L»J| ^j! *XJU! 
(ML). The con. [ y or y\ (R)] is sometimes suppressed 
[without tho coupled (11), in poetry (ML)], whence [the 
saying of AlHutai'a 

,„S*> , if % , , s, s, J Sfi A, - 1 2 *> SS s, %,s*t 2 

\>£i\ U k*£ ^la- ^j!?.^. J-^ * * J )*- j»t^Jl; &JLaiS>^ |^( f 
Verily a man, whose kinsfolk are in Syria, (and) whose 
abode is in the sand of Yabrln, is a neighbour that is 

*s> s, , 

extremely outlandish, i. e. &I)JU« ; and, it is said, in 
[prose, as IM holds, whence (DM)} U»J \'^l ^j/j 

I* Ax 

fj*S I ale bread (and) meat (and) dried dates trans- 



( 461 ) 

ft tt At t A # ,h A? 

mitted by AZ, &5U5 ^jA* 2 ^ ^^ &la *l <?*t'e Mom 

• • • • • 

Aim a dirham (or) two dirhams (or) three transmit- 
ted by Akh (ML),] IX. 93. [80] (and) thou saidst, i. e. 

Ll^ (R, ML), says F (R), &1*U i£^ x^ LXXXVIII. 
8. (And) some faces on that day shall be joyful coupled to 

%t t t At % 9 9 

&*£&. iii»y, 8*a.. LXXXVIII. 2. Sbme /aces on that 
day shall be downcast, and the reading [of Ks ( B)] ^f 
-lL/Vj &llf oJU *;>oJ| III. 17. (iinrf) tf£a« the religion 

Ac/ore God ft Alhlam coupled to £M &if III. 16. [518] 
(ML). The coupled is sometimes suppressed, [because 
of indication (R, I A),] together with the con. (R, IA, ML) 

/ • •• h*b*0 h* A y,/AS Ax A.PA /A y • 

5 (R, IA), as J**; ^1 J-* ^ jfcl ^ ftt* ^^ U 
LVII. 10. fle of you that expended before the conquest of 
Makka, and fought, (and he that expended after it) are 

Ay A t tA% At/ 

not equal (R, ML), i. e. Sjjw ** ^a>t ^y*^ , the indica- 

" ' »t A? / ( $ 

tion of the supplied being [the next words] JM t-CJJ^f 

9t tt 9 At A 9tA% t uit*>t fit tt * 

\<p&) kJ«i ^j* I^SiiJ yjiJJ! ^j* ^^ 7%ose are greater in 
degree than they that expended afterwards, and fought 

9 9 A ti t A t 9 Wt9 t 

&L«» «• oa.1 ^> £fi V II. 285. We make not distinc- 

t Zi'O/ 

tion between any of His Apostles (and God) and ^ji^lj 

A*A ti tAt 9oit9 Att 9 9/ it to 9 tn ' 

*&* i*a.J ju \?ft J } &1«^. &WU |^U| IV. 151. And 

'90- t ' tt t t 

they that hare believed in God and His Apostles, and made 
not distinction between any of them (and God), i. e. ^jju^ 



( 462 ) 

X^> ■? it i"° ' h t Jm/i A £ / 9 St 

&JJ( , as is indicated by *^;; &MI ^ t^^i y)' ^y^iyi. 1 } 
JV. 149. ^fwrf desire that they should make distinction 
between God and His Apostles, ysiS\ J^su J-#fj~ XVI. 
83. Garments that proU ct you from the heat {and the cold), 

t hth^t t t t t a.-' 

i. e. 6yJ\} , and ^^ U &J^ VI. 13. And unto Him belong 
what is still (and what moveth), I e. \JSjxu Uj (ML), 

/ \t t m ^ S , 

■whence their saying ^Isu-llo £'UM i_^l; TVitf rider* of 
j!Ae she-camel (and the she-camel) are jaded, i. e. &sUJ! . ; 
or <-», whence £M &**» >»« ^ jf ^./» f*^ ,js — i 
II. 180. And irhosoever of you is sick or upon a journey 

*'" t , nit 

(and breakcth the fast,) upon &c. [18], i.e. &JaJ JaiU 

» i S A rht" ' / ' A/ A»« • • A.PA ASA/ 

^f &>* (IA), &±4\ »«» ^-aa-I Ui *'^a=^l ^ II. 192. 

t A 

And, if ye be beset, (and quit your state of i»fj=»f , ) send 



AJ>A^ . 



ye whatever offerings be ready to hand, i. e. .TUkai , and 
II. 192. [543], i.e. $^ (ML); or ft, as jST J\ 
yf\ ,J^ In the night prayest thou more, (or in the 
day)? in reply to "I pray by night and by day," i. e. 

ft»° aS f,% 

$&S ,_S» ft (R): but suppression of j.f and its coupled 
is rare, as 

/•f / 5A J>i ht ft i t hi IU S A/A,o ,Ht tt 



( 463 ) 

[by Abu Dhu'aib alHudhall, The heart called me to her 
(verily I am a hearkener to its bidding); so that I know 
not whether the pursuit of her be right procedure (or 

& , A? 

error) (Jsb)], i. e. ^ J (ML). There are 10 cons. (M). 
The cons, arc [(1) such as associate the coupled with 
the ant. unrestrictedly, i. e. in letter and predicament, 

vid. (IA)] the ; , the J.fl.^.y, [ U! (IH),] 

a? i , 

and J ; [(2) such as associate in letter only, vid. (IA)] M , 

Ay A I 2j> if 

Jj , and yjtf (IH, IA). The y , the lJ , j> , and l J^. 
denote union (M, IH) of the coupled and ant. in a pre- 

dicament'. you say ;j**j >>i) ^'^ [157], f<f± aij 

j 

k**jb« Zaid stands and sits, J$ SyU^ ***$ /k B*kr is 

' '***>%* * si 

sitting, and his brother is standing :,.and fl»>y y&i j.l*f 

oJtL Bishr abode, and Khalid journeyed, thus uniting the 
two men in the coming, the two vs. in attribution to [the 
pron. of] Zaid, and the purports of the two props, in 

realization; and similarly !^**» liJjj \z*>ya I beat "Zaid, 
*Aere 'Jmr, 8yM ^ **M <>** l-^3 f .4&rf ^//o/t torn* 

' S/ /*/KfB * hit 

away, and afterwards his brother, and ^^ j.yUf m-ify 
JlwI / saw the people, evcn'^Zxid : then after that they 
differ (M). 

§ 539. The ^ [is (1) the con., which (ML)] denotes 
union unrestrictedly (M, III, I A, Sh, KN, ML), as 



( 464 > 

iS 9 9/ # C 9 t /S^ 4 * A^s/ 

&taa. Uj»j (^sw tjUM |JLi.ofj II. 55. And enter ye the 

' i a 9 9/ 

gate, bowing down ; and etc. [29] and &los*. \y^fy 

* 3 s t /S^> t 9 s^/ 

|j«-« s_,uJI ly^L^^ VII. 161. [below] (M), not [neces- 

f / st nit 
sarily (Sh)] involving order (IH, Sh), as in ^1 li#^jfj 

t Sis^t t 9 S/t t I A / t • A t t IA £ 

bUwHlj tj^iixj^ t 3 =u>, l^ J**t" ,, 'j f**^ ^V. 161. -^"^ 
inspired Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and 

t &it / t 

the tribes ; nor its reverse, as in w- >y>\) L 5*>*A*^ IV. 161. 

A t S«" / / /St ' 9 / it 

And Jesus and Job, *• ^ jJ I ^J\^ «-*£H .e^y. t-Jtf«*$" 

* t tuo 9 /S* j>l^> t St" ' t £ ' ' 

-aXsJ! yj*H &1M UCIaS XLII. I. Thus doth the Mighty 

t t t 

Wise God inspire thee and them that were before thee, 

,S&/ 9 S^/ in/; 9SB 

and -xT^tj ^jjssu*!. l-<?^ JCii't III., 38. Obey thy 
/ • t t / t 

Lord, and bow down, and lower thy head ; nor simulta- 

9 S / Si° *9S*> 9/ t * / t 9 /ft / sit 

neiiy, as in .ysaJLJS «_XlAf | ^ &** ~»j SlUsaJG 
XXVI. 119. And We saved him and them that were 

t t tS^> 3 lA 9 /S/ A t 

with him in the laden Ark and i>*fyD! (►*&;*! £*# olj 

j I A / S/S^s / , ' ' & 2 

Jjul*«i|. us^aaJI ** II. 121. i And when Abraham was 

"/ £ ' t 

raising the foundations of' the House, and Ishmael 
(Sb): (*) it couples the [thing to its (ML)] companion, 

/ t A i/ 9 /St Sit 

predecessor, and successor (IA, ML), as ^tsa^l^ slUxuU 

/ s^> 

&UiLJ| XXIX. 14. And, We saved him and the crew of 

' ' / IS / 9 /S /Si S/// 

the Ark, f*2yfj l=*y UJL^l ^ LVII. 26. And as- 
suredly We sent Noah and Abraham^ and XLII. 1., these 



C 465 ) 

3 S / • A > 

two [last couplings] being combined Id _y ^+) u&Uj 
ij,'"**} l£"¥*) tf^Jih XXXIII. 7. And from thee and 

' ' i. 

from Noah and Abraham and Mows and Jesus ; and 

4 A //■ 4 As / t 

accordingly j>*«; Jj.j -l» ad.nits of 5 meanings (ML): 

for ^>* c ; ^.j -^ means that thvy participated in com- 
ing ; th>;n, the sentence admitting of 3 meanings, that 
they camz together, in orde; or in the reverse of order, 
if one of tbu matters he especially intelligible, it is so 
from another indication, as simultaneity from II. 121., 

// ,\i 3t\ifirB s /*t/ St /A .PA'A-* 3 /A* • 

order from l^titfl j*;^! c^-/*-!; t S ,, }'3 J*>^' c»l)lj '^ 
l^J U ^UJlfF ji ; ' XCIX. 1—3. When the earth shall 
be convulsed with her convulsion, and the earth shall cast 
forth her chattels, [i. e. treasures (K, B) or corpses (B),] 
and man shall say, What ailcth her ?, and the reverse of 

order from Us=Jj juj*J Ujo-': U.jL^. i/( ^a U XLV. 23. 

f 
It [160] zs not aught save our lower life : w<: die and we 

live predicated by ihe denier.s of the resurrection (KN"); 

but, says IM, it denotes simulla unity preponderantly,. 

order ofteu, and Us reverse seldom : ( 3 ) thero may be 

between its ant. and coupled proximity, [as £jib jjj jb» 

8, ji ^-j j-****^! Za'>.d came at th'. rising of the sun r 
and l Amr in the early morning (DM)]: or delay, as 

/ / A.0A-" • 3 3// H/ 3 3 / Z 

*A~jJ\ ** *£**) *-^i vb u ' XX VIII. 6. F«W/y 

' • ' ' '* f 

We will restore him to thee, and make him to be one of 
So a 



( 466 ) 

the Apostles, the restoration being a little after his being 
cast into the river, and the Apostolic mi* sum at the end 
of 40 years (ML): (7) this is the opinion of most of the 
BB and KK ; while some transmit from Fr, Ks, Th, Rb, 
and IDh. and some t'-ieologians say, that it denotes 
order : but the proof of the' majority is its use where 

A /* A/ y Ay -P yAy 4 A/ y y yy 

order is absurd, as ))■+*) **{.') ^^i JW| and i*j) JjULJ 

<t A y y ' 

2)+*y ; and where the 2nd is before the 1st, as 

j;u j±\ J.5G ,ju~ji j±\ 

e ' ' / y , 

/ 9 y Z, PS A / J> y A s a£ 

[by Lubid, / buy wine dear with every old blackish wine- 
skin or jar smeared with pitch, that has been broached, 
and whose seal has been broken (EM)], III. 38., and 
XLV. 23. : and, if it denoted order, II. 55. would contra- 
dict VII. 161., since the incident is one (R) : ( 8 ) the * is 
distinguished from the rest of the cons by (a) coupling 
(a) [what is indispensable (ML), where the ant, is in- 

ii// $ Ay ///A 

sufficient (IA)], as »+*, &j p*a£M , [which is one of 
the strongest proofs of its not importing order, whence 

A y y A/ / Ay 9 A // A j 

tf**y *l) ^ &>**»h- ; but the conj. ,.! shares with it 

* * ' A y y hi y Hit J,/ $ M// 

in this predicament, as «yi**» ^ e^.*S! JLc /(»« (615) 
(ML)] : (6) a suppressed op.i whose reg. remains, [to 
another op., when one idea connects them (ML),] as 

a£a»<3 * t—s *m> A .PA S / ? A-0 Jy 

t jO U ' <_$*, '/b *J» f«^ ^ r a ly^ XL. 22. 7%py 



( 467 ) 

were stronger than they in power, and (more numerous) 

e,~ tt kit 
in monuments in the earth, meaning \pS y^'j , >as is 

said (B),} like 

t K St * A / twttS , t**> r A/ J hist 

(K, B) And I saw thine husband in the /ray, girt with 

* as * t t 
a sword, and (carrying) a spear, i e. l»*^ ll«bwj , whence 

t 

£j| 4xiL and (N) | £ll U tot [fa'8], i. e. ^j^T^baTj 

(IA, ML), their connecting [idea] being beautifying ; 

but, if it were not for this restriction, *fryy> aJojX&I 

U**Uai would be a case in point, since the full phrase is 

* t 3 i 3-o t t t' 

U**U> •*#! k^Jtiii [82] : (f) the connected siugle term 

-» t S Ht t 

to the extraneous one when a cop. is needed, as J^.^ «^^>* 

J> tit Slit ~s St t* t § A / t t $ At * ' ? At 

SyMj <jj.) J>(i [145], dull*. *)+£ j.1* ijjj [27], and IkWJ 

» tit e*t s f.t / 

Sti-l^ 1^# (-^o^o [62]: (d) the decimal number to the 
unit, [when they are compounded, and made one wan. 

t 3 A , § ,i 

(DM),] as .^«.*^ i*a.l One and twenty : (e) ep*. sepa- 
rated while their qua Lifieds are united [146], as 

tt * A / At/tt tt t SttSttSbtt 

[by Ibn MayySda, Did I weep, when the weeping of a sor- 
rowful man was not over two homes carried off and worn 
away, (but over their inmates)? (Jsh)] : (f) what ought to 
bo dualized or pluralizcd, as in the saying of AlParazdak 



( 4C8 ) 

[ Verily the bereavement — there, u no bereavement like it — 
is the loss of the like of Mutynmnad Ibn Yusuf and 
Muhammad Ibn AlHajjaj Ibn Ymuf (Jsh)] ami the say- 
ing of Abu Nuwas 

J> f £ t»r*> 3 1/ 3/ s* A/ . f ,/ (S Ax > 2 Ay t *A <i 

\We abode i7i it a day and a day and a third and a day 
that the day of departure teas a fifth to (Jsli)] : (g) tbe 

general to tho particular, as ^jJj S^f) J> f*^ V> 



/ A JA /• X 



* fi t t l\S 



«ylL.i*W. ll ji i -r« JJ ; **-*• jjSW J 5 ** LXXI. 29. %• 
Jtord, forgive Thou me and my parents and him that 
entered mine Ark believing ani the believing men and 

' t A /% A /! 

the believing women : (h) the converse, aa *-» UJi^f 6U 

iJ 1 t-£i^ j^ 1 ^-* ^ji***^ XXXIII. 7. //m/ remember 
thou when We took from the Prophets their covenant and 
from thee etc* [iibove] ; but ^^ shares with it in this 

predicnment, as *t£y^l ^5^- j* l ^f «w^ -M«« have died; 
even the Prophets and 81&J! ^a:*. ^.taa^JI ^0.9 The- 
pilgrims have arrived, even the walker.?: (i) the thing- 
to its $yn. t [the rectifier of the coupling being the dif- 

" * *f s, , ,, 

ference of letter, in £M f?) (444) (BS),] as in [ l^ifcj L* 
\Jk^b U. &U| Jju- ,J *$M U III. 140. And. ham 



( 469 ) 

not been weak because of what hath befallen them in the 
cause of God, nor been frail ! and 



'h/h^wfi /h/ //htt 



J^S ,.1 cfc*> f»S) ^gji'f * Sj^s |.o[5j Jlla ^* e^.V*. 
* ' $ ' ' 

{by 'Antara, Mayst thou be saluted as a ruin whose ac' 

quainlance with its inmates has become old, and that has 

become vacant and empty after the departure of Unim 

AlHaitham! (EM)}, aud similarly in the ease of ns. 

ii*a / h s / m/ S hi /£ 

(BS)] &1M J\ J-f*, J.> yCA! Uif XII. 86. I complain 

of my grief and my sorrow only unto God, -fel* u£#jf 

§/*// » •/ » ( «< ' 

&4A.J. +$>) lif* >A> ^' a H' 152- Those, upon them shall 

/ / // / 

be blessings from their Lord and mercy, l^.»* tyi ^y U 

t\t >/ ' ' 

U-! )Jy XX. 106. Thou wilt not see in them unevenness 

nor inequality, 

sh// / //h/ /hi/ h / / / ihi" /*// 

Ua<^ \>& i$Jy ^Ij * &jULa>jy *j>ij1/( o^tsjj"^ 

[by 'Adl Ibn Zaid al'Ibadl, And she gashed the skin of 
his two veins in the inside of the two forearms; and he 
found her saying to be a falsehood and a lie (Jsh)] ; but 

hi 

1M asserts that this sometimes occurs with .1 , whence 

£h hi f / / h \/ h / / 

L->f j! &ULa£. i_**«»& ~»j IV. 112. And whoso commit- 
#e^A a trespass or a sin, [whieb requires consideration, 
because by the trespass may be meant what occurs unwit- 
tingly, and by the sin what occurs wilfully (BS)] : (J) the- 

prepos. [appos. (DM)] to its [postpos."] ant., by poetic li- 

~ /■ A 
cease [538], as £M t* Vf [26]: (Jk) the gen. by vicinity, 



( 470 ) 

as V. 8. [130. A.] with the J*. ; ! [coupled to f&>f*) , 
but (DM)] governed in the gen. [by vicinity (B, DM) to 
the gen. (DM)]: (b) its coupled's admitting of the 3 
preceding meanings, [order, its averse, and simultaneity 
(DM)] : (c) its conjunction with (a) W , as LXXVL 3. 

i 

[543] : (b) V , if it be preceded by negation, and [nega- 
tion of the pvedicameut from the ant. and coupled by 
way of (DM)] simultaneity be not intended, as -Is U 
*y+e Uj ojj , in order that it may import that the act is 
negatived from the two of them jointly and severally, 

flyt y/A fi2J>tus2 £.*• » ;* /»( ,, tits tsi s, 

whence ^j Vjle t&fi ^^ t?oV)\ Vy *&lj«l U^ 
XXXIV. 36. Nor are your goods, nor your children, 
what shall bring you near before Us with nearness ; in 
which case the coupling, according to some, is a coupliug 
of props, by subaudition of the op., but, as commonly 
reputed, is a coupling of single terms : when, how- 
ever, one of the 2 conditions is missing) V may not be 

§fis ft $A/ , • 

introduced, so that y^ Vy oj) pi» is not allowable, 
while ^K*aM V) 1. 7. Nor of the erring [545] is allowable 

A , 

only because ja* [498] contains the sense of negation, and 



«£• A • A^»y 



* • / • % S» $• J A • A 



( 471 ) 
[ Wherefore go thou away : for what youth it among men, 
that intensely black darknesses have prf served from his 

death, nor wiles ? (Jsh)] only because the sense is there 

* / , **> ' 
is no youth that etc, like XLVI. 35. [588] ; nor **aAa»f U 

y?>* Vy iJjj, because, [the ^ and U importing negation 
of the disputing together from tlie two of them jointly and 
severally, it would import that dv puling together was ap- 
plicable to one person, whereas (DM)] it denotes simulta- 
neity only, while in«yU»JaJl J/j^yaJI^ ^^Vf ^wi U^ 

e^i^ui y ; jbpjn ^/-^ u 5 ^fs.i\ V) jiaM y, ; yui y> 

XXXV. 20. 21. And the blind and the seeing are not equal, 
nor the daikne&ses and the light, nor the shade and the hot 
wind; nor are the livifis and the dead equal the 2ud, 
4tb, and 5th [547] V are red., because of the freedom from 
ambiguity, [it being known that equality is only between 
two, while the 1st and 3rd import negation of equali- 
ty between every two jointly and severally (DM)] : (<;) 

A I i^» f S/ A '/■ 

^0, as *I1| Jy")^> XXXIII. 40. But the Apostle of 
G>d [545] : (2) and (3) 2 . s followed by the ind. or nom., 
(a) the ; of inception, as XXII. 5. [416], £H Jsi V 
[416] with the ind, [538], VIT. 185. [1] also with the 

.All *b 9 9fi\u/ 9* •Jj *** Suites 

ind,, &Uf f**W.j *M i?X) U. 282. And fear ye God. 
And God tcacheth you, and £*! ^saS\ J* [418] : (b) the 
) of the d. s., which is prefixed to the nominal prop., as 



( 472 ) 

&*Jlfe j*+2A\j lwJ /la. [79,80]; and is named the j 
of iuchoation, [because of its prefixion to an inch. 

A 

(DM)]: S and the ancients render it by 31 , not meaning 

that it is in the sense of the latter, since the p. is aot syn. 
with the «., but that it with what follows it is a restric- 

A , 

tion of the preceding v., as ot is j not by lot , because 
this is not prefixed to tbe nominal prop. : au ex. of it 

i- / a ? 

when prefixed to the verbal prop, is isJ| J^ £**•& [1] J 
and, when preceded by a prop. d. s., it admits, according to 
him that allows multiplicity of the d. s. [without ooupling, 
there being no dispute as to its allowability with it (DM)], 
of bfting copulative, [the prop, after it being a d. s. (DM),] 

a!*// &p , A/ AJ> tSs t A 

and inchoatival, as ^ J3y ^a* ,y**-J *&■**■> UkuM 
)&»** j*)^! II. 34. Get ye down, one of you being a foe 
to another, and ye having, or while ye have, in the earth 
a place of abode : (4) and (5) two . s followed by the ace. 

or subj., (a) the « of the concomitate obj., as JaU ! « cy)« 
[68], which does not govern the ace, contrary to the 
opinion of Jj ; nor occur in the Revelation with certainty, 
the . in X. 72. [68] in tha readiug of the Seven admit- 
ting of being that and of coupling a single term to a siugle 

term by subaudition of a pre. n., i. e. *C5U"^2. y*\^ and (the 
affair of) your compa?iions, or a prop, to a prop, by 
Bubaudition of a v., i. e. f^fy" J^**^ [68]: (b) the ^ 



K 473 ) 
prefixed to the aor. governed iu the tubj. because coupted 

to an [inf. (DM)] n., plain, as g\ XA*e ^y [418. A.]} 
or paraphrased, [by which he means the inf. n. appre- 
hended from the preceding sentence (DM),] provided 
that negation or requisition precede the y, which the 
KK name the ^ of diversion, [because it diverts the aor. 
from the ind. to the subj. (DM),] but which does not 
govern the sub;., contrary to their opinion, as III. 136. 

#M / A / • 

and i>M &*j Jf [411] : but the truth is that this [ ^ pre- 
fixed to the aor. governed in the subj. because of the 
coupling (DM)] is the con. j : (6) and (7) two jS 
followed by the gen. [506, 505]: (8) a ^ whose inclusion 
is like its exclusiou, vid. the red. [449], authorized by 

the KB., Akh, and many, %f j>l \&*=b&) (&>j;L*> (of ^gXa. 
XXXIX. 73. Until, when they shall come to U, its gates 
shall be opened being thus explained on the evidence of 

/S flit H * J s J>**/ t S / 

the other text [ %M u^»& Ifc^fe. fo| t5 *a. XXXIX. 

' f 

71.], or the red. being, as is said, the ^ in [the next 

words] l&if» J^ its keepers shall say; and similarly 

O Ia xA?-P»Axxx X A 9*if* 1 xA? 5 XX 

fi&rfk J #•'***) ^j***" *Bj ^1 ^ XXXVIII. 

103. 104. And when they yielded to the command of God, 

he threw him down upon [504] the side of the forehead^ 

and We called to him, saying [569, 570], O Abraham, or 

and he threw etc., We etc., the 1st or 2nd being said to be 

red.; while the redundance is evident in 
36 a 



( 474 ) 

*/A/ t»hi * hi A * fit tf 

t*ih* f&M •s***'' ^ Jk *** 

R / • • y A Ay y • 

p>y Wa'la Ibn Allilarith alMakhzumi, Then what is the 
vase of him whose bone I strive to set from watchfulness, 
when he intends from his. witlessness the breaking of me, 
i. e. of my bone f (Jsb), because the off. aor. occurring as a 
4. s. is not connected by the ^ (80) (DM),] and 

•111* / ' AyO / «// A yyy 

Ay l\ / t * /lit* * s 

[And assuredly I looked kindly at thee in tlie assemblies, 
all of them; and lo, thou helpest him that wrongs met 
(Jsh X| * (9) the 5 of 8, mentioned by many philologists, 
like H, and weak GG, like IKhl, and commentators, like 
Thi, who assert that the Arabs, when they count, say 6, 
F, and 8, to notify that 7 is a complete number, and what 
follows it an inceptive number: they cite as evidence of 

t>S 9 y i y A / S J> *'t *BS*t A»* y i ,\, y f s, , 

that (a) fgwoL, &***£. ^jh) f€*^ f$**b **^ u)J)*&" 

^or j^*-^ &**-. ^y^ v^'i ***; f€*^ xviir. 

21. They will say, {They were) [29] 3, *Aa* their dog 
made to be 4; and they will say, (They were) 5, Ma< 
<^e»r dog made to be 6, guessing at the unknown; and 
they will say, ( They were) 7, that their dog made to be 

8 1 (b) XXXIX. 73., since u^aaXi is said in the text of 



( 475 ) 

« t tt 

Hell, because its gates are 7, but u^axH^ f n the text 

' '■» tfifO t * mm t 

of Paradise, because its gates are 8 j (c) ^y&W I ^ y3 UW 

• hSh*> t t * & *o/ 

fenfe, ;Ae worshippers, the praisers, the fosters, the 
hwerers of the heacf, the bowers down, the bidders of good, 
and the forbidders of evil, since it is the 8th qua!.; (d) 

tmt tmt t / t t»t / t t A * t h» 

WL>UaJ u^hajLu cvllJol* uuloU uyUJG' CS.'LIU'L* tfijULta* 

* ' a ' * ' fi ' * * * t * ' 

a t*ft 

S$ty) LXVT. 5. Muslims, believers, obeyers, penitent*, 
worshippers, fosters, matrons, and maidens, though cor- 
rectly this j, occurring between 2 eps. that serve to 
divide those who contain all the preceding qualifications, 
is not susceptible of ellipse, since matronhood and 
maidenhood are not united, whereas the j of 8, according 
to him that recognizes it r is suitable for ellipse : (10) the 
» prefixed to the epithetic prop, to denote corroboration 
Of its [id. (DM)] adherence to its qualified, importing 
that the latter's qualifiability by it is an established matter r 
this ; is authorized by Z and his imitators, who thus 
explain certain passages, in all of which the ^ is the * 

St Z*a* Sf 

of the d. s., as II. 213. [464], XVIII. 21., r ^JJtf J 
t *t /* it * t / tht tt * 

K&yf JU &ij&- J*>) Si? J* II. 261 [Or hast thou 

t * t # 

seen the like of him that hath passed by a city that is- 
empty, whose walls are fallen down upon its roofs f (B)J 



( as > 
and XV. 4. [78], the permissive of the d. s. T s occurrence 
to the indet. in this [last] text being 2 matters* one 
peculiar to it, vid. precedence of the neg., and the 2nd 
common to the rest of the texts, vid. prevention of 
qualificativity, since the d. *., when prevented from being 
an ep., may occur to the indet. , for which reason it occurs 

thereto when preceding it, as Js*) Ul» ^joif J , and 
when prim., as |l$jw>*. Jt»» !oit> [83] ; and the preventive 
of qualificativity being 2 matters, one peculiar to it, vid. 
conjunction of the prep, with U| [94], and the 2nd cora- 
mon to the rest of the texts, via. its conjunction with the 
; : (11) [161]: (12-15) [497] (ML). Sometimes they 

answer the inquirer with the neg. V , and then follow it 
up with benediction, so that the sentence h transmuted 
into malediction, as it is related that Abu Bakr, seeing a 
man in whose band was a garment, said to him " Wilt 

til ,o , , , , 

thou sell this garment?", and he said &U| lJ&* tf, on 

which Abu Bakr said "Wherefore saidst thou not V 

ill} uJUUj No: and God grant thee heatth?' Zj says, I 
asked Mb about the cause of the appearance of the « in 

our saying Jj*aa»^ «$Uf u£>b=u«. ; and he said to me, I 
asked Mz about what thou hast asked me about, and he 

X .P A Ss <■ A t / mSii *> , , / A * 

said, The meaning is lJCassu*. i_£t>*saj« *$Uf l-X&sju**. 
lestol Thy perfection, O.Qod; and with praise of Thee {do 
lestol Thy perfection) (D). Some say that £*! t_<fl-Tm>i 



( 477 ) 

is one prop., the y being r«tf., [orag-. i_SU*a=u lJ&emw 
Ubauw (DM)] j and some that it is two props., the ^ being 

X A t f 

copulative, and the op. of the l_> suppressed, i. e. uik>«su^ 
u^Xsauuw (ML on the w» ) : while the «»_» denotes accom- 
paniment op instrumentality according to both of these 
two sayings (DM). In VII.3 . [126] ^,yJG la is [a d. s. 

(K)] coupled to G\x> , [as though ^tfpS J .ji**^ were 

** tt 

said (K),] the . [of the d. s. (B)] being suppressed 
[when coupled to a d. s. before it (R)], because deemed 
heavy on account of the combination of 2 cons., since 
the y of the d s. is the con. y borrowed for a cop. (K, B), 

so that ^yfi yj> y\ Ua-lj) u^j c^-*^ ^W* came ft> me 
walking, or {when) he was riding is a chaste sentence 
(K). Suppression of the y of the d. s. has been previ- 
ously mentioned in jJ! jt^Jf *_&xsu [80] (ML). 



§ 540. The tJ , £ , and tS «». necessarily involve 
order : except that the tj necessitates the existence 

of the 2nd after the 1st without delay, and *> jmYA rfefoy, 

• 1 1 / tm>* * s- h t % fixr «u r 

the texts VII.3. [126] and J**; ^f; v G eT^ ^ lS^J 
£tM&l j>5 laafu> XX. 84. And verily I am wont to for- 
give him that repenteth and believeth and doeth good, then 
is rightly directed being attributed to the fact that, when 



( 478 ) 
He has destroyed it, the chastisement is judged to have 
come upon it, and to the continuance and subsistence of 
the being rightly directed ; while what is coupled by 
Jww must be part of the ant., either its most excellent, 
as i)\ j*"^' &** [539], or its lowest, as ^°Ji f*> 
8UUJI i Jv*> (M). The u* denotes union, order, and 
succession, and f union, order, and delay, as 8jj2t» SjUI 

*/.* A? '»" ' S / 

sytJ! >li lol f LXXX. 21. 22. MafcefA him die, then 

burieth him ; afterwards, when He willeth, raiseth him 
(Sh). The ti indicates posteriority of the coupled to the 
ant, when [the former is] continuous with the latter, and 
J> posteriority of the coupled jo the ant., when [the former 



w i * * t t 



is] discontinuous [from the latter], as £y*** $*• ^jJf 
LX XXVII. 2. Who created everything, then made its 

^t A * A SJ> /J A hfttt fit*** 

creation symmetrical and &«l4» ^«» *> *_>f>j >* *£al£,£lff, 
XXXV. 12. And God created you from dust by creating 
Adam from it, afterwards from sperm by creating his 
posteriority from it (IA). The «-i [is (1) copulative s 
and (ML)] denotes (a) order (IH, ML), (a) of idea, as 

$ Ayx $«/ ' £ 

«j**9 i*i3 (•'* ^ a,rf stoorf, 'Aen ' Jmr ; (b) of mention, 
which is [often (DM)] a coupling of a detail to a sum- 

m A? A A«A S w f /// .»S/ 4 , 3 * ** 

mary, as £*! J*S &• J*\ ^ y> J 155 *f; c y 3^ 
XI. 47. ^nrf iVoaA ca//ei apoa his Lord, and said, 
My Lord, Verily my son is of my family, #c., [but not 



( 479 ) 
always,.as XXXIX. 74. (below) (DM)] : (b) succession, 
which is in everything according to [the custom in 

f S Ass s/ A sA^O 9 A s s 

(MA)] it, as oftJ*A> ~6y&jA\ ts^&o I entered AlBasra, 
then Baghdad, when you tarry not in AlBasra, nor be- 
tween the 2 cities, [but the journey is continuous (DMjJ 
and XXII 62. [411] (ML) : (a) if the ui couple a 
single term to a single term, it imports that the connection 
of the coupled with the meaning of the v. referred to it 
and to the ant. is after the connection of the ant. with it 

i A s s $A, s S 

without delay, as ^;**» i>j) pS t i. e . The standing of 
l Amr was realized subsequently to the standing of Zaid 
without interruption ; but, when the uJ is prefixed to 
consecutive eps., the order, if the qualified be single, is in 



*• s As s 



their inf. ns., as in £J| i_a$J t» [ 157], i.e. £**o£ gM 

9 »ss Ss ASS ' 

!_>*%£» f**& J and, if the qualified be not single, is in 
the connection of what is indicated by the op. with their 
qualifieds, as is the case in prims., as in their saying on 

SsaZasBs »sAiAJ>* %sAiA*>tZs* 

the prayer of the congregation f.di'1/lj &S*yi* \^V\ pjju, 

t A s ss A Sa^s.S s$A^>s #s A 

Iga.. fX*aV\i ifMS S^aaJB The best reader shall be made 

leader, then the best theologian, then the earliest in forsak- 
ing home, then the oldest, then the brightest in face : (6) 
if it couple a prop, to a prop., it imports that the purport 
of the prop, after it is subsequent to the purport of the 

fAs s sss fAs s * 

one before it without interruption, as ^j** <**£> i*jj ^.S 
Zaid stood, then 'Amr sat ; but in coupling props, it 
sometimes imports that the one mentioned after it is a 



( 480 ) 
sentence subordinate in mention to the one before it, not 
tbat its purport is subsequent in time to tbe purport of 

tbe one before it, as j-i** l$*S ^dJte f*&- *->\f$ S$&»& 
^i^jXXJf *JU XXXIX. 72. Enter ye the gates of Hell, 
about to abide eternally in it: and most evil be the abode 
of the proud, (Hell)! and &aaJf ^ \y& ^f^\ U$)$y 
jjJUWJ f*\ f& iLSJ y*+&. XXXIX. 74. And made us to 
inherit the land, dwelling in whatever place of paradise we 
will : and most excellent is the recompense of the workers^ 
(Paradise) I [below], since mention of blame or praise 
of tbe tbing comes correctly after mention of the thing ; 
and of this cat. is the coupling of the detail of the sum- 

s ti&s a *at ass * i 

mary to the summary, as XI. 47. and «-<£aJ usJfi* &Xa&.( 
/ answered him, and said, At thy service, because the 
position for the mention of the detail is after the men* 
tion of the summary, whence VII. 3. : (c) it is not 
incompatible with the ui ' s importing order without 
delay that the 2nd in order should be completely realized 
in a long time, when tbe 1st of its parts succeeds 
what precedes, as XXII. 62.,( since tbe earth's becoming 
green commences after the descent of the rain, but is 
completed in a long time, so that the ci is put from 
regard to the fact that there is no interruption between 
the descent of the rain and [the commencement of the 
becoming green (R) : (c) illativeness, which is prevalent 

in the *-J coupling (o) a prop., as l ^eS» ^y, sjfy 



( 481 ) 

**k XXVIII. 14, And Moses smote him with his fist* 
and consequently he killed him and &>j ^ j.ol JiiZi 
SAc ±_Mi cuUif II. 35. And Adam learned from his 
Lord words; and therefore He turned again Unto him with 
»n»vy; (6) an ep., as ^Ui p; ?5 j- ,»£ ^ ^jlTtf 

• A.e • hs r * s r * t BShiO eh 

fi^sH ^ 5*1* ^jUti uj^t ^ LVI. 52-54. Shallbe 
eating of a tree, namely Zakkum, and therefore filling 
the bellies from it, and consequently drinking upon it from 
boiling water -. but sometimes in that [coupling of prop. 
or ep. (DM)] the ti denotes mere order, as ^1 il^i 
rtgS &*& .**«, Jsxu ^taJ 4lfl>l LI. 26. 27. ^«rf Ae 
went away privily to his family, and brought a fat calf} 

£hr s uti&s vis Si ****** 

and he set it before them and I/*.; *aj\f±.tyl» [La e^tiUJL 

ph , 2*>, 

\/S «wUJU«5 XXXVII. 1—3. 5^ the Angels expanding 
their wings In the air, Men d'm'ing the clouds along, then 
rehearsing an exhortation (ML): the i»i is exclusively dis- 
tinguished by coupling what is not fit to be a conj.^ 
because devoid of the pron. of the conjunct, to what is 
fit to be a con]., because comprising the pron. t as ^ jjf 
W UJJ| jj) i-j^^ai^ ^Jbj» [27,538], because the lJ , indi- 
cating ilfativeness, enables the cop. to be dispensed with 
(IA): (2) [419,32] (ML): the non-copulative tJ also is 

not devoid of the sense of order j which is the one named 

37 « 



( 482 ) 

the t_9 of illntiveness, and is peculiar to props. : (a) it is 
prefixed to what is an apod., (a) with precedence of the 

9 A Kit ft t A 

Wild, word, as &-y"G &X*aJ A If thou meet him, honour 

' *; 
Mop Aim and &lfl*U ijSjta, ^ Whoso comes to thee, give 

' ' * a kf t $ t 9 st 

thou to him ; (b) without it, as S^jfti J-ili jjj 2&zirf i* 

1 t * 

excellent: then honour thou him, which [construction] is 

t 
recognizable by the fact that the cond. fol may be supplied 

before the cJ , the purport of the preceding sentence 

being made its prof., and is frequent in the Kur'an and 

t at /it tt fiisrot /i s^ » h» h*t >A 

elsewhere, as Ugi# Uj j^j^'^ «*>fy***Jf i-XU *$J |»| 

• AgA,« *t*t*t ' ' 

v U-,Vf ^ f^S5^ XXXVIIL 9. [Or fo them belongeth 
the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and what is 
between them? {If that belong to them,) then let them 

n tfit t » * $a t ti t t 

ascend the avenues (B)] and ^* ^J£&*- &1+ ^xa. Uf JtS 

t t t 

,A fifties / t A » tli/t t t 

l*JU _yUi JlS .wib -. &Iitta^ ; U XXXVIIL 77. 78. 
JETe sairf, J am ietfter tf/ta» Ae .• Thou createdst me off re, 
and createdst him of clay. He said, (If this pride be in 

t t A / t t 

thee,) then go thou forth from it, i. e. »_&*** ^ f j| 

yiU ^«XJ| I JJJ> : but it is often i. q. the J of causation, 

when what follows it is a cause of what precedes it, as 

$ t t S t s A A SUtO/ 

^j. ; u#l» l$JU -f£> XXXVIIL 78. Then etc: for 
verily thou art accursed ; so that this is prefixed to what 
is the prot. in sense, as the 1st is prefixed to what is the 



( 483 ) 
apod, in sense (R): [thus] the ui of illativeness is pre- 

*K \t, 4 y $ A ' 

fixed now to the caused, as <uyl» J-atf &i\ , being then 

sometimes oalled the »-i of deduction, whence the ci 
prefixed to the correl. of the condition ; and now to the 
cause, being then i. q. the J of causation, as XXXVIII. 
78. (DM): (b) there being no incompatibility between 
the illative and copulative, it is sometimes illative, and 

nevertheless couples a prop, to a prop., as \^~>akj± ojj -yL» 

9 lit 

yy* Zaid stands, and then l Amr becomes angry, [or au ep. 
to an ep., as LVI. 52—54., because the ep. is renderable by 
a prop'] ; but coupling is not inseparable from it, as 

fir, n(/ */ s i\ 

{Ujfti 6aaaJ yjf (R): [thus] the u-J is (a) a mere illative 
"' ** * 

t S hS **' 'A A 

co/)., as t»X*jf! l>l» cS*^" u)' ^ thou come tome, I shall 
honour thee, since, if it were copulative, what follows it 
would be a condition, and the correl. would be needed, 

/ u/ w/ / f/hsbf f yA t A£ £ 

and similarly UO>J J^> //H u^Ua^I b'l CVIII. 1. 2. 
Verily etc. [I].- therefore pray thou to thy Lord [below] ; 
(6) merely copulative, as i$* &**»» ^y*b\ gfA y^H 
S^-S LXXXVII. 4. 5. And Who hath brought forth 
the pasture, and made it after its greenness dried up, 
black; (c) both [illative and copulative], as XXVIII. 14. 
and II. 35., whence the ui in g\ oU« ^Jb [22] (BS)« 
(3) red., [its inclusion in the sentence being like its ex- 
clusion (ML) with regard to the original sense intended 



( *¥ ) 
from the sentence, which is riot incompatible with its im- 
porting corroboration and confirmation of the sense (DM); 
this lJ occurs (a) in the place of the u-5 of fllativeness, 
but is not it; and imports premonition that what follows it 
is as inseparable from what precedes it as the apod, from the 
prot., vid. with the 151 not implying condition, as it*. !ol 

fcjj J! *11| »>,o ^ i^^^i iJ" 1 ^' ^Jj; f^h ***' Y°* 
£*—9 CX. \~%. When the help of God shall come, and 

the conquest of Makka, and thou shalt see men entering 
into the religion of Ood in hosts, extol thou God's perfec- 
tion : ( b ) elsewhere (R), its redundance, though not 
authorized by S, being allowed (a) in the enunc. by Akh 
unrestrictedly (below) ; and by Fr, Am, and many with 
the restriction that the enune. be a command or prohibi- 

tion, as j£S diSGy (29 ,538) saying, KhaulSn, wed thou $c. 

and 

» t * s a>< A 9h*a, / a? J as n2 J 5 f g i * /$. 

{by 'Ad? Ibu Zaid al'Ibadl, Will evening be a time of fare- 
well for thy last journey, or morning f Thou, consider 
thou at which of those two times thou wilt pass away 

a a a /a/ , 1 

(Jsh)}, to which Zj attributes Xfy±& !iifc XXXVIII. 

an A/ •>• §nf 

57. This, let them taste it, and as &iy& US v»jj Zaid beat 
thou not him : (b) ab IB says, {whether it be in the enunc or 
not (DM),} by all our school (ML), i. e. the BB, except S 



( 485 ) 

(DM),] as <J! JlSa. lil/ [62] (R, ML) ; while an ex. of 
its redundance is 

9 f A *t* * A • t 9 h t tf * 9 A * * *m<° S<> 

[ FP%e» Ae warded off iny blow iw//t a Aa?*rf tcAose 4w/& 
wo* Auge, J Igfl /Ae exposed part of its skin dangling 
( Jsh)], because the «-J is not introduced in the correl. of 
U , contrary to the opinion of IM [206]. The «J (1) in J* 

o-**t# sUf XXXIX. 66. Nay, (whatever betide,) God wor- 
ship thou, or Nay, God worship thou, or Nay, {mark 
thou,) and worship God is (a) [the cop. of] a correl. to 

Uf supplied, according to some, [i.e. ****l» &Uf Uf (DM), 
like XCIII. 9. (593)] ; (b) red., according to F; (c) copu- 

lative, according to others, the o. f. being *ty a** IS &*£> , 

as,»^ ' 

and (au then suppressed, and the ace. put before 

the «*j , in order that the t_5 may not occur at the be- 
ginning: (2) in i**»V| JoG uz^y*- [204] is (a) red., inse- 
parable, according to F, Mz, and many; (b) copulative, 
according to IJ, [coupling a verbal to a verbal prop., ac- 

, $A*>, i J j}, // 9 h J f 

cording to the sense, i. e. i3*«Vf j%*o=»- ^M** ^a-^/*- or 

9 2 * Ks 9 9 t , *' 

Kjya*. ut^y or Sj^aa. ^3 (DM)] ; (c) merely illative, 

like the uJ of the correl., according to Zj, [i. e. importing 
that there is consequence between what precedes and 
what follows it, whether what follows it be consequent 



( 486 ) 
upoa and caused by what precedes it, or the converse 
(DM),] to which must be attributed, according to me, 

t 9 t& ui > 

C VIII. 1. 2. and cX./f Jla JJol Come thou to me, for 
verily I honour thee, since the originative is not coupled 
to the enunciatory prop., nor the converse [538]. The 

M i A / Hff 

4-5 is said to be (4) inceptive, as j£S Jl«*3 J| [417], i. e. 

9 ht t9/ ' 

$*H y& [Hast thou not, i.e. Thou hast, asked §c.,for 

' 9 9*/ h » 9/ 9 9' f&f 

it speaks (AAz)], and similarly ^^tf S &i Jyu UJli 
II. 111. He only saith to it, Be: and then it is, i.e. 
JJuuu*. ^fi y& , and 

AlsAs t 3<*» //A^s t h»&9 iff i A / 9* m / 

«Jbu V ^JJl «a» ^^1 13! * &JL* Jijkj (_^*^ >*~J| 



A 9 *9t 9* Ik9 hi 9 9 A 9/ * / Arf> y A Ss 

J" ' / * ' f i '* 

[by AlHutai'a, Poetry is hard, and tall is its ladder. 
When he that knows it not climbs it, his foot slips with 
him to the bottom : he means to make it chaste Arabic, 

99 h9 /9, 

and he makes it barbarous (Jsh)], i. e. &+sp*t y& : where- 

as the truth is that the lJ in all of that is copulative, 
but that what is intended to be coupled is the [verbal 
(DM)] prop, [to the verbal prop. (DM)], not the o. [to 
the ».], [for which reason the v. is not apocopated in the 
1st verse (DM), Thou hast asked fyc, and it speaks,] 

9 9/ 

the ant. in this [text and (DM) last] verse being [ JJȣ 



( 487 ) 

9 9 t 9 

and (DM)] «j»£# ; while the GG supply ys> only to ex* 
plain that the. v. is not intended to be coupled (ML), 
not that it is a nominal prop, coupled to the verbal (DM). 

&9 mP 9 t t % t t 

£ [for which *» is said, like i»aja. for vfixs^. grave 
(ML), is {only (R)} a cm. : and(R,ML)] denotes [associ- 
ation in predicament and (ML)] (1) order and delay 
(IH, ML) and posteriority, for which reason S says on 

At 5j> At 9 At t 

)j*£ £ oe}i »»>))«• / passed by Zaid, and afterwards l Amr 
a ft 

that the passing is two passings (R) ; hut all these mean* 

ings are disputed : (a) Akh and the KK assert that it 

sometimes occurs red., not biing copulative at all ; and 

A t 9 t t 9 HttuB 9 At* A * t t if 

attribute to that ut^js*) U> ^f^S *&!* t^Jlo fof ^^ 

B9 As S Jfc" /• t /At * A$ St t A9 99At A Att At tt 

J id! Vf &JJJ «» bsJU 1/ ^1 f *U& 3 f4*«^f *&** utJJua. 

A Ax/ X • 

*$£** v»*G IX. 119. Until, when the earth became too 
strait for them notwithstanding its spaciousness [571], 
and their souls became too strait for them, and §c. [440], 
He turned again unto them with grace to repent and 

fit t 9 A / A$ 9 A t A * t tt 

X t 9 A / hi 9 A t At t St9t 

bote ub»ju»M»| uv^uu^f |3) J& 

[below], by Zuhair, [/«« m^«e// r , ioAe« /c«fer upon the 
morning, enter upon the morning possessed by passion, 
and, when I enter upon the evening, enter upon the even- 
ing going away from that passion (DM)] : (b) some dis- 



( 488 ) 
pute its necessarily involving order, on the authority of 

s s Ax x A x x x 8* x x Ax A A-»xx x 

l^) l$JU J*a. J 8j^|j ^ .* jSli. XXXIX. 8. 

t e x e * 

[He created you from one person, i.e. Adam, and made 
therefrom its mate, i. e. Eve, the creation of Eve not being 

** x x A x 2 

after that of the posterity (DM),] and j&\ itf— ^ ^ 
[below] : (c) Fr asserts that delay sometimes fails, on the 

x S.P fbftno * ax x x t f ei 

evidence of your saying U J j»j*J| u^xX*a U JUs^f 

* X A? AS / A x x ' 

Lj-»aa*f ^jwtl ufc**i«0 7f%a£ lAou <#d& to-day pleased me : 
then what thou didst yesterday was more pleasing, because 
J in that denotes order of enunciation, and there is no 

HP I 

delay between the 2 enunciations, while IM holds j3o 

x x A.« x » /«/>• is x a~t A^S/x k» S x * 

V UX1! -~~. Uuul J ^yiZ; fSUI li J^oy VL 154. 155. 
That following hath He charged you with — peradventure 
ye will beware of error and schism — then We gave Moses 
the Scripture to be an instance of that Renunciatory order 
(DM )] ; and apparently it does occur in the place of the 
ii in 

A XX Ai<o flJ /?A^ xx X sA«o x Ax m Ax £ •&*!// 

i_jda*a\ 3 l-^ajUV* ^ gy*. % J^^\ ua-aaj L&Pjfi J# 

* ■ x x x V XX X 

[by Abu Duwad, j&i&e //»« shaking of the Rudainl spear 
fte/otc /Ae cloud of dust, when it (that shaking) runs 
through the internodal portions of that spear, and forth' 
with the whole of it (that spear) is agitated (J&h)], since 
the shaking, when it runs through the internodal por- 
tions of the spear, is succeeded by the agitation, which 



t 489 > 
b not posterior to it (ML): (2) in [coupling] props. ex» 
Qlnsiyelj) strangeness, and inappropriateness, of the pur* 
port of What follows to the purport of what precedes it, 

*« As A CIS Sr* * Sr°SJ> * & <•/ 

God, Who hath created the heavens and the earth, and 
made the darknesses and the light, yet with Wltom [177] 

they that disbelieve make the idols equal/ [and ^»j 

»A * » >A,$ 5.P «/ ft» /■< A 8 at hi 

V* J 5 ^' f* *0 »»y* /^ 42)** f^f XXXII. 22. Jnrf 
who is more iniquitous than he that is reminded of the 
wonders of his Lord, yet tutneth away from them t, as in 

t » */ S* A/»«^ r^y »* £.» -»A#«5 tfSth<^ 9 ht tt 

* ' ' * $ ' 

(JK., B), by Ja*far Ibn 'Ulba alHaritht, Not will any dispel 
affliction save a son of a Jree-born woman, who sees the 
rigors of death, yet courts them I (T)], which meaning is 
a derivative, and tropical, sense of posteriority : (3) mere 
order in mention and gradation in degrees of climax and 
mention of the worthiest and afterwards of the [next] 
worthiest, without regard to delay and distance between 
those degrees, or to the 2n<Fs being after the 1st in time } 
nay, it is sometimes before it, as in 

A 3 • t I t A / * / A* S.P * *$ * * SP t * A * S 

[ Verily he that has reigned, then whose sire has reigned, 

then whose grandsire has reigned before that (Jsb)], 
38 a 



( MO ) 
where his own reign is put first because it is most pecu- 
liar to him, then his sire's reign, then his grandsire's, the 
object being to arrange his claims to eminence in order, 
the most peculiar, then the [next] most peculiar : so that 

it is like the ti in XXXIX. 74. [above]. The u£ and f 
sometimes denote mere gradation in climax, [indicating 
that the 2nd is more emphatic than the 1st (K, B on 
LXXIV. 20.),] even if the 2nd be not subordinate in 
mention to the 1st, vid. when the 1st is literally repeated, 

as «*K** &UU and &«U J &UU [134] (R), like 

* * * y y * * 

J>J>A y A Ay lit A y /* 

1 ' 5 ' ' ' 

y A4O s t K , , J AJ »/ Sc y 



*t\<B* yAy 



Siyy Ay Ay 2 y f I / 

y £ O ' 

(K) And I have not committed any offence towards them 
that I knew, save that I said, Sarha, be thou safe I 
Yes, and be thou safe I again, be thou safe I again, be 
thou safe I (J salute) with three salutations, even though 

it 

thou speak not (T). f is treated like the wJ and . (1) 
by the KK as to the allowability of the subj. in the aor. 
conjoined with it after the v. of the condition [and, says 
Dm, after the apod, likewise (425) (DM)] j while AlHa- 

m» 9/t it y» y a y* Ay A A* A y A yy 

san's reading J* &y"S) *W ,<" I ft-lfr *% ^ pp 3 * ,a*% 

' *t y ii y *s *"* t ^~ w y 



( 491 ) 

&U| Ju SfJ £») 0J» «u^JI &y>H IV. 101. A nd whoso 
goeth forth from his house, fleeing to God and Mis Apos- 
tle, and afterwards death overtaketh him, his recompense 
hath fallen upon God with [the v. of (DM)] **>i in 

A i 

the subj. [by subaudition of ^1 (K, B, DM), the inf. n. 
paraphrased from it and its conj. being coupled to an inf. 
n. apprehended from the v. of the condition, i. e. C^j** 
ijf C S ; aSi SS ^^JJ t_*| Jk M ^ f /*>'$* &=•;>*» (DM),] is 
cited as evidence in their favor: (2) by IM [as to the 
sub), in the aor. (DM)] after requisition [411], so that 

**xA.-0 A -*^ «*•£ fix 3* • 

he allows in the Prophet's saying sUi\J^ fT^f J^t V 

,»A J /*/ if h f t »•** o"C ^» 

&L. J—Iii f5 ^s)^ ^ ^s**^ f*'»*fl Let not any one of 
you piss in standing water, which flows not. Albeit he 
shall wash himself from it three moods, (a) the ind. by 

construing the full phrase to be J~J*i y& |J , which 

mood is the one transmitted, [and requires J to be in- 
ceptive, not copulative, otherwise an enunciatory would 
be coupled to an originative prop. (DM)]; (b) the apoc., 
and afterwards wash himself, by coupling to the position 

of the v. of the prohibition, [because it is uninfl. in the 

a* 
place of an apoc. (DM)] ; (c) the subj., by giving f , 

says he, the predicament of the y of union, meaning only 

as to the subj., not as to the simultaneity also (ML). 

These three ps. occur red. according to Akh ; while the 

BB explain away such passages wherever possible, to 



( 492 ) 
preserve the p. from redundance :—(l) the >, as in 

A 

XXXVII. 108. '04. [539] :j(2) the v_i , as in <ol J\ y \ 

{J\ [above], say some j while Akh allows f& **ij Zaid 
is standing on the evidence of jjf &j6j [29], and the 

w t t , B A * ' 

ui in jJl &£<;£- Ifl. [98] is raf. according to the BB, not 
the KK : (3) fS , as in IX. 119., says Akh (R). </=- is 
like J (IH), i. e. in order and rftffoy. In my opinion, 
however, there is no delay in JZ*. ; hut the copulative 

la*, imports that the coupled is the part surpassing the 
other parts of the ant. in strength or weakness: while, the 
connection of the v. governing the ant. and coupled ns. 
•with what follows ,j*-*- being sometimes anterior to, and 
sometimes in the midst of, its connection with the other 

parts, as fO\ JH* *J^ & ***' iff Go(i ^ ias taken to 
Himself every father of mine, even Adam and j~t*M «y^» 

^J , objective order also is not intended to be regarded, 
xis delay is not regarded, ju it 1 ; but what is regarded in it 
is order of the parts of what precedes it subjectively, 

from the weakest to the strongest, as in £M ^UJj &U , 

or from the strongest to the weakest, as in £lj — -t=a=J f f S» 

s ' 

(R). ,_$*=*■ denotes union and extreme, i.e couples what k 
an extreme in excess or paucity in either sensible or id. 
quantity (Sh). ^^ i>: lil;plln v - [.-is to 1 he inclusion 



( 493 ) 

of what follows it in the predicament of what precedes it 
(R), importing unrestricted union (I)], except that [(1) it 
must contain the sense of ending : (2) it must be preceded 
by a thing having parts, which thing must be expressed, 

in order that it may be coupled to, as i*H g-lsalf f£ 

(B):] (3) its coupled must be [(a) an explicit «., not a 
pron. (below) : IHEh mentions that, but I have not met 
with it from any one else (ML):] (b) part of the ant. 

[collection, as iJ! — ksxl| -oS , or whole, as &£***Jf csJ^f 

Ig*"!^ J*** I ate the jish, even its head (ML)] ; or like part 

of it, [as lg* i »Aa. Jwa» &> »taJf J3mxu>\ The damsel pleased 

me, even her discourse, whereas tohiJ. ^g^- is disallowed, 

because ^^ is introduced only where the {conj. (DM)} 
exc. (88) might be introduced (ML); or part of what 
the ant. indicates, as in 

0* tl / />/< A / • y m •*> ft& 

• ^a£ .p/A/ S3 / • w *°* 

w xaS 

(501), because the sense of £Jf ^1 is He threw away 
the whole of what was with him (R)]: (c) an extreme of 
the ant. (R, I, ML) in excess or deficiency (ML), as 
[combined (ML)] in 

t S&ti>o ft St // *// »»(£* / /j>a<o £ s fit,*,,, 

(I, ML) We have conquered you, even the valiant armed 
men ; so that ye stand in awe of us, even our smallest sons 



( 494 > 

(3 six) : (d) precise, so that you do not say ^^Xa. ,. Jjjf Jjlfr 

JJa.^ , because it is a limit, so that theyg is no sense in 
making it vague (R) : (4) when it couples to a gen., the 
genitival op. is [preferably m)] repeated, to distinguish 

«/ St m t hfh^a j A // 

it frpfii tie prep, [^y^ (DM)], as v*j»}* ^ fjHJk ■**.)/• : 
[IKhz mentions that unrestrictedly ; but IM restricts it 

S ' 

by the condition that J*** should not be necessarily 
copulative, as in 



t t A* * 9 



J&. JjIsbM ^ j«l> u^U*j» Ojs. 



/# v, A*0 



Ibo 8/UUb 



u)'^ J"* 1 * 



{ The bounty of thy right hand has been lavished upon 
creation, even a wretch thai has habituated himself to 
evil-doing (Jsh), where it must be copulative, because 
it is not replaceable by ^f (DM)}, which is good 
(ML)] : (5) [it may be said that (R)] it does not couple 
props. (R, ML), being in such places inceptive (R), 
because its coupled must be part, or like part, of 
the ant., and that is practicable only in single terms 

(ML). It may be prefixed to the pron. [above], as 

, a$ St fins** •«»/ / a a /■ /«/m » hit 

4^} Jis*. f j5M ,yila- and vJ?y l _^- ffl\ i*-il^ and 

' s 

t a t * <•*<*» a ht t i* 

Ub ^^Xa. ff&k *a-v>* (^)- Coupling by J*** is rare ; and 
the KE disallow it altogether, attributing such as 

t if it th/l\^ tr*t t \ft St A tShSt * kt* 

J$y>) ^a. fjs&\ /ta. and u^l*1 Lg Xa. *$&lj and «w;)* 

, i S • A • S ' 

ijGgf ^^Xa. *$» to the fact that Jf** is inceptive, and that 



( 495 ) 
what follows it is [governed] by subaudition of an op. 

* si tmt S / t ti .* hi* 8 / Sx 

(ML), i.e. t^f jt&.^^and u£bf j-^l; ^gXa. and Jis* 

/ S .* A/* 

UCajO m>$* (DM). 

a? S a2 

§ 541. jjf » t-»f » and ,.! denote [attachment of the 
predicament to (M) ] one of the 2 (M, Z, IH), or more 
(Z, R, Jm), things (Z, IH) mentioned (M), tofow [<Aa/ 
one i* (Jm)] iJOjgfMfi (IH), i. e. wo< specific to the speaker 

hi S 

(Jm): except that ^ and U| occur in enunciation, com- 

* hi 
mand, and interrogation ; and pf , when con/., only 

in interrogation, while the disj. occurs [in interrogation 

, $<»/ hi $ * sm 

and (Z)] in enunciation also, as J& ^ J>N ^f Verily it 
[the &^ 6o«^ (AA)] «s camels : nay, (it is) sheep [543] 
(M, Z). 

§ 542. The distinction between jl and j.1 in j^jt 

9 h, hi * / a §hsf 

2y*e jl lJ i*i* is 2&iid or ' .^mr m»'*A tfAee ? and ^1 

4h* hi s *h 
yy*t \ iJyiXfi [543] is that in the 1st you do not know 

that either of them is with him j whereas in the 2nd 

you know that one of them is with him, but do not know 

hi 
him specifically (M). Where the case as to $ and the 

hi *i 

conj. »\ in interrogation is dubious to you, render j! by 

U»oa.f , and r ! by U&I (R). The reply (1) to the conj. 

m 

J [that requires reply (543) (ML) ] is specification, [so 



( 496 ) 

*A/ A* / /A «A/3 

chat, when yf* pi \Jo** ±»$ is said, the reply is Zaid 
or « ^mr (ML), ] not 7e» or.Nb (IH, ML) ; while V in 
Dhu-rRumma's saying 

* // A# A A // ft 



!'/ *"* J> A? h h*> tm * A/ -P^ 



ft y /h-° * A /A^> 



%/k , Ki Z * // J A># 

5j£*. JW ^l V t$f ClJ£» 

' ' # i 

• • / $ f /M^ • A? 

UIU. Uu*a. Ufi)jJ( iu&lf 

*• '*/ /ft 

* / A^A^O //ASS ft t /& 



[6'oy* a« o/rf woman, £# whose door is my walk when, 
going at evening from my family and when going at 
morning, (Art thou) a possessor of a wife in the city or 
a party to a lawsuit, for which I see thee tarrying in 
AlBasra the year t Then said I to her. No : verily my 
family are neighbours to the sand heaps ofAdDahnd, all 
of them, and my property ; nor have I been, since thou 
hast seen me, in a lawsuit, wherein I plead, O daughter 
of the people, before a judge (DM)] is not » *eply to her 



( M ) 
question, b'lt a refutation of what she imagines, vid. the 
occurreuce of one of the 2 matters, his being a posses* 
sor of a wife and his being a party to a lawsuit (ML): 

(2) to the disj. J is Yes or <Vo, because it is an inceptive 

*f 
interrogation (R) : (3) to jt after interrogation is (a) Yet 

$*.• hi • • * i k/Z 
or No, [because ^y** y uX*i* uSijf means Is one of them 

with thee, or not f ; (b) specification, because it is a reply 
and addition (ML)]. And you say ^jjo**** 3 " jl ^j*** 33 '' 
SaojLxJI *>\f\ J^*f /* Alltasan or Al0usain more 

* * r 

excellent, of [Muhammad Ibn l rili known as (Nw)] 

Ibn Allfanafiya?, [meaning Which of the two, vid. of one 

of them two and Ibn Allfanafiya, is more excellent f 

(R)] J the reply being One of them two (R, ML) accord* 

ing to us, and Ibn AlEtanafiy*, according to the Kai« 

ganlya, but not AlHasan or AlHusain t because the 

question is not as to the more excellent out of Alltasan 

and Ibn Allfanafiya, nor out of AlHusain and Ibn 

Allfanafiya ; but one of th<>.m s not specified, is coupled 

With Ibn Allfanafiya (ML). 
a$ a 

§ 543. «1 and Ut are said to denote in enunciation 
t 
doubt, [making Vague, and detail ( R)] j and in command 

At 

giving option and allowance (M, R). $ is a con,, for 
which the moderns mention meanings extending to 12 j— ■ 

(1) doubt, as r >i J*> jl Uji Uty XVIII. 18. We haw 
tarried a day or part of a day t (2) making vague, [which 
is the speaker's concealing his meaning from the hearer. 
39 » 



( 498 ) 

(DM),] as j** Jlti J ,1 3 *& J*l fk\ ,1 Uf 5 
XXXIV. 23. And verily we or you are upon a right 
course or in manifest error, the evidence being iu the 1st 

a? 

[and 2nd (DM)] ; f , and 

[ Pfe or you are they that have found the truth : then alien- 
ation from good to the false claimants, and estrangement f 

i A t A? § A A? § A,o .»,- /A/ 

(Jsh)] : (3) division, as «-i^- ;f J*» ? 1 *~J &*l£JI 7%e 
worrf is a noun or a verb or a particle, as IM mentions 
in his smaller metrical treatise, [the Alftya (DM),] aud 
in the exposition of the greater, [the Kafiya (DM)] ; or 
rather, as he afterwards says in [his last work (DM)] 
the Tashll and its exposition, separation divested of doubt, 
making vague, and giving option, which [bare separation 

(DM)] he exemplifies by IV. 134. [538] and \?f \J&' } 

* * , AS <* 9 

£)^ ^ tay&II. 129 And they say, Be ye Jews or Chris- 
tians, this, says he, being preferable to the expression 
division, because the use of the y in division is better, as 

£j| ^oijj [509], though £ occurs in 

* / / hi A * A£ * 9 S $ fSS iit * *h st 3 ft 

[by Ja'far Ibn 'Ulba alHarithl, And they said, We 
have two plights that there is no escape from, the fore 
parts of spears pointed for I thrusting or chains (T, 
Jsh)]; but, as expressed by others, detail, which they 



( 499 ) 
exemplify by II. 129., since, the sense being And the 
Jews say, Be ye Jews; and the Christians say, Be ye 

Christians, jf denotes detail of the summary in t»ll»: 

hi 
(4) giving option, when yS occurs after requisition, and 

before what union is disallowed in, as l$£M $ \<m& _.£> 
Marry thou Hind or her sister', while the learned exem- 

t t H » / • A? A y //^*t/B,\ »S/Zi /, 

plify it by ^ y ** M» U la-,^1 .* ^tA^-** &/&* -Ubf 6J0a£> 

' ' ' ' ' # 

^f * * t A / a2 h99/* A? A* A? 

***> #>**■> y tf&y"* $ (►*■&**' V. 91. .4nrf t& expiation 
shall be a feeding of ten poor persons with food of the 
middling sort of what ye feed your families with, or their 

* / A.P A ft fit* 

clothing, or a freeing of a neck and Usu/* *&«* ^S >•» 

* » lit ^*t * ht t A f t A • &• A 0? AS 

* # * ' * /ft *"• tt 

II. 192. [538] And whosoever of you is sick, or hath 

annoyance from his head, (and shaveth,) upon him shall 
be incumbent an atonement of fasting or alms or sacrifice, 
[the sense being requisitive, i. e. let it be expiated and let 
him make atonement (DM),] notwithstanding the possibi- 
lity of union, because union of the feeding, clothing, and 
freeing, each of which is an expiation, and of the fasting y 
alms, and sacrifice, each of which is an atonement, is not 
allowable, but one of then) occurs as an expiation or atone- 
ment, and the rest as an independent good work excluded 

A* 

from that: (5) allowance, when j! occurs after requist- 

t * A h,o £ f , 

tion. and before what union is allowable in, as J &SofJ JU3 



( 500 ) 

yaa*J| Learn thou, theology or grammar; while, when the 
prohib. V is prefixed, the doing of the whole is disallowed, 
as | ; ^T ; t U$'t f qk* e Li7 l/ ; LXXVI. 24. Nor obey 
thou of them a sinner or an unbeliever, as is likewise 
the predicament of the prohibition prefixed to giving 
option : but IM mentions that jl mostly denotes allow- 

anee in comparison, as Xy+S o*»f .1 JJ^baasJtf ^^ 11.69. 

' / * 
So that they were like stones q-r harder, and quantification, 

as Jo! y cJ i-/ v^ ^ LIII. 9. ^«cf $c. [128], 
or /«?** ; so that lie does not hold it to be exclusively 
preceded by requisition: (6) unrestricted union, like 
the 3 , as [many of (BS)] the KK, Akh, and Jr say, on 
the evidence of [XXXVII. 147. (below) and they exceed 
(BS),} 

, S 1> * , *, , *Z , , 4 i\, i f / mf *»f » * ** ft *f 

toj^aai t^jJff y\ WSJ ^a>S % ja»li Jb JUI cs^sj as* 

by Taubn [Ibu Alfjumayyir, /fnd JLm7«2 has asserted that 
(the w being red.) I nm profligate. For my soul will be 
its piety, and against it its profligacy (SM)}, 

by Jarlr, [/fe came to the KhilUfa, and it was decreed to 
him, as Moses came to his Lord according to decree (Jsb),] 



( 501 ) 

y y A J y / A? y S y y a£ A/A .«/ y 5<* «i y 

' ' # ' ' ' 

* /» y y yy A/ y y A,o / A/ A/ Ay * 

LIS* rO^ l*J«d (J # t»mi ^Waj, >joo«a. 

V'' • '' *-> y ' 

[by AlMarrar alAsadl, Leave thou the road, and shun the 
places named ArmSm: verily in them are A fetal and 
BizSm, (wo footpads that crack pates, that hove not left 
to an owner of grazing camels a place of abode (Jsh)], and 

m *i A y y 

ill Iff cs~K» [^13], [while the evidence of the verse of 
Ka'b 

A y y y y33> Ay if Si 2 y A hi 

X-J&A t$>| jl &&. t# fj>\ 

y' y 

« M/ y A 3^> S ^ yy A S y y > Ay 

j^jS-t ^-aui ^1 y y ufeoj*j* 

How rcoWe «Ae & as a mistress! If she were true to her pro- 
mise, and if the counsel were accepted, (her qualities would 
beperfect, or she would be noble)! is perhaps plainer (BS)] j 
and, as many, among them IM, strangely mention, i. q, 

f , »»i& h* s» a se%* a? n» fiftf ,, ,, 

V) also, as &fl! 3 \ (&& j^ ^ G J f*-*''! J* ^ 
j3l*f XXIV. 60. Nor upon yourselves that ye eat from 
your [children's (DM)] homes, nor the houses of your 

hi 

fathers, whereas this [ y (DM)] is the same as that 

[which denotes i. q. the y (DM)], while V occurs [in the 
expression by which they expound it in the text (DM)] only 
to corroborate the preceding negation, and to prevent the 
imagination that the negation is attached to the aggregate, 

Ay 

not to each one: (7) digression, like J* , allowed (a) by S 



( 502 ) 

upon 2 conditions, precedence of negation or prohibition 
and repetition of the op., as ID transmits from him, which is 
confirmed by his saying on LXXVI. 24. that, if you said 

\)j>£ ^a> U )l nay, obey thou not an unbeliever, the sense 
would be subverted, meaning that it would become a 
digression from the 1st prohibition, and a prohibition from 
the 2nd only; (b) by the K.K, F, IJ, and IB unrestrict- 
edly, upon the evidence of 

A S A * A / / t* t ' 

" * e ' ' 

w t S fiftS A P lit 



i 



thi » A3s A * * tt»t / /A/ 

[591], by Jarir, [What is this that thou thinkest about a 
household that I have become distressed by, not having com- 
puted their number save by means of an accountant f They 
were eighty: nay, (hey added eight. But for the hope of 
thee, I should have massacred my children (Jsh),] and the 

•»l ^Sj> aS 

reading of Abu-sSammal £H UV 5 f II. 94. but, so often 

aS aS ^* * j> s* fhft 

as etc/ [581], whence, says Ft, jf "-^l & u ^ sULvjf. 

«jjij» XXXVII. 147. .4nrf We sent him unto an hundred 

thousand: nay, they exceed, and, say some, &*UJ| j*J U. 

* ..AS * •* AS • /«^ Ax/ uJ 

v Jf jb y y*A\ g*X Hf XVI. 79. Nor is the matter of 
the hour aught but like the twinkling of the eye: nay, if 



< 503 ) 
is nearer and II. 69. nay, harder: (8) i.q. V\ in exc, as 
£if lol ^JLT ; [411]: (9) s. q. JS , as £JI uO*}0 [538] 

• fi / A* Xw •$ 

£Oj ^1 J-.| / Arwott; not whether he greeted or bade fare 
well, [said of him that says to his friend " Peace be upon 
thee !", and then bids him farewell and departs (DM),] 

s 3x aPx 

as H [in the D] and others say: (11) condition, as &uj-flV 

t / AS ft 

uwU jl jftt* J t0»// assuredly beat him, live he or die, i. e. 
if he live after the beating, and if he die, as ISh says: 
(12) partition, as II. 129., as ISh transmits from some of 

A? 

the KK. The truth, however, is that y\ is orig. applied 
to denote one of the two, or more, things [541], which is 
what the ancients say: and it sometimes comes to denote 

«• ?• J* or the y ; but the rest of the meanings are im- 
ported from something else (ML), like the circumstances 
of the case, e. g. doubt from the speaker's perplexity 
(DM). The Hamza of U! is sometimes pronounced with 

Fath, [as related by Ktb (R)j and its 1st « is sometimes 
changed into £ (ML), with Fath and Kasr of the Hamza, 
as more than one say, though they mention no instance 
except with Fath (DM)]. It is compounded of [the cond. 

A f f 

(DM)] ^1 and {red. (DM)] U , according to S ; the U 
being sometimes suppressed [by poetic license (R), while 

A 

the yjf remains (DM)], as 



( m ) 

s / A s A ss s A As w s A ^ /S** JA / S 

s x^ ^ * * * 

[below] (R, ML), by AnNamir Ibn Taulab [aVUkli (ID, 
Nw)] asSahabl, 77te thundering clouds {either) of summer- 
rain or of autumn-rain have watered him (the mountain 
goat), so that he will not lack being satisfied with drink 

s A 2s oi'A S 

(Jsh), i.e. «-Jbj». ** U|j lJxo -» U| (ML): but, as 
others say, it is simple (R, DM). An U! before the ant is 

3 $ AS S s $ A/ 2 s«<x 

necessary [544] with Uf , [as yy+e Ul ? i*j>) U1 ^^ 

■ * A? #A* § A, 5 g "s»s 

(R)]j and allowable with jl (IH), as jl uJ-i; Uf ^U. 

$ As $ As a£ $ As s~s i ' it 

ype. and j>** ^f ^jj ^yiU. (R). Sometimes the 1st Uf 
is dispensed with [in poetry; but is supplied in accord- 
ance with the ordinary usage (R)], as 

' ' * I (I s 

[by Dhu-rRumma, JFe are broken-hearted afresh (either) 
because of a home, acquaintance with the inmates of 
which has become old, or because of dead ones, whose 
apparition has visited our minds (Jsh)], i. e. \\1» Uf 

[and £»! &sjw (ML)] : and sometimes the 2nd is omitted, 
[because of the mention of what supplies its place (ML),] 
as 

, ' A S.' '? '. A ?.' » ' * ' ■»' a* as 

^ ^ .^ u*-uv* * 3^ ^ ^yS ^ UU 



A w «<«»/ 



cS^J i-^f tjO* # ^J-^f; J**^ ty', 



( 505 ) 

(R, ML), by AlMuthakkib nl'Abdl, Then do thou either 
be my brother in truth, so that I may knoio from thee my 
lean from my fat: and, if not, then reject thou, me, and 
take me as a foe, I shunning thee, and thou shunning me 
(Jsli). The y is inseparable from the 2ud; but some- 
times it occurs without a . , as 

' * * £ 

[544] (R), by AnNuhaif alJadhami, O would that our 
mother, the sole of her foot were turned up, i. e. she died, 
and went either to Paradise or to Hell-fire ! ( Jsh). The 
2nd (DM) U! [which is the con. (544) (DM)] has 5 
meaniugs, [which may be referred to the 1st also, because 
of the inseparability of the two (DM),] (1) doubt, as 

$A*3/$A/S tM / 

yp* Ufj tV.j l*»f ^^^ Either Zaid or l Amr came to me : 

* £ ' Ajlfn,,.^ £ irf A? * A /«; • .» •,*• 

(2) making vague, as *&vi*i W & u f /*^ u)^^* uMJ^S 
*$*!* t— »V4 ^N I-^-* 107. -^ 7i ^ o^Aer* ore reserved for 
the command of God; either He will punish them, or 
He will turn again unto them with forgiveness : (3) detail, 

as \\& u\ 1/U LI Jjulll SUiJiJ) Uf LXXVI. 3. 

£ ' £ ' £ 

Verily We have guided him to the way, whether, or ei- 
ther, about to be thankful, or about to be unthankful, both 
being in the ace. as presumptive ds. s. [to the 8 (K,B) in 

ilijJjfc (K)] : but the KK allow this Ul [in the text (DM)] 

A , * 

to be the cond, ^ and red. U ; while the BB, says 

i 
Mkk, do not allow the n. to come next to the cond. instru- 
4U a 



( 506 ) 
menfc, unless the n. be followed by an expos, v. [23,591], 

A * / §?th*> / I 

as cj^ita- S|j*f .(. IV. 127. .4«tf, «/"a woman (/ear, if) 
she fear, to which ISh retorts that, the understood [».] 
here being ^ , [since the sense is If (he be) thankful, 
(he will be rewarded); and, if (he be) unthankful, (he 
will be punished) (DM),] it is like i>W utfj Ja» uS [98] ; 

(4) giving option, as *#i| jaa£> ^f U|j wti»u J Uf 

#AJ> ' f * £ ' ' £ 

lLu&. XVIII, 85. Do thou\ either punish, or do good to 

<» !A S fi Ax A SAW! 

*/te?n, [constructively £J| i^f Uf J*>| , i.e. Uf J*»f 

A /A *A^> , t w*> S / *S, A , * ' & ' 

^4* ^^aaJJ 3l»l Uf ; ^cwJ (DM)] : (5) allowance. 

as !^km LJ^ t$SJ U| *UJ Zearn /& os either theology ot 
grammar ; but many [apparently with reason (DM)] 
contest the attributabilifcy of this meaning to M (ML). 

A? £ 

f 1 is (1) conj. [538], which is preceded by the Hamza 
(a) of equalization (R, IA, ML), as LXIII. 6. [581] (R, 

/Ax* A? xA /f /A,, J w/ 

ML), whence U^-e r ! U*)a.| U^b s\y~ XIV. 25. ^/i&? 

/ * 

will it be for us whether we be impatient or be patient 

St. StO , 9/ * li 

(IA, ML), i.e. ^d! ; £ai\ (K,B), but not Zuhair's 

" ' A f / A? // I 

saying gS ^yy $pS Uj [1] for the reason given be- 
low (ML) j (b) of interrogation (R, J, DM), supplying 
the place of s \ (IA), whereby together with f S specifiea- 
tion is sought (ML), as >>** f \ c/jo* j^j| [542] /« Zaid 



( 507 ) 

with thee % or i Amr ?, [i. e.vJfd** U^,! Which of them two 
is with thee? (IA)] : but this Hamza [of equalization or 
supplying the place of ^1 (IA)] is sometimes suppressed 
[when there is no fear of ambiguity (I A)], as in [the read- 

m tifish sA$ A Ass $*tf / * 

ing of Ibn Muhaisin ^f f&y±>1 (►«&** s\y II. 5. (28) 
and (IA)] 

ft S SS !\ t hi / s9t\/s 

x ' A? ,/A • A<^ • A •• A / 

d**i r^ j**»M lij^j ^-j***? 
• • i? ' 

[583] (R, IA), by 'Umar Ibn Abi Rabl'a, £y % &/e, / 
Anow no*, eoen though I be knowing, (whether) with seven 
pebbles they pelted the heaps of stones or with eight (J), 

A * $ t * Phi * 

i. e. £**»jf (IA), Z&\ *S)+** [below], and 

6 * 

* * A? / hi /JA^ thj t / 

[by AlAkhtal, Did thine eye play thee false, or didst\thou 
see in WSsU in the last shades of night an apparition of 

hi 

ArRabSb? (Jsh)]; though not often (R): pf is named 
conj. in the two sorts, because what precedes and what 
follows it are not independent one of the other ; and is 
named equivalent also, because it is equivalent to the 
Hamza in importing equalization in the 1st sort, and 
interrogation in the 2nd : but the 2 sorts differ iu that (a) 



( 508 ) 

A* 

the 1st j»l does not require a reply, because the meaning 
with it is not interrog. ; aad the sentence with it admits 
of being pronounced true or false, because it is enuneia- 
tory : whereas the 2nd is not like that, because the inter* 
rogation with it is real : (b) p\\e 1st occurs only between 
two props, renderable by single terms, and (a) verbal, as 
[in LXIII. 6., etc. (DM J,] above; (b) nominal, as in 

fi , i *»(• t » A? «•»• y A si s j As s A/ ,$ f A •/> 

[And I reck not after my losing Malik whether my death 
be distant, or it be now befalling (Jsb)]; (c) dissimilar, 
as in yj^UU ^Ul r f p>yZfo\ fiXe. sS^ VII. 192. It 
will be alike to you whether ye summon them or ye be 
silent', whereas the 2nd occurs between (o) two single 
terms, mostly, as in >U*Jf f | lali. o£\ Juj| LXXIX. 

27. Are ye or the heaven harder to create?, [cv£f being 
an enunc. constructively posterior to the two ns. coupled 
together (DM) J : (b) two props, not renderable by single 
terms, and ( a, ) verbal, as in 

*»?' * '*■" A3 9 HOt 

' t t 

*9t t / fit ti * e / Ki t hj>, 

[by Ziyad Ibn IJamal atTamimi, 7%en / arose became 
of the phantom, terrified ; and it made me sleepless : and 
I said, (Journeyed) she (by night), journeyed she by night, 
or did a vision revisit me f (T, Jsh)], according to the 



( 509 ) 
preferable opinion that ^ [670] is og. to a suppressed 

A t / ' 

[v.] expounded by «yj« ; (3) nominal, as in 

<* / S A B Ax *i t ' * A " 

, A * A.-0 J« / / A$ A/ t A^» * A/ x 

[by AlAswad Ibn Ya'fur, jE^ thy life, I know not, even 
though I be knotting, (whether) Sfm'ailh be son of Sahm 

or Shu'aith be son of Minkar ( Jsh)] , orig, ui^Ax«| with 
the Hamza and Tanwin, which are suppressed by poetic 
license, and similarly in Zuhair's verse above, [construc- 

tively s\*J ffc j»f or {they be) women (DM),] what makes 
ISh erroneously hold it to be of the 1st sort being his ima- 
gining that the sense of interrogation is not intended in it at 
all, because of its incompatibility with the v. of knowledge, 

whereas the reply is that J I* a^j! ut-*k means I knew 

{the reply to) " Is Zaid standing ?", and similarly U 

3 A * / * / A^> £ A / AS ttStt,/ hShtf 

et~*k ; (7) dissimilar, as ^jjSKsaM ^jsoJ ,.! &>yilaa3 ^|J 
LVI, 59. {Create) ye, create ye it, or are We the creators?, 
also according to the preferable opinion that *£»f is an ag. 
(ML): (2) disj., which [is preceded by (a) mere enuncia- 

hf • x /A." (U • A ^ • A# ./ , A^ .» ft, ft 

tion,as ,.1 .jA^Wf w> ^-» &i* i — ^ V ^,UXJ| JjUj Jf 
„ „** , * Z > ' ' ' ' ' ' > r 

8fyo I ^y^i XXXII. 1. 2. AKf—Lam—Mim. The reve- 
lation of the Scripture — there is no doubt about it — is 
from the Lord of the worlds. But they say, He hath 



( 510 ) 
forged it', (b) a Hamza not denoting f real, but disappro- 

*$ t t S *t 9 *aJ AJvS 

hatory (DM)} interrogation, as -I l# ^y**^ J^;' f$ 

X s S As A$ Aft ' 

l# .^iiajjtojf *$f VII. 194. What! have they feet that 

t ' 6 ' 

*Ae# waft toftA ? iVay, Awe tfAey Aara<& JAa/ they assault 
with ?, since the Hamza in that, denoting disapproval, is 
equivalent to negation, after which the conj. does not 

As 

occur; (c) an interrog. other than the Hamza, as j£> 

tfttS it fit t ' 

stfjft «JJ f jl*x XIII. 17. (581J Are the blind and the seeing 
equal? Nay, are the darknesses and the light equal? But 
they have believed Ood to have partners : and (ML)] denotes 
digression (E, IA, ML) from the 1st sentence (R), insepar- 

A t 

ably (ML), like Jl>, [indicating (a) that the 1st occurs by 

f 'S j $«> • s aS a t 

a blunder (R),] as £M l#f , [i. e. s\& ^S Jt nay, (is it) 
sheep? (541) (IA); (b) transition from one sentence to 

S3 A / S t t S(0 $ 

another, not emendation of blunder, as /j*»i L* Jicuf r f 
Kztei XLIII. 15. But hath He gotten from what He 
createth daughters? (R),] and XXXII. 2. (R, IA), I e. 

s S fit 1st 

&$jfa J-- 0- A ) : m & sometimes implies also [the sense 

I wt tS 

of the Hamza of (B)] (a) interrogation, as *^M l$>f ; (£) 

. $ 

disapproval, [as &!**• 8;^w }yU Jj» 8j^»f -aJUSj* J X. 
39. But say they, He hath forged it? Say thou, Then 
bring ye a chapter like ft (R)]: and sometimes not, [as 



( 511 ) 

9 / t » &•" S > A § A * *i lit 

^jxfc* y& ^gJJl liia> ^ ^i. UJ j.| XLIII. 51 iVay, /am 
better than this fellow, who is abject, since interrogation 
has no meaning here; and similarly, when it is followed 

aS 

by an interrog. (R),] as XIII. 17., [the 1st {f! denoting 
•mere digression (DM)} because an interrog. is not pre- 
fixed to an interrog., and the 2nd because the meaning is 
to enunciate of them belief in the partners (ML),} 

A »* § A 9 * 9 Z*> J I A St 

fi oJLa. y0> ^JJj Us> ^J LXVII. 20. But who is this 
that shall be a host for you f, and 

9 h *A 9 fit As/ Si 

*$laA> Sy* l^4U U'f* ^*! 

* tt tf t 

t * AfO t t AS tO t 9 A / / A / A? 

* 9 tht* h9 t 9 th/ / A/ A5 

/S^o C * y • tti 9 th 

' £ *» ' 

(R, ML), by Ufnun atTaghlabi (Jsh), ffow; Aaera they 
requited 'Amir evil for their deed f Nay, how requite they 
me evil for good? But how profits what the she-camel 
that smells the young one, yet refuses to yield her milk, 

is liberal with ( &> being dependent upon l M*> as i. q. 

* / A t " ' 

£*«J ), a fondling of a nose when the milk is begrudged? 

aS 

(DM): the conj. j»J is followed by the single term and 
prop., contrary to the disj., which is followed only by the 
prop, having both terms expressed, or one supplied, as 



( 512 ) 

r* *S $«•/ / A? hi 

iJI tgJ) , i. e. s\& ^Jb [ |.J ] (R): p\ sometimes admits of 
being con;', and disj., whence I fj-ge &WI JJLs JJ&vi JS 

^^JbJ if U &1M ^ ^y^* 3 f»' *«■>■«* *Nt ujlio ^ II. 74. 
*Sqy thou, Have ye gotten mth God a covenant? Then 
Qod will not Jail to keep His covenant. Or, or Nay, say 
ye against God what ye know not?, where Z [followed 

A? 

by B] says that J may be equivalent [to the interrog. 

/ \S 9*i A/ 

Hamza (B)] or duj. [i. q. ^j^^i Jt? (B)], and the say- 
ing of AlMutanabbi 

•S*o jp / */A^> j9/h*9 t Z § * -t Iti 4 s$ 

i. e. One, or six in one, is our little night linked to the 

day of resurrection?, the Hamza being suppressed before 

9 A 

oM, or One is — nay, (it is) six in one, or nay, (is it) six 

in one ?—our etc : (3) red., mentioned by AZ, who says 

4a./ A lii / 9 K9 /A 

that f£» Ul r l ^r^ W XLIII. 50. 51. And see ye 
not? I am etc. [above] is constructively Uf ^%y&Jo Ui» 
£M ; while the redundance is evident in 

' **«* ■ ' A ' /> A / A/ t 

*iii *-t l^a^JI Jju j£»A*M Lgl* J.25 <•} 

by Sa'ida Ibn Ju'ayya [al Hudhalf , O would that I knew 
— and there is no place of escape from, decrepitude — whe- 



( 513 ) 
ther there be any repenting over life after hoariness ! 
(Jsh)] : (4) [599] (ML). 

§ 544. The distinction between $ and Uf is tbat with 

jf the sentence begins [according to outward appearance 
(DM)] with certainty, aud afterwards doubt [ox something 
else (ML)] supervenes, [for which reason ^f is not repeat- 
ed (ML)] ; whereas with U| it is from the first founded 
upon doubt (M, ML) or whatever else Uf is put to denote, 

- £ 

for which reason Ul must be repeated [543] except in an 
£ a. 

extraordinary case (ML). F and Jj do not allow tbat Uf 

# 
is a con., because the 1st is prefixed to what is not coupled 

to anything, while the 2nd is conjoined with the con. 

j (R). The 2nd Uf is a con. according to most [of the 

£ 
GG (DM)] : but Y, F, and IK assert that it is not a con., 

like the 1st; and IM agrees with them, because of its in- 
separability in most cases from the con. . (ML), whereas 
a con. is not prefixed to a con. (DM). The truth is that 

Si 

the j is the con., and U1 denotative of one of the 2 things 
[541], not copulative ; while the ^ in such as iff Uj>| 

[543] is supplied (R). But there is no dispute that the 

s 
1st Uf is not a con., because of its intervention between 

(1) the op. and reg., as )?** Ufj lsjj Uf -£ ; (2) 2 regs. 

£ £ 

* *• a t hs s j> hit 
of the op., as )>** Ul^ fo*>3 U! ws^f s , [the 1st reg. being 

£ £ 

41 u 



( 514 ) 






tbe cw (DM)] ; (3) the an*, and its subst, as to! ^ 
L>LJJ Uj ; v fJ.«M U! ^jJf ji U ! ; f ; XIX, 77. CtoftV, 
when they see what they are threatened with, either chas- 

2 y f y /Ar° y SS *y 5 y 

tisement or the hour. The U| in lo=>-f v&*M ** *j>.y Ul» 

# ' ^' "■> « 

XEX. 26. ^«rf, if thou do see of mankind any one is not 

a /v .» 

one of the kinds of UJ ; but is the cond. ^ and red, U 

[589, 612] (ML). 

, us h \ 

§ 545. V, Jj, nnd ^ are alike in that their cou- 

<• *' A f 

pled is contrary to the ant. (M). 1/ , J; , and ^ denote 
[reference of the predicament to (Jm)] one of the 2 things, 
[the coupled and ant. (Jm),] when specific (IH). Jl 
donotes negation of what is affirmed of the 1st (M Z). 
M [has 3 conditions:— (1) it (ML)} is preceded by (a) 

4 A / y 4 Ay m / 

aiBrination, [as jj»* V ojj it*. Zaid came, not l Amr 

*»Ay y 0H, h A 

(IA, ML)]; (b) command, [as tj** V f^j vr ef 5 ca * 
*Ao« #aid, wo£ '4«ir (IA, ML)] ; (c) vocation (IM, ML), 

J>A/ y J>l\, y 

says S (ML), ss ,?** V ^ b [49]. but not by nega- 
Hon, as j;** V <H) **=* t*» (IA): (2) it is not conjoined 

4 Ay Ay y $fly y««y 

■with a cow.: so that in tf** Ji M i*ij ^^. the con. is 
Jj , and « a refutation of what precedes it ; and in U 

4 A * " §Ay trtf f 

yr& V) ih] us- 5 '^ [547, 566] the con. is the ; , and U 
a corroboration of the negation : while this [last] es 



( 515 ) 

Contains another preventive from coupling by V , vid. 
precedence of negation ; and both [preventives] are com- 
bined in I. 7. [539] also: (3) its ant. and coupled are 

$ Ht t i St trit 

opposed one to the other, so that ojj N J^ ^Ji^ is 
not allowable, because the name of man is applicable to 

§iyt\^> t § fi s tt* , 

Zaid, contrary to Sl^l V Ja.^ ^^ A man came to me, 
not a woman. [Some add a 4th condition, vid. that its 
unt. and coupled should be single terms, not props. ; but 
the truth is that it does couple props, that have a place in 

SSht t S St $fty SSHt t Sht S St 

inflection, as i**Sj> W ^^5* jjj } whereas a*m. N <J«jj pfii 
is not allowable (DM).] It may couple to the reg. of 
the prei. »., contrary to the opinion of Zji, who allows 
«** V i*j»3 fi*ii but not jj*e V jjj j.li" : Imra alKais 
says 

fSnA S t» r t St S tS St •/•/ fit 5 £/ 

(ML) As though Dithar (the herdsman of Imra alKais), 
the eagle of mount Tanufa had soared away with his 
milch-camels, not the eagle of the little hills AlKawa'il 

At 

(Jsh). i}* denotes digression (M, Z, ML) from the Isi, 
whether denied or affirmed (M, Z): then, (1) if it be 
followed by a prop., the meaning of the digression is (a) 

§ t Ay St t ft ^ fitt s i a Z>i*> t t Cr* s tt 

annulment, as oU* Jj fiJlsuw JuJj ^j*^! ii=«J !•!£» 

r sths ' 

»%*j£» XXL 26. And they said " 7%e Compassionate 
hath gotten offspring" Extolled be His perfection/ 



( 516 ) 
Nay, (they are) honored servants, i. e. oU* *S> J> , and 

m ,tt^ hJ> >~* nt § 2 , » t/ hi ' 

£sdS\> jas^ Jj &JU *i ^fi r f XXIII. 72. Or say 
/Aey "1ft Aotf/ia devil" f Nay, he hath brought unto them 
the truth ; (b) transition from one subject to another, as 

t I t l\<° • J> «■» Ax £/x u /M «« Sxx Ax • •*? Ay 

UijJI LXXXVII. 14—16. He hath prospered that hath 
purified himself, and celebrated the name of his Lord, 
and prayed: but ye prefer the present life and k-jKT liujJt 

<»/ A** J J Ax x St \S t t\ St at h(0 f tkt ' 

Kyi. ^J {#)£ Jj ^y*^i. V ffrj jaaJb jLaij XXIII. 

64. 65. And We have a record that speaheth the truth, and 
they shall not be wronged: but their hearts are in an 
abyss : and in all of that it is an inceptive p., not copula- 
tive ; while another ex. of its prefixion to the prop, is 

m tt Ax tt S S ht 

£M ob J-j [515], since the full phrase is i>L v^m J> 

SS& tt A tbi° t ' S 1st 

ft£*Ja» w-i-eyi iti# \~iy-cy* : (2) if followed by a single 
terra, it is copulative: then, (a) if preceded by command 

J? A/ lit «ht A A 

or affirmation, as \y+* J* lo^) v>**' ^ at f hou Zaid: 

ih t *t 4 ** * t ' ' 

nay, l Amr and ^^** Jj lwj f& Z'tirf stood: noy, i Amr, it 
makes what precedes it to be like the unspoken, so that 
nothing is predicated about it, and [makes (DM)] the 
predicament to be attributable to what follows it ; (b) if 
preceded by negation or prohibition, it confirms what 
precedes it in its state [of negation or prohibition (DM)], 
and assigns the contrary [affirmation or command 



( 517 ) 

$ n a A * § A / tt t 

(DM)] to what follows it, as y^& Jj l>j>j p® U Zaid has 

§ A * A * {«/ A 3* / 

not stood, but '•Amr and yy* Jj vJ-ij Jb V .Le* «oi Zaid 
stand, but l Amr. But Mb and AW allow it to transfer 
the sense of negation or prohibition to what follows it ; 

and, according to their saying/ K**£ Jj LilS aS) l*[Zaid 

t t AS 

is not standing; nay, not sitting (DM)] and i**6 J* [but 
(he is) sitting (DM)] are correct [108, 146], while the 
sense is contrary : and the KK disallow its being used to 
couple after anything but negation and its like, [e. g. 

• 5 Ay * A • S A / * 

prohibition (DM),] Hsh saying that u*y Ji fo^j v3-*>y& 
is absurd ; and their disallowance of that notwithstanding 
their vast stock of quotations is a proof of its rarity. 
V is added before it to corroborate (1) the digression 
after affirmation, as 

A/ Ay t A 3 <<» / / J>A / A»e , S A s 
S S>f t& if tl * AS • AJ> 

[ Thy face is the full moon : no, nay, it would be the sun, 
if eclipse or setting were not ordained for the sun Jsh)] : 
(2) the confirmation of what precedes it after negation j 

but IDh disallows the addition of V after negation, which 
is of no account because of 

fist t / A/ / -PASS ft 

*t s s s // $ A J/ it / 



( «8 ) 
[And I forsook thee not: no } but forsaking and distance 
protracted not to an appointed term increased me in fond- 

A I 

ness (Jsh)}. ^ , (1) if followed by a sentence, [i.e. 
prop. (DM),] is an inceptive p. merely importing emen- 
dation, not copulative : and may be used (a) with the j , 
as XL1II. 76. [166]; (b) without it, as 



y A P /■ /f-'sA • 



S f t^S A / 6,0 ^J> M/ , n | 

by Zuhair, {Verily Ibn Warkd, his hasty Jits of passion 
are not feared; but his shocks in battle are dreaded (Jsh)] : 
(2) if followed by a single term, is copulative, provided 
that it be (a) preceded by negation or prohibition, as 

$ A • A I $ A .• / / / 

3)** n>^ ^3 fk' **• Zaid has not stood, but i Amr and 

§A./ A I $A/ A^y • 

»** cJ 5 ^ ^3 f"* ^ ^ e * "°* ^ a ^ sian d> but l Amr; so that, 

' i A /■ / / A I 

if you say <±>j f& Zaid stood, and then put Jd , you 
make it an inceptive p., and therefore put the prop., 

US/ As $ A/ A I 

saying fi>, J yy+e ^ but 'Amr stood not, while the KK 

$A, A i ' I 

allow yy** a& by coupling, which has not been heard : 

(b) not conjoiued with the y , as F and most of the GG- 
say; while some say that it is not used [as a con. (DM)] 
with the single term except with the y : and [agreeably 

with these two theories] (a) ^i in such as ^i^ oS) *& U 

$ A/ ' ' 

yj*e is, (») as Y says, not copulative, [but denotative of 



( 519 ) 

emendation (DM),] while the ^ couples a single term to 
a single term ; ( 3) as IM says, not copulative, while the 
y couples a prop, partly suppressed to a prop, wholly 

expressed, the full phrase, says he, in £lf pis U being 

$ A / / • A Sf 

)]+*■ pis ^ZSy but 'Amr (has stood), and in XXX 1 1 1. 40. 

[539] &U| Jy*>) i^S £1) but (he is) the etc, because the 

y does not couple a single term to a single term that is con- 
trary to the coupled in affirmation and negation, whereas 
the two props, coupled together [by the ^ ] may be contrary 

4 *> hf* *'* in/ j / 

one to the other in that respect, as yy+* *Sj Jj t*£J r & ; 
(7) as IU says, copulative, while the y is red., insepara- 
ble; (8) as IK says, copulative, while the _j is red. r 

not inseparable: (b) J>\k> SS Jla J.*.y ^^ U has 

been heard with the gen. through (a) coupling, say 
some, I have not passed by a good man, but a bad; 
( B ) a supplied prep., say others, i. e. JUa> «^* J$ 
but (I have passed by) a bad (ML). 



CHAPTER V. 



THE NEGATIVE PARTICLES. 

i _^_ 

§ 546. Tbey are U, V, J, U ,/J , and J,l (M). 
U denotes negation (1) of Me present, [in the cor. or 
nominal prop. (AA),] as J*% U He does not [and U 

$ • A S i A/ s A S 

jX'*** oj) (M, A A) or talku* (38), according to the two 
dials. (M)] ; (2) 0/ i/te pas£ approximate to the present, 
as J«> U He has not done (M, Z). U , (1) if prefixed to 
the nominal prop., is made by the Hijazls, Tihamls, 
and Najdls to govern like j»d on known conditions, as 
XII. 31. and LVIII. 2. [107]; but is extraordinarily 
compounded with the indet., by assimilation to [the gene- 
tic neg. (Jsh)] 1* [547], as 

**fi * *h// A 2s A/ /Jy •/ 

&Aaa7 lijdc vasOt J «*b U« 

/•.P • £ / A^ J A/ Ay // 4 /> 

[And no harm is that she has returned to us a salutation 
whose fault is small according to him that knows the truth, 
««U being its sub., uninfl. with it upon Fath, in the place 
of an ace, and *>Oj y its pred., i. e. lfiu> (DM)] : (2) 
if prefixed to the verbal prop., does not govern, as Uj 



( 521 ) 

JT«« A> /nt h*B 5 t a its 

&1JJ &alj iliJO| Iff ^%5aJj II. 274. Nor do ye expend 
save from seeking the face of God ; while U in [the pre- 

AJ> JM? f A / A J> A J •/ 

ceding words] *£**i>U» j#L >« f *2iiJ' U. ^nd whatso~ 
ever bounty ye expend, {it is) fur yourselves and [thesuc- 

t>J>/>s Z,3 A t A > O // 

ceeding words] *£aJ1 cJ^i ^a. .* 1 yiii-> U^ ^nd tcAatf- 

# # ' ' 

soever bounty ye expend, it shall be fully repaid unto you 

is cond. [180], as is proved by the ci iu the 1st and by 

the apoc. [of the correl. (DM)] in the 2nd. When it 

negatives the aor., the latter becomes a pure present 

according to the majority ; but IM refutes them with 

«Juw| ^1 ^J ^X U Ji" X. 16. Say thou, It will not be 
for me to change it, to which it is replied that the condi- 
tion of its denoting the present is absence of a context 
to the contrai-y. The reg. of an op. conjoined with the 

neg. U [498] must be posterior [to the op., because U 
has the first place unrestrictedly, in (the correl. of) an oath 

fits § A< / / r t i> <"• fbt % A/ t s * * 

or not, as \y* uSJ.3 <*->y0 U &U( 5 or \y+* oj>j t_->^ U, 

so that !>** may not precede the op. in the two exs., 

contrary to V (547) (DM)]. Suppression of the neg. U 
in the correl. of the oath is mentioned by IMt : while IM, 
citing 

t/P />/ A/ s H9 S»li , // AJA t i *Os, 

i_,.laL. if. "jj. JS**x+> * *£*-• J.*;' U. JC!> U &li|y 

\Then by God, what ye have obtained and what has been 

obtained from you are (not) equivalent, proportionate, 
42 a 



( 522 ) 

nor approximate (Jsh)], says tbat its o.f. is J& U U ; 
and then supplies the ellipse in some of his books with 
the neg., and in some with the conjunct, U (ML). 

§ 547. V denotes negation (1) of the future, as V 
Jjiib He will not do : (2) of the past, [upon condition of 

repetition (Z),] as J~e ^ JjJ-a & LXXV. 31. i<br /t<? 
believed not, nor prayed ; [and sometimes when not re- 
peated, as Jji* V i& did not (Z), and 



Asss / * u# • A« ni*y A/'/A^ / 



(M, AA), by Ibn Al'Afif al'Abdl, And he was among his 
female neighbours unscrupulous: then what (62) evil mat- 
ter did he notf (SM, Jsh)]: (3) general, [i. e. of the genus 
of what it is prefixed to, being tben named the generic 

neg. V (A A),] as jIjJ! ^ Js^ V Not a, or No, man is in the 

house : (4) not general, [i. e- of an individual of the genus 

of what it is prefixed to (A A), as Sl^l V ; % l«jif ^ J^, If 

^4 man is not in the house, nor a woman and J jjj V 
$*• •• a ^ ' 

ypt. My jjloJI Zaid is not in the house, nor 'Amr (M)] : 

(5) of command, as Jju3 W Z)o Mow rco£, whicb is named 

prohibition: ((5) of prayer (M, Z), as &U| t_£l*> if Gorf 

&eep tfftee not (M), which is named deprecation (Z). If is 

(1) neg., which is of five kinds. (;i) op. like ^t [99], vid. 



{ 523 ) 

when negation of the genus unequivocally is intended by 
it, in which case it is named e&emptive, [because it indi- 
cates exemption from that genus as respects the negation 
of the predicaraeut from its individuals (DM)] : ( a ) the 
ace. appears in its sub, only when the latter governs the 
gen., as 

2^/9 hfi £ s$ // y AS t>i& t,/ /ft/ 'A/ /«/ // 

' £ 4> * ' ' ? 

by Abu-tTayyib [alMutannbbi, And not a robe of glory, 
other than the robe oflbn Ahmad, upon any one is aught 

but patched with ignominy (W)] ; or norm., as li~*=s. V 

S *«/ Sfft §***/*** * n t / 

- v*«i-» *JU* ; or acc, as j-sb* %*. Wile U , whence !>&*■ ^ 

//A A/ A A/ A 

UjJLt: jj) «• , [because 0^.3 ^ is in the place of an ace. 
(DM),] and Jf HftB US [1]: (B) this 3/ differs from "» 
in 7 ways: — (a) it governs only indets. [100] : (6) its 
sub., when not op., is uninfl., because, as some say, it 

A 

implies the sense of the totalistic ^ [99] ; or because, 

as others say, it is compounded with V [546] after the 

manner of y^ &-* *£» : (c) its pred. is governed in the 

§ <»/ / j / / 
«om., when its smo. is aprothetic, as JG Ja.; V , by what 

the enunc. was governed in the nom. by before its pre- 

fixion, [vid. by the inch., i. e. Ja.; (DM),] not by it, 

[because V is compounded with the sub., so that they 
become like one word, and occupy the place of the inch., 
but By reason of its composition is too weak to govern 



( 524 ) 

the pr ed. (DM)]: so says S, but Akh and the majority 
disagree with him [36] : (d) its pred. does not precede its 
sub., even if it be an adv. or [prep, and (DM)] gen. 
[100, 34]: (e) [102, 528]: (/) it may be made inop. when 

repeated [100], as jJi J^a. U [105]; and you may pro- 
nounce the two subs, with Fath, or put both into the 
nom., or treat one in one way and the other in the other, 
[or pronounce the 1st with Fath and put the 2nd into 

the ace. with Tanwln (DM),] contrary to such as ^1 

i>Jf Usa* [35], where the ace. is unavoidable: (g) [37, 

35] : (b) op. like j~*J, as £M u-s ^ [38], where they 
do not construe it to be made inop., and the nom. to he by 
inchoation, because then its repetition would be neces- 
sary; which requires consideration, because it may be 

omitted in poetry : (a) this N idiffers from j>*d in three 
ways : — (a) its government is so rare that it is even assert- 
ed not to be found : (&) the mention of its pred. is so rare 
that Zj, not having met with lit, asserts that V governs 
the sub. exclusively, and that its pred. is in the worn.; 
which is refuted by g\ 'fZ [107] : (c) it governs only 
indets, [38], contrary to the opinion of IJ and ISh; but 
iJf liiJa^ [107] appears to occur according to their say- 
ing, [though it may be orig. k*k ^l** ^ or Ucb «J If 
the pre. «. or «?. being suppressed (DM),] while AIMut- 
auabbi founds £M OjaaJf fjj [107] upon it: (S) if V 



( 525 ) 

3 i" y 9 / y 

^L>Jf ^ Ja,^ be said with Fath, V must be a generic neg.', 
while ia corroborating it V\yA Jj but a woman is said: but 

• y Ay 

if it be said with the nom., V must be op. like j**! , and 
may not be made imp., otherwise it would be repeated, 
as will be shown [in (e)] ; and admits of denotiug nega- 
tion of the genus or negation of unity ; while in corroborat- 
ing it in the 1st case 8l^»l Jj, and in the 2nd ^^n J* 

6«^ too wen or Jl^) 7»erc is saich many wrongly assert 

• / h* 

that the V op. like ^^J is only neg. of unity, but they 

— ~" $5yA.-» /, %St y 

are refuted by such as£M 'fZ :(7) if ^ Sf^«f )iy JL^> If 
y\dS be said with the nom. of both, the 1st ^ admits of 
having been orig. op. like ^jl , then made inop. because 
of its repetition, so that what follows it is in the nom. by 

y Ay 

inchoation ; or of being op. like j~rf , so that what fol- 
lows it is in the nom. by it: and the adv., if in either case 
you construe the 2nd V to be [red. as (DM)] a repeti- 
tion of the 1st, and what follows it to be coupled [to the 
inch, or sub. (DM)], is enunc or pred. of both ns.; but, 
if you construe the 1st ^ to be made inop. and the 2nd 
to be op. like j-jJ, or the converse, is enunc. or pred. of 
one of them, the pred. or enunc. of the other being sup- 
pressed, as in J& yj**) *i) [29] > not of both, lest one 

' y 

enunc. or pred. be governed in the nom. [as enunc. (DM)] 



( 526 ) 

and ace. [as pred. (DM)], and two ops. [the inch, and V 
(DM)] be concentrated upon one reg.: (c) copulative 

[545]: (d) repl., opp. of **> [556]; after which V the 

props, are often suppressed, aa V ivo, (Ae came not) said 

& x A, , 

in reply to "Came Zaid to thee?", orig. { jso J V : (e) 
other than the foregoing, in which case its repetition is (a) 
necessary, if what follows it be ( a ) a nominal prop, headed 

*AS <° ft tt'brB / hS A 3 // *A^ J>A3 <■*> • 

byaefe*.,as J*NI ^ j*£M lJ;uw ^ l$f ^i* j«*<£J| V 
»l$JJ| JjU XXXVI 40. If behoveth not the sun to 

overtake the moon, nor doth the night outstrip the day; 
or by an indet. not governed by it, [because, if it govern 
the indet., it belongs to (a) or (b) (DM),] as XXXVII. 46. 
[100], where the repetition is necessary, [because, when 
the pred. precedes, the government is annulled, and, when 
the government is annulled, repetition is necessary (100) 
(DM),] contrary to LII. 23. [105]: ( Q)b.v. literally and 
constructively pret., as LXXV. 31.; while the repetition 

is omitted in £>! U&* J'3 ^j [59] and 

^Jia^ ^ 1M ^jaav^w * JiD ^lyJI J SlJ| ufjb 1/ 

[by 'Ubaid Allah Ibn Knis ArRukayyat, God bless not the 
/air-faced women (720). Do they enter upon the morn- 
ing, hut they have a desire f (Jsh)] only because, what 
is meant being deprecation, [benediction in the 1st and 
malediction in the 2nd (DM),] the v. is future in sense j 
and similarly, except that it is not a deprecation, in 



( 527 ) 

9SS XX '»$*> X U! .»«.*» J> A t 

*$flj>* UJoJI' ^ »AA=H«Jt U^»A 

.Px X X X Ax A .0AX S X X .^ A r°/ 

[Sufficient for lovers is their torment in the world. By 
God, Hell will not torment (615) them after it (DM)]; 

e* XX XXX 

and anomalously in zb\ tZSjs* ^J> ^JS* [above] and 

SSx? x x x Ax 5£x S3 x A Ay £^Jb^ Ax A 

Uf ^ lJCJ Oo* ^f^ * Ua. ^iiJ .^UJ ^iij ^j 

by Abu Khirash alHudbali, [if TViow forgive, God, 
Thou wilt forgive much. And what servant of Thine 

has not done amiss t (Jsb)] : (7) a single term, an enunc, 

§ * » j * / s»' 

d. s., or ep., as \~^K Vn y&& M ^.j Zaid is not a poet, 

x * 

& * s* f x x § Ax X**X 

nor a writer, UJl; Vj lCa.L3 V ^ /la. Zaid came, not 
laughing, nor weeping [74], and II. 63 [149] : (b) not 

us 

necessary, if what it is prefixed to be an aor. v., as JS 
£lf &aU *fiU\ V XLII. 22. Say thou, I etc. [18]: while 
the aor. becomes by its means a pure future, according 

f Ax x«x 

to most ; but IM disagrees with them, because ojj /la. 



S\A* *f W 



ASub 1/ Zaid came, not speaking is correct by common 
consent, whereas the prop. d. s. is by common consent not 
headed by an indication of the future [80] : (a) among 
the kinds of neg. V is the one intervening between the 

A X / A f A x 

prep, and gen., as s^J* M ^ ct~«*ac / was angry at 

$ x x 

nothing [99], which according to the KK is a n, [i. q. 



( 528 ) 



ja* (DM)], the prep, being prefixed to it, and what fol- 
lows it governed in the gen. by prothesis; but which 

■ othershold to be a p., and name red., as they name ^ 
~» $ / / / i*/ 

in J-^li iJS t^.) Zaid was excellent [450,566] red., 

. though it imports preteriteness and cessation [481], so 

■* that by red. they sometimes mean intervening between 

' two tilings requiring one another, even if the fundamental 

meaning would be made iucorruct by dropping it, as in the 

case of if , or a meaning would be missed by omitting it, as 

in the case of ^ : ( B) similarly they name the U con- 

ik / // § H/ /m/ s 

joined with the con. in ,U^ U^ cwj ^/la. L« Zaid has 
not come to me, nor l Jmr [545] red. [566], whereas it is 

§ A // $ l\/ /*• / / 

decidedly not red., since jjf*^ *H) J^ ^* Zaid and 
k Amr have not come to me may mean ?iegation of the com- 
ing of each of them in every state or negation of their 
being united in the time of coming, whereas, when V 
is put, the sentence denotes the 1st meaning unequivo- 
cally; but in XXXV. 21. [539] U does denote mere cor- 
roboration: (7) the intervention of V between the prep. 

I* £ A / 

and gen., as ^ c^**&* , the subjunctlval and sub/'., as II. 
145. [90], and the apocopative and apoc, as VIII. 74. 
[419], and its being preceded by the reg. of what follows 

,S/ * */ */*/ / /ill/ /n J>S/ %/ /h/ 

it, as 1#Uj>! K^Ju ^iu. If ui>) ciA»! Jim Jib -jj VI. 

%. / / / 

159. On the day that some i>f the signs of thy Lord shall 



( 529 ) 

come its belief shall not profit a soul prove tbat it has not 

* 
the 1st place, contrary to U [546], unless indeed it occur 

in the correL of the oath, because the ps. that the oath is 

correlated with [652] all have the 1st place, for which 

reason S says that 



f h/M 



&**M y&oJ| ,j'/*M t-^»- et-jJf 

* t 

«»kwJ| &>,jEi| ,» &lTb i mT ^sai\y 

[by AlMutalammis, Thou hast sworn by God (about) the 
grain ofAl'IrSk, that I shall (not) ever taste it, when the 
grain, the weevil eats it in the city AlHlra (Jsh)] is con- 

structively jl^*M u-^^ ^ [514], not of thecal of !oj>j 

sen,, ' ' ' **,\i t 

&iy6 [62], because the full phrase &**M M is the correL 

* A /«•» t 

of o*d\ , [and, V in the correl. of the oath having the 
1st place (below), what follows it does not govern what 
precedes it, and what does not govern does not expound an 
op. (DM)] t (2) applied to denote requisition of relinquish- 
ment, which is exclusively prefixed to the aor., aud neces- 
sarily involves its being apocopated and future, whether 

the person required from be of the 2nd pers., as f^SaaJG V 

iUJJ (fy±*) S^ kX. 1. Take ye not My foes and your 

foes as friends-, or 3rd,as *UM j»/W| ^j*-**" <ia=wu If 

III. 27. Let not the believers take the unbelievers as 

friends', or 1st, as U*& i-^.; 1 ^ £e* me not see thee here 

[611] and 

43 a 



( 530 ) 

S / S / * / tKi iff / t / t * 3 */A/ * / A< J> 

)\y3 j-UJ UfcjUjJ ^tf* * l$K*fj* l^J». I)}) ^jSjtf V 

[by AnNabigha adhDhubyanl, Let me not know a herd 
of wild cattle (here metaphorically applied to women), 
whose eyes are jet black, as though their maidens were 
wild cows of Dawwdr (Jsh)], in which sort the effect is 
put into the place of the cause, the o. f. being Be thou 
not here so that I see thee : ( a, ) there is no difference as 
regards the fact that the requisitive ^ necessarily in- 
volves apocopation between (a) its importing prohibition, 
[i. e. requisition of relinquishment from the superior to 
the inferior (DM),] whether the prohibition be proscrip- 
five, [i.e. obligatory (DM),] as above, or supererogatory, 
[i.e. not obligatory (DM),] as *XLu J-^aJ| \y~J3 JL 
II. 238. And forget ye not beneficence among you, and 
(b) its denoting {a) deprecation, [i. e. requisition from the 
inferior to the superior (DM),] as II. 286. [419], 

LJUC* VI i*»*M ^K* yjif; * l J^f i 'H f&) OowJ 1/ ^A 
[by Malik Ibn ArRaib alMazini, They say, Mayst thou 
not perish, when they as it were bury me alive in this 
waterless desert. And where is the place (i. e. there is no 
place) of remoteness save my place t (Jsh)], and 

/ /i «// S^.0 A / /3/ A/ A t ,, f , f,, n, f . 



[by a man of the Banu Bakr . Ibn Wa'il, Then may a 
hand not wither away, that slew u Amr unawares. For 



( 331 ) 
verily thou shall not be abased nor wronged (Jsli)], while 
either prohibition or deprecation may be meant by 

A 9* f t X A X A X A X X X - 

* ' s 

9 ,9 A.-0 x x X x * ,i /x 



[by AlWalid Ibn'Ukba, When we go forth from Damas- 
cus, let us, or mm) we, not return to it ever, so long as 
the glutton Mu'awiya continues to be in it ( Jsh)], or (b) 
entreat if, as in your saying to your fellow, when [you 

A X Ax X 

are (DM)] not assuming superiority over him, J-*& V 
\JS Do thou not stu'h a thing : (0) the predicament is 
similar when U becomes excluded from requisition to 
denote something else, like intimidation in your snying 
to your child or slave ^ixLaS V Obey me not.', [meaning 

XX 

to frighten him with the intimation that, if he disobey, 
lie will be punished (DM)]. The reg. of an op. con* 
joinud with [the neg.] V in the corrcl. of an oath must 
h(-, posterior [to the op. (DM)]; and the saying of some 
that ^1 ws-iJi [above] is of the cat. of distraction is a 
mistake, [though ytoJf in a reg. of what follows it, mcro 
latitude being allowed iu ades. than in anything else 
(-198,000) (DM)]. Suppression of the neg. V other 
than the ^ of exemption [103] (1) is regular in the correl. 



( 532 ) 

of the oath when tlie negatived is an aor., as XII. 85. 
and j£\ efc-ia* [454] : but is rare with the pret., as 

^ • / • • X • 

[by Umayyalbn AbrA'idh alHudhali, 77tcw, if thou wilt, 
I will sioear between the station of Abraham and the cor- 
ner of the Ka'ba and the black stone, I will (not) for gel 
thee so long as my reason shall continue to be with me : 
I will prolong it throughout (he period of eternity (DH), 
where the suppression is easy because the v. is future in 

sense (DM)] ; though it is facilitated by precedence of U 
before the oath, as 



■ e .-**> Zif» 



bUxJJ j K/LJb |^*fi> $ t5 H i ^> jaaJI ^U fiJJfj Ui 

* * ' r ' ' 

[by AlMunakhkhal, Then no, by God, the tribe cried 
(not) to my guest to be still with ill-treatment and hosti- 
lity (DM, Jsh)] : (2) has been heard without the oath, as 

A / n t i/»t / / a,, 



t> fit 



[by AnXamir Ibn Taulab, And my saying, when they 
turn their he-camel loose, is " Ye will (not)Jind him until 
AlMunakhkhal return" (SM)] aud, say some, «.U I vuj> 

& * A ? lift ' 

V - ^* u>' f^IV. 175. Qod ea-plaineth to you thutyemay 
(not) err, i. e. UXJ [566. 571]. 



( 533 ) 

A/ 

§ 548. J is an apocopative p., denoting negation [of 
the accident (DM)] of the aor., and conversion [of the 
time (DM)] of it into a past : but sometimes the v. is in 
tbe ind. after it, as 

y h*B , 9 9 A, <wyA/lS^> t K* *9f*h%/ A.P A * // /«/ 

[If horsemen of the tribe of AVm anrf ^/itfir kinsmen had 
no£ been present on the day of tbe battle of AsSulaifd, 
they would not have fulfilled the covenant of the neigh- 
bour (Jsh)], which is said by some to be a poetic license, 
and by IM to be a dial. var. ; and Lb asserts that some 
of the Arabs make it govern the subj., as in the reading 



• r a t rt/f 



[of Abu Ja'far AlMansur (K)] ^ f\ XCIV. 1. [556] 
and 

A 9 A/ hi //h» Ax A/? A $ */M f m/ A,/ u$ 

• • * * * * r f * 

[by AlHarith Ibn AlMundhir alJarmi, J/i which of my 
two days shall I flee from death t The day when it has not 
been decreed, or the day when it has been decreed? (Jsh)], 

A • • A x h * t h9 

explained as orig. ^y&J and ^)<^i [611, 614]: and 
sometimes it is separated from its apoe. in poetic license 
by the ado., as 

• A/ t h<a 9 A * f hf/ * f * 

Srtt A/B t 9 A 9 S ^ t. 9f 



( 534 ) 

Then that (is so) : nor, when we doubt, art thou among 
men such that doubt reaches thee and 

f fi fi fi 9 / f / * Ay fl$s 

>«< A yA,<9 y hi t ax A*£y 

[by Dbu -rRumma, T%ew her abodes became such that 
their traces were wastes, as though they were not peopled 
by any save people of the wild beasts (Jsh), according to 

the saying that ^y (89) is an adv. (DM)]; or is fol- 
lowed immediately by the n. when [the latter is] a reg. to 
a suppressed v. expounded by what follows it, as 

/ /A/ JyA? n/ y y Ayy fifih Sfi * * S fi h fi 

', / J " j» ' ' ' x x /• 

(ML) I was thought, when poor, to be possessed of wealth •• 
afterwards I obtained it ; Me« no* (ofo'rf I meet) a possessor 
of hope, did I meet him, not gioing to him of my pro- 
perty (Jsh). The negation of the [aor.~] negatived by 

Ay fi A y *> A y A fit Ay 

J is (1) discontinuous, as \)f±+ HxZ ^ ^1 LXXVI. 1. 
(Wherein) he was not a thing remembered, meaning that 
afterwards he was so ; (2) continuous with the present, as 

S y i» y t "tfi * ** *" 

UH& ^s \j5\*i±> S\ J) XIX. 4. Nor have I been in 
praying Thee, my Lord, unprosperous ; (3) perpetual, as 
* CXII. 3. 4. [404] (Sh). U is peculiar to the aor., which 

AX 

it apocopates, negatives, and converts into a past, like J , 
except that it differs from the latter in five matters : — 



( 535 ) 

(1 ) it is not conjoined with a cond. instrument : U ^ 
ft is not said, whereas V. 71. [419] and V. 77. [601] 
are in the Revelation: (2) its negatived is perpetually 
negatived until the present, as 

S/£ mtt A hit S / l» tilt A 9 s 9&t J> A9 A * 

X r \ u ; jSy& v\) * jri ^ jz i//u c^r ^ 

[by AlMumazzak, Then, if I be a subject , 5e *Aoa a mos£ 
excellent king: and, if not, relieve thou me when I have 
not yet been torn to shreds (Jsh)] ; whereas the negatived 

Ay 

of J admits of continuity, as XIX. 4., and discontinuity, 
as LXXVI. 1.: (3) [the beginning of the negation of 

Sis 

(DM)] the negatived of UJ is only near to the present ; 
whereas that is not prescribed as a condition in the nega- 

ht 9 tl>*> tlitO 5 Ay A 9t Ay m* 

tived of fi, as Uaju ^UM r UM ^ tw,j ^i J , not U 

A 9t 

Si. : but I'M. says that it is not prescribed as a condition 

His A /A/ 25/s £3s S h s f 

in the negatived of UJ , as j»lWJ LJj &*) ^j-aM 1 _s* ac 

Jife disobeyed his Lord, and has not yet repented j but is 

prevalent, not necessary : (4) the negatived of W is ex- 
Ay 
pected to be realized, contrary to the negatived of J , since 

tf 9 St *** A* 

,_,}»** f £y Jj U Jj XXXVIII. 7. But they have not yet 
tasted My chastisement means that they have not tasted it 
until now, but that their tasting it is expected, while Z 

- A9 99 9 * A^o 9 lit Stt 

says on *&& J J+tV\ J*-*i ^i XL1X. 14. When 
belief hath not yet entered into your hearts that the seuse 



( 536 ) 

of expectation in UJ indicates that these did believe after- 
wards : (5) the negatived of U may be suppressed 
because of indication, as 

Ax A t Axx x ts>t>*3 J> A x xx &,, f A , S$ , S>S> S A x 

[by AlMuthakkib al'Abdi, Then I came to their graves 
when I was a chief, and not yet {had I been a chief before^ 
that)} and I called to the iniiiates of the graves, and they 

X I xA x ?A x A »i Sxx 

answered me not (Jsh)], i. e. i_xfj J-o la> SS U« , 
[where the expectation and continuity with the present are 
as it were with regard to the constructive time of ante- 

Axx f thf x 9 \t * Axx 

riority (DM)]; whereas jJj «ifd.« ^1 vsJUsj meaning J^ 

xAJ>A$ £ 

(g&ol is not allowable : the cause of all these prediea- 
ments being that J denotes negation of J*j [ife did or 

3x /// Ax 

has done (DM)], and U of J** uw [/7e Aas done (DM)]. 

And Ul occurs compounded of (1) [3] words in the 

reading of Ibn 'Aniir, Hatnza, and Hafs *§si*j*l U Uf J. 

i/J XL 113. [521] dnd verily all of them are of them that 
by God, assuredly thy Lord will fully repay their works, 

x A X 

according to those who say that the o.f. is U ^ j 

«w / t ft S A?x Six ' 

(2) two words in £lf iJJ>ji ty ^ify ^ [498], the o./! being 
U J , which ought to be written separately, while i*^«f 

XX? 

is not coupled to £o! , but governed in the subj. by 



( 53? ) 

^f understood, ^ and the v. being coupled to J^f 
upon the principle of £*( »jUc jj"^ [418. A.] (ML). 



§ 549. ^yl denotes corroboration [in some MSS. per- 
petuation (AA)] o/^Ae negation of the future conveyed by 

* ft* hiK*> 9/bi / 

V (M, Z): you say ^K* ^j c>i \ V 1 shall not quit ?»y 

A t 

place to-day • but, when you corroborate and asseverate, ^ 
jw 1-fS I will not quit etc. : the Kur'an says ^^ c j> I H 

A / A yA^o • y A / x*A? 

^jjjsxjf ^su £1*} XVIII. 59. 1 shall not cease to journey 

t/K& A // 

until I reach the confluence of the two seas and r y>S *l> 

lS*' J uJ^tS* 3 "' c5*>^ XII# 80 * Therefore I wilt not quit 
the land of Egypt until my father give me leave to return 

A f 

(M). ^jl is ap. of negation, government of the subj. [410], 

and futurity [578]. Its o.f. is not IT , the I being changed 
into ^ , contrary to the opinion of Fr, because the change 
known is only of the ^ into f , not the converse, as 

XCVI. 15. [649] and XII. 32. [497]: nor J V , the 
Hamza being elided for alleviation, and the t because 
of the two quiescents, contrary to the opinion of Khl and 
K.s, because it may be preceded by the reg. of its reg., as 

\->y*S d loij) whereas «_. >y& ^ .<*•;■»*> 'cV.j is dis- 
allowed, [since the reg. of the conj. does not precede the 
conjunct] ; and because the conjunct and its conj. are a 

//«£ A • 

single term [497], whereas Jj«*I ^ is a complete sen- 
44 a 



( 538 ) 

A * 

fence. Nor does ^jJ import corroboration, or perpetuation, 
of negation, contrary to the opinion of Z: each of them 

A • 

is an assertion without proof; and, if J denoted perpetu- 

* AsA 

alion, its negatived would not he restricted by f ^ in 
U*J| |.^JI fin ^ XIX. 27. Therefore I shall not speak 

% 0* f »,i t A3 "• A • / 

to-day to a man, and the mention of >^l in 1^1 Xy*-**i ^3 
II. 89. And they will not ever wish for it would be a 
tautology. It sometimes denotes deprecation, like V , 
agreeably with the opinion of many, among them IU : the 
proof is in 

[by A'sha Hamdau, May ye cease not to be thus (mighty): 
then may I cease not to be a servant for you continuing with 

t A /a5 y iu • , , 

the continuance of the hills (Jsli)] j but d-**'i U> »_^ Jls 
^.^JJ | ; a«4 ^jTI ^U j£ XXVIII. 16. He said, My 
Lord by the claim of Thy having been gracious unto me, 
defend Thou me, and may I not be a helper of sinners is 
said not to be a case of it, because the v. of deprecation is 
not attributed to the 1st pers., which is refuted by W J 

M * A 

J*H t^Jj [above]. Correlation of the oath [652] with it, 
[i. e. its occurrence at the head of the cdrrel. (DM),] is 
very rare, as 

y ' ' t ' ' 



( 539 ) 

by Abu Talib, [By Qod, they shall not reach thee with 
their host until I be pillowed in the earth, buried ( Jsh)}. 
Some assert that it sometimes governs the apoc, as 



AS /As * A # 



■f s f>f sAs As AsA /J / A // 

[by Kuthayyir, (Like) the children o/Sabd(2l4:), 'Azza, 
I have not been remaining and living in the world after 
you. For a visage will not be sweet to the tu>o eyes after 
thee (Jsh)] and 

A / * r*s t A /t*t\<o t A t 

Ass s A*& * s -P A Smi / 

&SL33JI t_-Ob ^jl3 ^* i_5\^ 

[recited by an Arab of the desert at the gate of our lord 
AlHusain (DM),] He that has moved the ring before thy 
gate will not be disappointed now of his hope of bounty 
from thee (ML). 



§ 550. ^ is like U in negation of the present (M, Z). 

It is prefixed to the prop., nominal, as ^ Vf ^j^l ^1 

^>* LXVII. 20. jf%e unbelievers are not in aught sat>e 
* w a § / i , j> 

in delusion, whence IV. 157. [149], i. e. ^f ^ as*! U^ t 

isi 
the inch. [ **■! (DM)] being suppressed, and its ep. 

/ A*> A t A 

[^IXXJj J.fcJ «* (DM)] remaining ; and verbal, [whether 

' ' ' ' S A » ArO S S A st A 

its v. be a j>re£ or cor. (DM),] as ^-aaal | U| Ujjf ^( IX. 



( 540 ) 
108. We have not intended aught but the beat intention, ^f 

IsS.fA.'.PA.' # 

tiU( 1/J aJjj »* ^f&t IV.; 117. J%ey ea# not upon any 

* # " ' ' ' f" A 

besides Him save females, XVII. 54. [445], and ^yH ^f 

If Ji* W| XVIII. 4. TAey say mo* aught but a lie : but the 

saying of some that the neg. ^ does not occur except 
s J # 'a, 

when followed by Vf , as in these texts, or its syn.U 
t 

[559], as in the reading of some of the Seven, [Iba 'Amir, 

i / /is* Sy *s £ s> s 

'Asim, and Hamza (B),] iaita. i&lc U «-aJ JT J 
LXXXVI. 4. Every soul is not aught but such that over 

'I t \ » t> its ,n A 

it is a keeper, is refuted by !ii# ^UaL* ~» -fi*** .f 
X. 69. Ye Aat>e «o< any proof of this, t-^d^f ^-'f ^f J5 

, * , s , ' ' * 

^y±*f \* LXXII. 26. Say thou, I know not whether 
what ye are threatened with be near, and XXI. 11 1. [445] • 

_ A J> G 2 / A s AJSSS^ A */, 

and many explain *** j/tiX* ^1 La* ^aiiXU uJifj XL VI. 
25. .4«d assuredly We empowered them in what We have 

A 

not empowered you in [563] by the neg. ^t , as though 

U were discarded in order that it might not be repeated, 
and the expression thus become heavy. The cond. [585] 
and neg. are combined in XXXV. 39. [447], the 1st 
being cond., and the 2nd neg., [part of (DM)] the correl. 
of the oath notified by the J [599,601] prefixed to the first. 
When prefixed to the nominal prop., it does not govern 
according to S and Fr, but is allowed by Es and Mb to 



( 541 ) 

govern like J-aJ [38,107] ; and VII. 193. [107] is read 
with a single ^ and with loU* and *#&•! in the ace, 
[meaning that The idols are not equal, but inferior, to you 
(DM)] ; while £J? *lf ^1 and £J? J&i J [107] bare 
been heard from the people of Al'Aliya (ML). 



CHAPTER VI. 
THE PREMONITORY PARTICLES. 



§ 551. They are to , 1/1 , and Uf (M, Z, IH), which 
are named premonitory ps. because the object of putting 
them at the beginning of the sentence is to premonish 
the person addressed to hearken to what the speaker 
says, lest the speaker's object be missed (A. A): AnNsbi- 
gha [adhDhubyani] says 

A t/t «J/ >/ A i • A t C * 






[Jfarfc, »er% £/m is an excuse, such that, if if pro/it not, 
verily its author has lost his way in the desert (AAz)], 
and tbe poet says 

ft K* A J A X /A^ /»/ / Ai* P K /, 

>'• ,»/ • • • • I A** * ft fs 

[^fnrf eoe divided the property into two halves between us.' 
and I said to them, This is for her, and this (552) is fw 
me (AAz)]; and [AshShanomakh [AAz)] says 

/A * * * A / * s If" f *£ 

/ n / t h / • A • / / t * ft** 



( 543 ) 
[Now, {my two companions) (59), give me a morning- 
draught be/ore ike foray of Sinjal, and before fates that 
have become present and dooms (AAz)] ; and [ Abu Sakhr 
alHudhall (Jsh)] says 

(M) Now, by Him That has made to weep and made to 
laugh, and Him That has killed and made alive, and 
Him Whose command is the command (Jsh). And IM 
reckons U among the premonitory ps. [59]. All the 
premonitory ps. take the head of the sentence, except 
the la> prefixed to the dem. [552], when not separated 
[from the latter], for it is in the beginning or middle, 

according to where the dem. occurs. Mf and Uf are ps. 

of inception that the sentence begins with. Their import, 

(1) as regards the sense, is corroboration of the purport 

of the prop. : (a) they are as it were compounded of 

the Haniza of disapproval and the p. of negation ; and, 

disapproval being -a negation, and negation of negation 

being affirmation, the 2 ps. are compounded to import 

affirmation and verification ; so that they become i. q. 

s 

^f [517], except that they are inop. : (b) they are prefixed 

f 
to the prop., enunciatory or requisitive, whether the 

requisitive be imp., prohib., interrog , opt., or otherwise; 

and are peculiar to the prop., contrary to Ufc [552] : (2) 

as regards the letter, is that the sentem e after them is 



( 544 ) 

'» * 

inceptive. And U| is often prefixed to the voc, and U! to 

the oath (E). U| indicates [prewiom&'ow o/*(K on II. 11.)] 
the veritableness of what follows it, and is prefixed to 
the 2 props., as II. 12. [63] and XI. 11. [457] ; but is 
called by the inflectionists a p. of inception, so that they 
explain its place, but neglect Its meauing. Its importing 
verification is because of its composition from the Hamza 

and JJ j for the interrog. Hamza [that denotes disap- 
proval (8 on II. 11>)], when prefixed to negation, imports 

* a ***> t A S A £ ' i t / I • Hsf 

verification, as Jfy**S .s* 3 ^ <j' >J* ^^i *-^ .j**ft" 
LXXV. 40. Is not that One able to quicken the dead? 
[581] : Z says [on II. 11.] that, because of its being so 
employed to denote verification, the prop, after it hardly 
ever occurs except headed by what the oath is correlated 

with [652], as &«! /Ul ; ! J> Hi X. 63. Now, verily the 

' ' # J ,* 

friends of Ood; and that ifs fellow Uf is one of the 
precursors of the oath, as 

t»f.t t A 'hi" 9tht t &^*t ti 

* • t h t t A<" t t H/O A St 

{**) J») j^'i r" 2 ^ 1 ts* 3 ^-; 

[by Hatim atTa'I, Now, by Him, than Whom none other 
knows the hidden, and Who quickens the white bones 

f tb$ C*/**s t% 

when they are decayed (Jsh)] and ^Jf ^J^S S^y W 
[above]. U| is (I) a p. of inception, i. q. 1M , often 



( ii& )) 

occurring before the oath, as £f| ^t s^h ^ an( * 

^f after this Ut is pronounced with Kasr [519], ai after 

the inceptive Ml [518]: (2.) i. q. &* or &*•!, according 

to different opinions given below ; and ^1 aftei this is 

pronounced with Fath[519], as after lia. [5-2CJJ: it is 

(a) [simple (DM),] {a)&p., according talEh, wljo makes 

si 
it with ^J and its 2 regs. a sentence compouiJSed.of a 

st . 

#, and re., [ ^1 with ks 2 regs. being, au in$ , which. 

has no enunc., according to him. (DM)]; (6) as s>me say, a 

S, 

ft. i. q, 12a. t (b) as others say, [corapoundedof (DM)] 
% words,, the inter rog. Hamza and U a,». i.q. J^ ;. 
while, that s^J" being' j»», the sense is lk-1 •: this is 
the correct opinion;, and [according to this saying (DM);] 
the position of U is that of the ace. as a [topical (DM)] 

i ' 

adv. r [as though J»» were a place (Dity] just as l**. 
is- ia the ace. as- such in. 

t htpc.s- * ss * a» t * K& / // st & tt 

[by AIMufaddal Ibn Ma'sbat anNukrj Is- it in truth 

that' our neighbours have departed?' fhen our purpose 

and their purpose are difenent- (Jsh)]-, according to the 

saying of 8, which k right, as is proved by 
45 a 



.( 546 ) 

Jift ^o fJ i. ^i j»m ^ 

[by AFs'id Ibn AnNuddar slKoshairi, I*- ft in fairness 
that lam enamoured of -thee, lovelorn, and -that thou, 
thy lovt is not vinegar nor wine? (Jsh)J, ^ being pre- 
fixed teit (ML). 

§ 5&. to is prefixed to (1) the dem, (R, ML) not 
peculiars tbe distant [174,175] (ML), often (R), as \6to , 
contrary to *5 , UJt>, and »-*JUiD (ML): (a) it is separat- 
ed from tfip dem. often by tbe oath, as fo *U| to [656], or 
detached mm. pron., as III. 115. [below]; and seldom 
by anything else, as ift C J to [551] and «$J uulS» 
ijf , [where it is separated by the con. by poetic license 
(AAz),] i.e. y IJJD^ .- (b) Xfal holds that the prrpos. to 
in all of that b united with the dem., I. e. that the regular 

/ I ' ill • w/4l AM$ [ * > a 

form is !oJto UJf , iVi» J^f; and Gto J;, and the 
proof that the oremonitoxy #>. is separated from the dem. 
is JU»t U| fjjb transmitted by Akh from a trustworthy 
person in place of 16 01 to, while Y quotes is*j\ fuJfe 
16 J^a7 : (c) what is meant by J*»l 16 Uj to jg m* that 
you acquaint the person addressed with -yourself, and 



( »T"). 
inform hiin that yon are not any one else, because this 
would 1 be absurd; But the sense in it and in 1 «s^( to 
i^jSJ and J*% !«i- y& to is that the occurrence of the 
purport of the v. after the dem. on the par* of the speaker, 
person addressed,. and third person is deemed granges 

* / A? / v at t " t a? * /a A/ 

the sense of [ ta ut-if to in] Jyu ]6 et-JI to or uJO^e 

kkij i& T'Aoa ar.ttMs (mm whom I se&, not he thatvoe were 
expecting the like- of this strange act to proceed from or 

Befall); and then you explain by Jyu thou siyest! or, 

I hi ,9 kt 

lijj Uif^ai Zaii beats thee/ what you deem storage and 
did not expect, as #$>;}»? /¥jf ^f la> III 115. [Fe 
are /Ae*e (wrong;doers in making friends uith the un- 
believers): ye love them! .(B)], the ^ro/). afler the dem, 
feeing neceBsary for explanation' of the state deemed 
Btrange, and: having no place, since it is inceptive- £ I] •: 

r ; •»/ t s hi * 

(d^sojne.allowthepre/MW. to in such as J*** f»> e^f to 
not ta be meant to be understood, as prefixed to \o , citing 
as proof sVjb 3a\ to III. 59.. Why, yi are these\ since, 

if it were that which accompanies the iem., it would not 

h»ht- 
be repeated after *&t : but it may be pleaded for Khl 

that this repetition ia because of the distance between 

them, as in lit 185. [134],; and also H. 79. [56] is a 

proof that the prepos. [to Jin Iff.' 115. is that which- 



i 548 ) 
accompanies the dm.) and, if it were orig. at the bead 
<>f thb JJ«JJ»., *t) **-»' to without a <&?». would be allow- 
ahle,wh<reas the sayings $^* ^3 1/ to and J"*' to 
fif ' transhitted by Z are such as I have not come across 
-any inst^ice'of (R): {2) ttte nom - P ro71, predicated of 
"by thedfa., as III. 115.*, but here it is said to have been 
prefixed ftfifly to the dem., audi then made, prepos., which 
is refuted' by such as HI. 39., to which it is rejoined 
that it f $ repeated for corroboration: (3) the ep.of ^1 
in -vocatbo, as J^yi l&l \ [51,184], being necessary 
with this "ep. (DM)}, to premonish that it [and not g\ 
(DM)] is tht intended voc, and, it is said, to compensate 

mi 

for what ^1 a pre. to: (a) in the dial, of the Bana Asad 
its f may be <eided, and its 8 pronounced with Damm for 
alliteration ; aid accordingly Ibn 'Amir reads **! 
^yu^JI XXIV. 81. Ye believers, [ f^i) toj b XhlJl. 

48. thou enchanter (B),] and JK&\ «il LV. 31. Ye 

. i * 

men and jinn: (4) &U\ in the oath, upon suppression of 

i, , 
the p., as &Ul ta> [656] with the disj. And eonj. Hamza, 

and in both cases with the j I of Ub retained or elided, 

[i. e. &UI U> or &1I(a , and 6iS\ U> or &U & (DM)]. 

# / 



( 549 ) 

§ 553. Sometimes the Hamza of Ul is changed into 
K [690] or £ before the oath, in either case with the f 

. ill *^y y • yy .ill *^V // 

retained and elided, [as &M|; l*2> or l*«, and &UI^ <►& 
or f« (DM)]; or the ! is elided with the change [of the 
Hamza into S or £ (DM)] omitted (ML). 



CHAPTER VII. 



THE VOOATIVE PARTICLES. 



§ 654. They are k , [ I (R, IM), f, (M, Z, R, IM),] 
iS', tiS' (B)i].y, *S*t and the Hamza (M, Z, IH, 
IM).' f j is mentioned among the voc. ps. because they 
both share in importing particularization, and therefore 
the lamented is mentioned in the cat. of the voc. [55, 161] 
( AA). The voc. is (1) not lamented, (a) distant or in the 
predicament of the distant, like the sleeper and inatten- 

tive ; (h) near : (2) lamented (IA). k is applied to call- 
ing the distant, really or predicamentally, and sometimes 
the hear for the sake of emphasis; or, as is said, is com- 
mon to the near and distant [555], or to them and the 
intermediate. It is the most often used of the voc. ps.'. 
and therefore no other is supplied upon suppression, as 
XII. 29. [56] ; nor afe the name of God, the name [of 

the person] invoked to help, l$l , and 1$Xj>I called except 

with it, nor is the lamented except with it or S) (ML). 

The lamented may have k if it be not liable to be mis- 

taken for the non-lamentedi; for, if it be, f; is necessary, 

and b disallowed (IA). f is for calling the distant, and 
has been heard: if is not mentioned by S, but is men- 



< 551 ) 
tioned by others. Jj is peculiar to the cat. of lamenta- 

A tlit t 

tion, as »f J-ij lj Ah Zaid!; but is allowed by some to be 

9Kt t *^ 

used in real vocation, [as <*i) fj Zaid (DM)]. &S 
is for calling the distant, near, or intermediate, according 
to different opinions, as. 

t Sr" tKt s* s A $ * K t fttf 

P t S 9t t t S /*»•.» 

(by Kuthayyhr, Heardest thou not, l Abda (58), in the 
brightness of the early forenoon a wailing of pigeons 

m s A $ 

having a cooing f ( jsh)] and in tradition <— >) g\ my 
Lord', and sometimes its f is prolonged, [in which case 

si 

it is for calling the distant only (DM)], y is for calling 
the distant, bat is said in the Sihah to be for calling the 
near and the distant, whereas it is not so, as 

1 9 s S s »»»'/ /S^/ s sm s 3>t*> s / A / Sts / ft 

lg*A,~.> -Jf .alstaj \*sd | iju! £ Ll£. fiUb ^Uxi k J-&> y 

[by the Majnun of Laila al'Amiriya, Ho two mountains 
of the vale of Na'm&n, I adjure you by Qod, leave ye the 
breeze of the east wind alone: its breeze will reach to me 
(Jsh)] ; and sometimes its Hamza is changed into S , as 

S/ / / s* h t St* ft / ft ht ah* t sir 

l -> <*» c>* cJ* J^; * ^ u>?^ e) f J*/- r Uli 
[And he listens, hoping that it may be the sound of rain, 
and says from joy, my (54) Lord! (Jsh)]. The J [i. e. 
the Hamza (DM)] is used for calling the near, as 



( w* > 

jl*ZS\ IJA yosu %♦ Jetif 

«f< A/ A •A*' A / A J A / 

i/*^ iy>^ us***)' *** U6 ^ i^i 

" ' ' ' t 

(ML), by Imra alKais, FSiima, soften thou some of this 
coyness; and, if thou have resolved upon forsaking me, be 
moderate (EM). 

§ 555. l& is the most general of them (IH), i. e. is 
used to call the near and distant [554]. Z says that it 

is for the distant ; and that &Uf U O Gorf and v-»^ k 
»«/ Xorrf, notwithstanding that He is nearer to every 
person than his carotid artery [gur. L. 15.}, are [said} 
because the caller deems himself to fall short of, and be 
distant from, the dignity of the Called : but what IH 
mentions is better, because it is used for the near and 
distant equally, and the assertion of tropical usage io the 
case of one of them is contrary to general rule (R). 



CHAPTER VIII. 



THE PARTICLES OF ASSENT AND AFFIRMATION. 



A / y A t , 



§ 556 They are ^ , J> , J*.\ , [ J**> , Jl> , ] 

fty A 2 A,, 

j#w , ^gl , and ^1 (M, IH). *su is confirmatory of that 
[enunciatory sentence, aff. or neg. (R),] which precedes it 

Ayy $Ay y y y y / JA y y y Ayy 

(IH), as p*> in reply to iAJJ pG or j»t» U , i. e. a^j pG **> 

y t *■ 
or *6 U Even so, (Zaid has stood or not stood). Simi- 
larly it confirms what follows the inferrog. p., whether 

«// 0A / / ft /IPs Ayf 

it be of. or n«g\, as **» in reply to o^j j»«S| or JL> jjl| , 

{«/ /' l» A.»y Ay 

i. e. i>i3 (•** f** or f*i f* -Sfen 50, (Z'rid has stood or no/ 
stood); and therefore Ibn 'Abbas says that, if they had 

A/ y 

said *** [^ye» so, (7&ok or* rao£ owr Xorrf) (DM)] in 

AJW * A y* 

reply to *&;rf u>.-J( VII. 171. [below], it would have 

" Ayy 

been unbelief : but some allow *** to be put instead of 

yy 

jjb when it follows a Ha<nza prefixed to a negation to 
import making to confess, so that **J Yea might be said 

A <«/ * */J Ay A y A/f 

in reply to f&y. iat—if VII. 171. [below] and _^SJ JJ 

y y A y y y 

t*Sji** lJ3 XCIV. 1. What! have We not widened 
for thee thy bosom?, because the Hauiza denoting disap- 
proval, being prefixed to the negation, imports affirmation, 
46 a 



( 554 ) 

* /h * A / r A / // 

for which reason <-$))) «-£« U**«^ XCIV. 2. Jnrf We 
have put damn from thee thy burden is coupled to jJS Jf , 

iw /Ax// / / A / // / A / / 

as though £M U*-«^ tmSySfb lJJ Ua.;£ were said [581], 

A'/ 

go that **i is really an assent to the q^. enunciation that 
the interrogation together with the negation is renderable 
by, not a confirmation of what follows the interrog. 
Hamza ; and the proof of the allowability of this usage is 
the saying [of Jahdar Ibn Malik ( Jsh)] 

tt / / // /S / a/ as */ a / *k&*b / a/S 

/ / £ «» 

// // **&)& t -*A// ,p /£ // / '/ A^o /// A// 

[ Dow not the night unite Umm ( Amr and us t Then that is 
a bringing of us near to one another. Yes: and she sees the 
new moon as I see it ; and the day rises upon her as it has 
risen upon me (DM)], i.e. Verily the night unites Umm 

A// 

' Amr and us. Yes. And fJ occurs in reply to command 

A// A* A A/ / 

[and prohibition], as j»x? in reply to ^y;) and ^>iy& V , 

,9 Si A// /B hi / * ' * 

i. e. <-£>j)' f** and i-&y<f V Ay, (1 will visit thee and 
* / ■ 

A // 

I will not beat thee); and, if you say f*i in reply to 

tS 9t S/ ,% 

excitation or request [573], as U ; .J3 Ua> or ty , the 

/* ti a// 
meaning is affirmation, i. e. «-*;j;l f** Y e *> (I will visit 

A// 

thee) (R). [Thus] f*> is a p. of (1) assent, after enun- 
$« / / / * i. * * /A 

elation, as *i) ($ or j. 1 * U : (2) promise, after (a) J*»f 



( Mft ) 
and- J*£ V , [i. e. command and prohibition (DM)] ; (b) 

» /lis £/ 

what is in their sense, [i. e. excitation (DM),} as J.*& 1B» 

A *hf A/ 3s Av» A / 

or J*£> J Ha> ; (c) interrogation in such as ^ixLau JJ& , 
[i. e. interrogation about a thing required to be done (DM),] 
though in this [ex. (DM)] it may be interpreted by the 
3rd meaning: (3) information, after interrogation in sueh 

as VII. 42. [581] and l^i UJ J\ XXVI. 40. Shall we 

*/ 
indeed have a recompense t (ML). ^ is peculiar to 

[affirmation of (IH)] negation (IH, ML), i. e. breaks the 
preceding negation (Et), and imports annulment of it 
(ML), whether the negation be bare [of interrogation 
(DM), as ^» Ji J* { ?**i J J \)f* jJU\ f C } 
LXLV. 7. They etc (440). Say thou, Yea, by my Lord 
(ML), i. e. Tea (ye sliall be raised) (B)] ; or conjoined 
with interrogation, [in which case it breaks the negation 
after that interrogation (R), whether the interrogation b« 

<*• $Ay /A/S tr 

real, as f<k *i) .r^t , to which you say ^ Yes, or 
relate to rebuke, as LXXV. 3. 4. (82), or to making to 

t/ » / A-Puu/ J> tt /f 

confess (ML),] as ^ I^S f&;> «~«»M VII. 171. Am not 

I your Lord t They said, Yea (R, ML), i. e. Yea, 

/* ■» >• i * m> &, h,t 
(Thou art our Lord) (R), and J* f^C #<i» j»Gb ^ff 

LXVII. 8. 9. Came not a preacher unto you? They 
will say. Yea (ML), i. e. the preacher came to us (DM). 



( 556 > 

Some, however, [as R relates (DM),] assert that Jb 
is used after affirmation, citing as evidence 

f/ Ass Us A /Asa A sis As* 

s s s 

s »Ass / tSAfO s s A / <3 ss 

fj~*J } ^\ ; fj j. J J, 
And she has made union between me and her to be Jar off: 
Yes, verily he (hat has visited the graves will indeed be 

A s J Ass 

far off, i. e. ^<±***} ', but [R says that (DM)] the use 

ss 

of ^Jj in the verse to denote assent to affirmation is 
anomalous (R, DM). And it occurs in books of tradi- 
tion as a reply to interrogation bare [of negation (DM)] ; 
thus in the Sahib of AlBukharl, when the Prophet says 
to his companions " Are ye content that ye should be 
the fourth part of the people of Paradise ? ", they say 
^ Yea j and in the Sablh of Muslim, when he says 
[to a man that desired to give excessive gifts to one of 
his ehildren (DM)] " Does it please thee that they 

ss 

should be to thee in filial piety equal?', he says ^. Yea% 
and in the same, when he says " Thou art [i. e. Art 
thou (DM)] he that met me at Makka?", the replier says 

ss ins a s> 

to him ^J-} Yes : but that is rare. The saying jjj -l» 

A " ' ss 

is pronounced true with {*> ; and false with V „ not ^ , 

fas ss , 

because of the absence of negation : i*i) JZ U is p ro . 

As s ,, 

nounced true with p*> ; and false with ^» f whence 
LXIV, 7., not V , because it denotes negation of affir- 



( 557 ) 

%ht • ti *A/ *«» 

motion, not of negation : oej p**' is like ^j f 1 * > *• e * 

A/<> 

yoa say, if you affirm the standing, f*i ; and, if you 

f *' ilt/ A*. A-S $Ax A*,. • 

deny it, M , not ^ : and jj) f*i pM is like i>*) j»*i ^ > ' 
80 tbat you say, if you affirm the standing, ^ , whence 
LXVII. 8. 9. and VII. 171., not V ; and, if you deny it, 

A tt •/ y 

^su . In fine ^ occurs only after negation, V only 

A/ • /A sjvs Ay ^ 

after affirmation, and #*> after both ; and u£>ita» <JW> ^ 
3\f\ XXXIX. 60. Tea, My signs have come to thee 
is allowable, though not preceded by a neg., only be- 
cause ^»lo» *1M ^t J XXXIX. 58. #* it had been the 
case <Aa£ Qod had directed me indicates negation of His 
direction, while the meaning of the reply is then Yea, I 
have directed thee by the coming of the signs (ML). No 
interrogation except what is with the p., vid. the Hamzaor 

A t A' * " 

JM> , is replied to with ^*> , ^ , or any other p. of 

affirmation. As for the interrog. ns., the reply (1) to 

~* is what is more particular than it, as Ja.) or ojj 

" $A, 

in reply to "Who came to thee ?", and similarly t*ij or 

^ • A ' 

***•* tS** «J"* ^J * n re P ly to u ^ ho is tl,e man ?" ! ( 2 ) 
to U , if it be a question as to the quiddity, is such as 

% * A § /x 

.UJI , #*f , or some other [n. of] species ; and, if as 
to the quality of the quiddity, as in " What is Zaid?", 



( 358 ) 
4 ' I • /* 

ifl such as ^ or U».jb [180] : (3) to ^f , if it be pre. 
to the det., is a det. or an *»cfe£ particularized by an ep., 

as L>ij or fj/ £-*;<« ,y &*d^ J*5»; in reply to " Which 

t / * ■ 

of the men did that ?" ; and, if it be pre, to the indet., is 

« • $ * 
what is suitable for an ep. of that indet., as JU or t-^tf 

in reply to " What man ?", or an indet. particularized by 
an ep., [as i>M &aj(^ J=j»; ] :! (4) to wJuJ* is only an indet. : 

A/ /• • • 0? ! • A? tit 

(5) to pT , ^a* or ^jbj , and ^ef or ^Jf , is specifica- 
tion of the number, time, and place. The reply (1 ) to 
the Hamza together with j»f is the name [542] : (2) to 

aS a t h *t ts , 

the Hamza alone or with j! or to JS> is fo , ^ t 0T V 

A * i A ,* 

(R). J^-l [like p*> (ML)] is an <me»tf to the enunciator 
(IH, ML), whether, the enunciation be off. or neg. 
(R, DM), an information for the iuquirer, and a promise 
to the requirer, [whether he command or prohibit 

(DM)] j so that it occurs after l>j j pt* [or ,.£ U (DM)], 

$ As / ' $ s» A / A A I A A/ • 

**ej r i»i , and Ivh) vr*' N vr^ v ( D M)]« Bu * Mlk 

restricts the enunciation by off., and the requisition by 
non-prohib. : and it is said not to occur after interrogation 
(ML); but, as related [by Jh (R)] on the authority 
of Akh, it is better than **» after enunciation, and **» 
is better than it after interrogation (R, ML), so that he 
allows it to occur after interrogation (R): and it is said 



( 559 ) 
to be peculiar to enunciation, which is the saying of Z, 
IM, and many, [ainoDg them IH (DM)]; while 1Kb. 

A * * S * t 

Bays that it mostly follows it. J»> is a. p. i. q. [ Ja-I 

A/ X A / / A/x 

and (DM)] f*> . JJ*, is a p. i. q. ^ , transmitted 

ft*/ 
by Zj : [but has only the sense of reply \ as JJ^ Pe* 

in reply to "Has Zaid stood?"; so that it always de- 
notes information for the inquirer, and is not an assent 

Sit 

to the enunciator, nor a promise to the requirer, like **» . 

t A/" 

(DM)], ye* with Easr, [the best known pronunciation 
(DM),] according to the o. f. in the concurrence of 2 

si 

quiescents [664], like yS , and with Fatb, for the sake 
of lightening, like ^jj! aud *-»*/ , is a p. i. q. *« , not 
a n.i. q. *"=»■> in which case it would be an inf. n., 
nor i. q. liJ-jf , in which case it would be an ado. [of time 
(DM)], otherwise it would be infl., Jl would be prefixed 

A ,t ' 

to it [2], J»»f would not be corroborated by it in 

f A t J £f »/H/! •/ / A^/ 

St t t A / P K * t ■ * /St S tf 
x X #'"**" 

[by fufail Ibn 'Auf alGhanawI, and found also in verses 

by Mudarris Ibn Eib'I alAsadl, And they said, At AlFir- 

daus (a garden in AlYamama) will be the first drinking- 

place. Yes, just so, if its broken cisterns be made free. 

t 
(Jsh)], and V would not be opposed by it in 



( 560 ) 

ft* S »t t / *S*f A * *H*B »'*•* f » »f t 

£ ■ ' * 

[When the daughter of Al'Ujair says " No", she speaks 

truth, not when she says " Fes" (DM)] : while 

AS * * h Sy/J k / » h>t , $ , „,, 

«J| 1^16 *• ^f ^1 * JAS. U>Jfi» 0-OUw| &JlS. 

by AlMuthakkib al'Abdi, -4«rf many a woman was there 
saying, Thou hast become mournful! And I said, Yes, 
I am mournful : verily / am created of that, even so, 

S A * 

(Jeh),] is explained in 2 ways, (1) that the o.J. is ^f ^a. 

A / 3 A,x £ ' 

with corroboration of ^ by : .1 i. q. *su, the Hamza of 

s '" *s 

^f having been then elided, and ^S contracted [by elision 

of its 2nd ^ (DM)] ; (2) that the end of the 1st hemis- 
tich, being assimilated to the end of the verse, is pro- 
nounced with the Tanwla of quavering [608], which is not 
peculiar to the n. (ML). Jj says that it is a verbal n. 

i, q. LJvXct / acknowledge ; and what he hazards is not 

* a a// 

improbable (R on the preps.). ^\ is i. q. *« [527], con- 

£ 

trary to the opinion of AU : the authorizers cite 

AS 9 h»f t A / A/ t ' '/ A/ $ A/ / A.P// 

[by 'Ubaid Allah Ibn Kais ArRukayyat, And saying, 
Hoariness has mounted upon thee, and thou hast grown 
old: and I said to them, Even so (Jsh), upon the theory 
that the K is for silence (615) (DM)] ; but it is refuted 
by our not admitting the 8 to be for silence, but holding 



( 561 ) 

it to be a pron. governed in the ace. by A, the pred. 
being suppressed, i. e. ud Jf &»f Fm/y ** (is «o) ; and tbe 
best is to cite the saying of [ ( Abd Allah (KA)] Ibn Az« 
Zubair to the man ['Abd Allah Ibn Fudala Ibn Sharik Al- 
Asadi (K. A)] who said to him " God curse a she-camel that 
has carried me to thee !'* tfcs^l^ ^ Yea, and her rider/, 
since suppression of the sub. and pred. together is not 
allowable : and, according to Mb, the reading of XX. 66. 
[171] is attributed to that; but it is objected firstly that 

C As/ 

the occurrence of ^1 as i. q. **> is so anomalous that it 
is even said [as by AU (DM)] not to be authorized, and 
secondly that the J [of inception (DM)] is not prefixed 
to the enunc, to which it is replied that the J is red. 
[599], Yea, these two are two enchanters, or prefixed to a 
suppressed inch. [604], i.e. U$J [27], or prefixed [to the 

•5 

enunc. (DM)] after this ^1 because of its resemblance 
to tbe enrrob. ^ iu letter [604], Yea, these two are 

in fiff 

assuredly two etc. ^i is i. q. f*i , denoting assent to the 

informer, information for the inquirer, and promise to the 

requirer: and therefore it occurs after i*jj r & t ^Jjd 

jj>;, 1ih} i^ybS , and the like, as f *> does; though IH 

asserts that it occurs only after interrogation, as 
47 a 



( 562 ) 

jssi SJf -»^ ^1 J* j& J^-f \j2fjXL~iy X. 54. And 

*Aey wiW asA <A«c to tell whether it be true. Say thou, 
Yea, by my Lord, verily it is true: but, according to all, 
[IH and others (DM),] it occurs only before the oath 

A 

(ML). The v. of swearing is not used after ^1 , so that 

m/ * A t lit A * 

-»j> i«t~+*»if ^1 is not said. And the [expression denoting 
the person or thing] sworn by after it is only &Uf , i_>^ , 
or *v**J:you say *U|j ^1 Fe«, ty God, &U| ,3! [558] 
with the p. of swearing suppressed and &U1 governed in 

t 3>^3 t A u/f n A// A 

the ace., \o m 12) 3 \ [656], ^> ;; ^1 , and ^H jjf 

Yes, Ay my life : and &Wf after it, if accompanied by to , 
must be governed in the gen., because the premonitory 
p. acts as a substitute for the prep. [656] ; but, if divested 
of Ud , is governed in the ace. by the supplied v. of swear- 
ing [655] (R). 

§ 557. The £ of ft is pronounced [withFath, and 
(D, ML) by Kinana (M, ML)] with Kasr (D, M, ML) : 
'Umar Ibn AlKhattab [alKuraishl „(Nw)] and [<Abd 

Allah (Nw)] Ibn Mas'ud [alHudhali (Nw)] read *J I^S 

VII. .42. They will say, Yea ; and it is related that 

'Umar asked some people about something, and they said 

«// /* 

*su , upon which 'Umav said " The -aw are only camels : 

A • j 

therefore say ye f** " (M) ; and both dial*, are combined in 



( 563 ) 

* *M* A/ i^J *»/ / // 

* * * r 

A / A •/ ft t A t / tf 

f*i yd ^1*0 £^ jjf* «-** **» 

*Jid AllcLh {my soul be his ransom/) has called me. 
Then, marvel of a caller thai has called me, yes, yes! 
(D, DM), related with Fath in the 1st and Kasr in 
the 2nd (DM) : and some [of Banana (DM)] pronounce 
the ^ with Kasr, by alliteration to the Kasr of the £ , 

treating #*■» like the v. in the case of **» and a$& with 
2 Kasras [468] (ML) : and, according to AnNadr Ibn 

A / • 

Shumail, *sw with _ is a dial, of some Arabs (M). 

§ 558. The « in «*M ^1 [556] is (J) pronounced 
with Path, [to make the p. of affirmation plain (R)] ; (2) 
made quiescent, 2 quiescents, [it and the incorporated J 
of determination (M),] being combined, [from an extraordi- 
nary effort to preserve the p. of affirmation by protecting 
its final from vocalization and elision (R)]; (3) elided 
(M, R), because of the 2 quiescents (R). 



CHAPTER IX. 



THE EXCEPTIVE PARTICLES. 



§ 559. They are »1 , [ W ,] &**- , !•** , and Us. 
(M, Z). These ps. have heen previously explained 
[88—96, 511, 512] (AA). CJ is an exceptive p., prefixed 
to the nominal prop., as in the reading of LXXXVI. 4. 
[550]; and to the preL, literally not ideally [95]. as 
uiJaa U *U| ujro^f,i.e. uO«5 Vf [ &iSU (DM)] U3Uf U 
I beseech thee (not) by Oodfor aught seme thy doing, 
[or, some supplying a negation after the formula of 
adjuration, |o/ ud«* #1 l*A& J*& V tilt} »_XIU| I beseech 

thee by God, (do thou not aught) seme thy doing (such a 
thing) (DM)]: a poet says 

AAWM> $ t ** * A / 3/ AA/A*A*o • # it iB 3* H * * 

-xiS| ,1 UsJ »*&i Ul # uji^J-jM tp (ft &UU &J csJS 

[She said to him, (I adjure thee) by God, possessor of 
the two wrappers, (do thou not aught) save thy drawing a 
breath or two after coition (DM)], which [verse] refutes 
the saying of Jh that Uf i. q. iff is unknown in the clas- 
sical language. The reg. of an op, conjoined with the 
exceptive p. must be posterior (ML) to the op. (DM). 



CHAPTER X. 



THE TWO PARTICLES OF ALLOCUT ON. 



§ 560. Tbey "are the cS and *&> (M, Z) affixed as a 
sign of allocution (M). The t-$ is affixed to (1) the 

dem. [172, 173, 175], as LfSo and u03 : (2) the 

* £ /.PS 

detached ace. pron. in \JU\ [162], Ufbf, and the 

like: (3) some verbal ns. [187], as U3&r>» [191], <-&*2}j 

[161, 188], and l^eOJ! [187] : (4) «^,f ; ! [transferred 
from interrogation to requisition of information (DM),] 

ft a£ • /aSs£ 

'■ 5* tS'J*^ Inform, or 7%//, Mow me, [so that uC&f ^f 

x * * * e ht 

^Xjc U )i^j means 7W/ Mow me c6o«< Zafrf, roAatf he 
did, i. e. aooul Zaid's doing, and its reply is He did such 
a thing, i. e. journeyed, went, or came, whereas, if it 
denoted real interrogation, and were not transferred, its 
reply would be Yes or JVo (DM),] as goi) (J.a i-jCuf^f 

Sss - Kit ' 

Jk \s~*f XVII. 64., the »»» being an ag., and the i*S a 
p. of allocution, [that the pron. is corroborated by, having 
no place in inflection, because, if the i-£ were an obj., 

as the KK say, fy+iS)S would be said for f^f^f TX 
40. Tfeff ye me (161) (B on VI. 40.),] i.e. Tell Thou me 
concerning this one, whom Thou hast honored above me, 
(wherefore Thou hast honored him above me when lam 



( 566 ) 

better than he) : (5) other expressions, anomalously, to 
which F attributes the saying 

X * A ? / /« * t f * h \ r tht t h9 A £ iO 9 t 

/ • > £**'*-', 

[ IT/te language of evil dost thou send to us as a gift ; and 
thou hast perished when thou reckonedst not that thou 
wouldst perish ( Jsh)], in order that it may not he 

necessary to make the inf. n. [renderable from Uasw .f 
(DM)] an enunc. [440] to the concrete substantive [indi- 
cated by the i~S (DM)] . The ess made mobile in the end- 

ings of ns. is a p. of allocution, as ia-^1 and u>Jf [161] 
(ML). 

§ 561. The signs of number and gender are affixed 
to them, as to the prons. L161] (M, Z), as U* U33 

11/ tilt * ' 

iiO cS*"*** ^* 37# 2%a ' interpretation w part c/ w/W 

' ' Kft §/»• A* I 

jk# iorrf hath taught me, $ #£* SJ6 XXIX. 15. That 
will be better for you, XII. 32. [502], VII. 41. [570], 

Si Ul». f&SJ) IV. 93. And those, We have assigned to 

&, ' * t i/ 
^ow, U&> JS ^^ XIX. 21. 7%ms hath thy Lord 

' t *AS A*Ag 5 .PA? 

saitf, and XIX. 10. [172]; and as UUf , ^f , an d j® 
[161]. 

§ 562. Like the u£ are the & and £ , and their 
<fe. and p/., in &lif and '^Ij! , according to the opinion 
of Akh [162] (M). 



CHAPTER XI. 



THE CONNECTIVE OR REDUNDANT PARTICLES, 



Afi 



§ 563. They are ^1 , ^t , U , If , ^ , the ^ 

(M, IH), the J , [and the <-* ] (IH). Many of the 
ancients name the red. connective j and some of them 
name it corrob. [564] (I). Some red. ps. govern, like the 
red. *_> and ^» j and some do not govern, as [ U J in 
III. 153. [565] (R). Jl is red. (1) oftenest after the 
neg. U , when prefixed to (a) a Verbal prop., as 

«/*/ / if X x S Axfi A x 

x 3 x « x A xxx xx ^ 

'. & ' ■ 4 

[by AnNabigha adhDhubyani, I have not done a thing 
that thou dislikest: (if I do that,) then may my hand 
(wither away, so that I be) not (able to) raise my whip 
towards me! (DM)]; (b) a nominal, as 

X X M fitli x r x x x x A 1/ f » J « A xx 

Uj j£.f &}0} W£** * ^^j ^jf^ l**l» jaf •*» 

X X X f, 

[by Farwa Ibn AlMaslk Ibn AlHsrith asSahabi, And 
our wont is not cowardice: but our fates and the triumph 
of others are linked together (Jsh)], in which case it 
restrains the government of the Hijazl U [107], as in 



( 5(58 ) 

the verse : (2) sometimes (a) after (a) the conjunct n. U , 
as [XL VI. 25. (550) in {the like of) what We have 
empowered you in, like (K)] 

* 9 9 A««» 9 / Kb / 9 9 */» 9 /r * A * 9H/fi*> ai/ fl 

[by Iyas Ibn AlAratt, The man hopes for that which he 
will not see, and before the nearest part of which calami' 

ties will intervene (N)]j (6) the infinitival U , as 

* / 9 ** / M/ m M «* " 9/bit A • A • ft /sA^uiss 

/ , * % * / *"^ >■ 

[by AlMa'lQt alKurai'I, ^nd /tope thou for good from the 
youth so long as thou seest him ceasing not to increase 
in good according to the increase of his age (Jsh)] ; (c) 

the inceptive Vl , as 

t 9 1 /S *° '*V A?* /*■ y • «5 y A/ s s A s £ 

\>yc*t ^yjf ^Uj ^jf joM .# UjuT u&-aJ JbJ ^^ J> Vf 

[JVoto »*y wi^/i< went on; and I passed the night distressed, 

fearing that the destination to Qhadub would become far 

(Jsh)] : (it ) before the disapprobatory letter Of prolongation, 

a ,n 
as *i*i U| S [618]. And IH asserts that it is red. after 

a , "'# A* 

Ui , which is an inadvertence, that being only ^jf [564]. 

A i S* ■ 

§ 564. ,j)f is red. (1) oftenest after U denoting 

A / >•» * * t99 9 A SOTS A $ S/s 

finiV, as f« s^ U«y UU ; ^l* ^1 U, XXIX. 32. 
^4»rf, icAere Owr messengers came to Lot, he was vexed 



( 569 ) 

because of them z (2) between y and the v. of the oath, 
whether [the v. of the oath be (DM)] mentioned, as 

$ *» w*t<a * § h/ KS* / ,* Stt.tr /l//*<°/ hi 9 *f* 

fV** 3r*l yj* ff- fi J&. * f«fj UuyKJf y ^f f*5 tf " 
[by AlMusayyab Ibn 'Alas, TAere / swear, if we and you 
had met, ye would have had a dark day of evil ( Jsh)] ; or 
omitted, as 

• t * * * 

[by {Abu'All(IKhn)} AlHasan Ibn Ahmad Ibn 'Abd 
AlGhaffitr alFasawi alFarisl, Now, by Qod, if thou hadst 
been generous, (I would have contended with thee) ; but 
thou art not the generous, nor the noble (Jsh)] : this is the 
saying of S and others : (3 ) extraordinarily between the kJ 

k» * *S ti* * /A/ 

and its gen,, as i>J} UjJfy U^ [532] with &ufc> in the 
gen.: (4) after fof, sts 

a * nthio sS a * *s> sit* &£ * S ' t* *hi* 

****** i. 

[by Aus Ibn Hajar, And lie (the hunter) gave it (the game) 
respite until, when it was as tliough it were giving 
a hand in the fathomless deep of water in order to be 
saved from drowning, gulping down water (Jsh,)]. And 
Akh asserts that it is sometimes red. elsewhere, and 

that it governs the aor. in the subj., as the red. ^ and •_» 
govern the n. in the gen.; and he holds " e) 1 ^ ^; 

i>i° * * / m* * * 

*U| J* Ji*jX> XIV. 15. And what aileth us not trusting 

48 a 



( 570 ) 

in Qod? and II. 247. [80] And what aileth us not 

hi 
doing battle fyc. f, [what follows ^t being a prop. d. s. 

\ hi 

(DM),] to be cases of it. The red. ^f bas no meaning 
other than corroboration, like the rest of the red. pa. 
[563]. 

§ 565. The red. U is (1) restringent, which restraint 
(a) [the v. (DM)] from governing the nom., being attached 

only to 3 vs. Ji> , yf , and Jlk , because of their resem- 

blance to >->) [in indicating paucity or multitr-4e and in 
being put 'at the head of the sentence (DM)]; in which 
case they are prefixed only to a verbal prop, whose v. is 
expressed, as 

i S hi t t h th*> » 9 / y * S^» #•»,/ SS' 

Iaasm j! Utfto jaJI k£>^ * U J\ i--juU! r >*i ***** 

' * * $ * * 

[SWrftwi «foes £Ae intelligent cease to be calling or res- 
ponding to what entails glory ! (Jsh.)]; while the saying 
of AlMarrar [Ibn Sa'ld alFak'asl (Jsh)] 

• Sa/ y fi &*** • A y A 35/ # A/x 

USj O^ii-flJl oJyoG a^«M 

S S * * £^s J / / $ y 

[ TAou turnedst away, and lenglhenedst the turning away ; 
orerf seldom does union outlast length of turning away! 
(Jsb)] is, says S, a poetic license : (b) [the p."] from govern- 

Si 

ing the ace. and nom., being attached to ^ , &c, as IV. 
169. [2] and VIII. 6. [516]; while, when followed 



( 571 ) 
immediately by a v., it is named preparatory, [because it 
prepares the p. for prefixiort to the v. (DM)]: (c) [4 jw. 
and 4 advs. (DM)] from governing the gen., being attached 
to (a) [4 (DM)] ps., (a) S } [505]; ( S) the lJ [509]; 
(J ) the •_> , as 



/j «/ / 



[by Muti' Ibn Iyas alKuft, lamenting Yahya Ibn Ziyad 
alHarithl (Jsh), Then, if thou become such that thou 
return not an answer {because of thy death, this will not 
detract from thine eloquence, because) seldom wast thou 
seen (the aor. being substituted for the pret.) when thou 
wast an orator ! (DM)], as IM mentions, adding that the 
restriDgent U produces with the ^ the sense of paucity, 
as it produces with the i_£ the sense of causation in such as 

II. 194. [509]; (8) >*, as J\ IJtll, [499], as ISh 

' ' i. 

says: (b) [4] advs., (a) *>*{ , as 

[by AlMarrar Ibn Sa'ld alFak'asI, JfAa*/ (lovest thou) 
with love Umm AlWulayyid after that (SIX) the locks of 
thy head are black and white like hyssop partly moist and 

partly dry? (Jsh)] ; ( 8 ) ^> , as 

X * • e • X 

[by Jamil, JP%*fe we were in AlArUk together, lo, a rider 



< 572 ) 

came upon his he-camel! (Jsh)]; (y ) ***£*• and (8 ) if , 

which then [are restrained by U from prefhrion to the 

prop.) and (DM)], being made to imply the sense of the 

* 
cond. ^\ , apocopate 2 vs. [419]: (2) non-restringent, (a) 

a subst. [for the suppressed ^ (DM)], which occurs 

i »//».«^ /;»» / *$ SJ ,\ as a 

in such as (a) utJUoif tSUai* ,-^jf Uf [98]; (b) fi& J*»f 

V Uf JDo Mow Mis, if (thou do) not (anything else), orig. 

a 

Sth* S /Ay • • A J A 

Sjap J*£3 V «&«*$' ^f : (b) not a subst., which occurs (a) 
after the op. governing ( Q> ) the nom,, as »*i) U ^tf** 

by Muhalhil [Ibn Babl'a atTaghlabi (Jsh), If at the 
two Ab&ns he had come suing for her in marriage, a 
nose of a suitor would have been smeared with blood 
(Bk)], and 

gjs* y^xxu j-oy f ^j*^ * £)? ia (3 u £>*- f ; yf 

[by Abii Shaklk alBahill (Jsh), In taking fright did this 
man make haste, Faruka, when the cord of union was 

* \ / • A? , t 

untwisted, cut? (DM)], i.e. fiifc fr ,f ty&f [186] j (3) 

§ i»/ h* x /Ay ' 

the ace. and nom., as ^ f**ij 1 **aI [516]; (7)theapoc, 

§A/ /»S ^ / ' £/ th' £ s 

as ^ JtexMl j-! «-**^2 Uf^VIL 199. 4rad, »/ 07 i 



( 573 ) 
instigation from the devil do instigate thee [589], XVII. 
110. [116], IV. 80. [419], and 



ArO / / A ** / f / 



V * '* ft 

/ y yy A A yAyy y* 

by AlA'sha, [Whenever thou art made to kneel down at 
the door of Muhammad the descendant of Hashim, thou 
wilt be made to rest, and wilt meet from his benefactions 
liberality (Jsh)] ; ( 8 ) the gen., whether the op. be a p., as 

HP* /A iitO a /Asss 

*$l cs-iJ *Uf «# i**.) Uji III. 153. Then by mercy from 
God thou wastmild to them [563, 566], XXIII. 42. [508], 
LXXI. 25. [498], g\ l>y* U>; [505], and g\ ydi y 
[509], or a n., as XXVIII. 28. [184], 

* S tt § * A J> SfHfOf ,3 jg £ * * ■& t **B y y 

/' y y S A y * y? Jy Sy A ly AJ / Ay A 

• * ' y ' # ■""" ' 

[by AlAswad Ibn Ya'fur atTamlml, The careless has slept; 
and I perceive not the sensation of my slumbering, while 
anxiety is present beside me, my pillow. I am without any 
ailment} but an anxiety that I know to have reached my 
heart has made me thin (Jeh)], and J>H fyt Ua«< 1/. [88], 

Ay y A *, ' 

i. e. fji J^« V) [89] : (b) before the op. governing the 



gen., as i>*3 tti. U and jj»* to* U with the gen., which 



is extraordinary [88, 512, 571]: (c) after the cond. instru- 
ment, whether apocopative, [which has been previously 
mentioned (DM),] as ^j 5 ^ Wj VIII. 60. And, if thou 
do fear and IV. 80. ; or not; apocopative, as U !ol ^Xa. 

A** A • A A/./ / • ' •*<" * ' & 

^u« *$xU i>$& U»^(^> XLI. 19. EfoltV, «?/te» «/tey come 
to if, their ears shall bear witness against thorn (d) 
between the ant. and its appos., as &-a^** U 1U* II. 24. 
^4 parable, a gnat [180], U being, says Zj, "a red. p. 
denoting corroboration, according to all the BB," [as 
though tHa. forsooth or &*aJI decidedly were said (K),] 

which is strengthened by its being dropped in the read- 

f. ' " 

ing of Ibn Mas'Qd; and S-fyj being a suhst. (ML). 

• 

% 56G. M is red. (1) with the [con. (R, Jm)] ^ after 

negation, [literally, as ^ lf ; ^.j Jshf U (545, 547); 
or ideally, as I. 7. (539) (Jm)]: (2) after the infinitival 

Si , [as tJSyJ ^ ^^P" 3 * e>' ^^ U VII. 11. What 
hindered thee from doing obeisance when I commanded 

/ A«^ J A? S/A/ £/ 

Mee? (R, Jm) and ^l^M Jaf J** UXJ LVII. 29. /« 
onfer that the people of Scripture may know (R)]: (3) 

S A? / / M A/ * Af / 

seldom before r ->F, [as &*UJUf r ^y **-»! N LXXV. 1. 
I swear by the day of resurrection (R, Jm) and p—sf 1* 



( 575 ) 

id*»f fJ*! XC. 1. 7 swear by this land (Jin)] : (4) ano- 
malously with the pre. (IB.), as 

* **/ 

(R, Jm), by Al'Ajjaj Ibn Eu'ba atTamlmi, .In a well of 
perdition he journeyed, and knew not (Jsh) : (5) often 
before the [word denoting the object] sworn by, to notify 
that the correl. of the oath is negatived, as 

* * t t * t * t 

(R), by Imra alKais, Then no, by thy father 1 daughter of 
Al'Amirl, the people assert not that I flee from battle 
(Jsb). The red. V is introduced into the sentence merely 
to confirm and corroborate it, as f&il) $ iȣ*JU U 

^j*^ ^ u>' ^** XX. 94. What hindered thee, when 
thou sawest them go astray, from following mef and 
VII. 11., as is made manifest by XXXVIII. 75. [181]; 
aud hence LVII. 29., 

A s t *a f / A 9SJ* ,999 



A/ x * ShiO 9 t It, / fit A A// 



[iJ&iowra^ disdained niggardliness; and a " Ye*" pro- 
ceeding from a youth that refuses not bounty to his 
slayer hurried him away (Jsh)], and 

* 9ht § t*t t AS! t -Pw * t h$ A£*0 0K tht 



£by -AtAfcwag, And they censure me for pastime, that 
X should love it, when pastime has" a calter diligent, not 

negligentXtfehy}. But in £H fof* ^ti it is said by some 

to be non-ted., an objective »., J&j**! being, (1) as Zj 
says, a subst. for it* [r. ei disdained "No," niggardliness 

(DM)] j (2) as another, says, a causative obj., i. e. &6B>f/' 

JaaJ) ^/rom (dislike of ) niggardliness, like IV. 175. 

[547], i* e. \}& yjl i^S/ from (dislike) that ye should 

err. And, as they differ about V in this Terse, so do 
they differ about it in LXX V. 1., where it is said to be (1) 
neg\,its negatived being (a) something preceding, vid. the 
denial of the resurrection- often quoted from them, so that 
tNo, i.e. (K)] The matter, is not so is said to them, and 
then the oath [/ swear fyc, (K)] is begun, that, say 
they, being correct only because all the Kur'an is like 

one Chapter; (b) f*-S| , as being enunciatory, [i. e. (/ 

tell you that) I will not swear $c, meaning J will not 
magnify the day of resurrection by the oath, but by what 
is greater than the oath (DM),] not originative, [i.e. 
I swear not by it (DM],] which [explanation] is prefer- 
red by Z : (2) red., (a) subsidiary and introductory to, [an* 
corrob. of (K),] the negation of the correL, [the (prop^- 
sworn to, here suppressed, being supplied negatived, e. g. 

£>>- &?)k V (K),] i. e. No, I swear by $c, (they shall 

not be left uncontrolled), like J**- &?*'$. y *-*>.)) &' 

>S)+Zx>j IV. 68. Then no, by fhy Lord, they will not believe 



( 577 ) 

until they make thee judge and jJ\ u-X^lj U5 , which 
[saying (DM)] is refuted by XC. 1., since its correl. is 
off., vid. <**? ^ \J~ity U^Sli. o.SJ XC. 4. Assuredly 

j» ' 2 

We have created man in travail, and likewise by LVI. 
74 — 76. [1]: (b) merely corrob. and confirmatory of the 
sentence, as in LV1I. 29., which is refuted by the fact 
that it is not made red. for that purpose at the beginning, 

but in the middle, like U and JS , as III. 153. [565], IV. 
80. [419], and J-*£ JS ^j [547] (ML). 

§ 567. *• has been previously mentioned [499]. 

§ 568. The v , the J , [and the u* (R),]. have 
also been previously mentioned [503, 504, 509] (IH;. 



CHAPTER XII, 



THE TWO EXPOSITORY PARTICLES- 



A* 



lit A ( 

§ 569. They are ^1 and ^,1 (M, Z, IH): you say on 

As A A? A/ A 

VII. 154. [514] S*j» ** ,e! That is**? -., as though 
you said The exposition, or meaning, of it is &*? j* i 
and the poet says 

9 AP / hi AS AS *o x Ay/ 

y * t f t 

hi J S Si y, A/y 

y ' £ / ' ' 

[1] (M) "^(we? *Aow shootest (i. e. signest to) me with the 
eye, saying, Thou art a sinner : and thou hatest me ; but 

aS 

/ [521], I hate not thee (N). The difference between ^1 

AJS A* 

and yjf is that ^ expounds every vague [expression], 

XfO AV ■*$ A? i A/ /»/ 

single term, as &U| J*« ^1 ,5! %>ij ^y/k- Zozrf, j. e. Abu 
l Abd Allah, came to me; and prop., as o;U ?| 8iji» ^j*s> 

' o» y Ayy 

His bovsl was emptied, i. e. he died, and iJ! ( JJJ f »y. •. 

whereas ^f expounds only a supplied obj. of an expres- 
sion conveying the sense of saying, as XXXVII. 104. 

«» y f*Kt *B Ay j,», /, 

[539, 570], L e. ^1 tUJy y& fcab »U,vU ; , and similarly 

A*0 f Ay J> A// , * ' 

u*-^l ti)' *fifl ufc**Xr I torofe ;o Aim, saying, Come, i. e. 

Ayo y .» «s Ay 

ubJf yt> UaA ; and sometimes the expressed direct ofy". 



( 579 ) 

[of such an expression], as ^yi, U uX«f ^l Uas.^! jf 
*4*^f ^f XX. 38. 39. When We revealed to thy 
mother what is revealed, namely, Put him (R). You 

$/sA$$/As A • A > 

say i_*2u ^l t>sa**« ^i* 2 have osa*** , i. e. gold, 

•what follows ^ being a syrarf. e#/;J. of, or [total (DM)] 
subst. for, what precedes it. The prop, imitative of a 
quasi-saying is of two sorts, (1) accompanied by the expos. 

p., as jJS Akx*y* and J*»! ^! &aJ| \s~*& ; and in 

this sort the prop., being expos, of the «., [as converting it 

to a particular obj. (DM),] has no place [in inflection] : 

* i a ,* a ** 
(2) unaccompanied by the expos, p., as f&yj ty. ^yy 

t ait"fif/ * * *>" *Iho 2 S t * 2 » A// * 

Abraham commended it to his sons, and Jacob also com- 
mended it to his sons, my sons, verily God hath chosen 

for you the religion of Allslam, ^y **i ! ^? S^y 
Ujm fc-^J ^i k Jj** t5* XI. 44. And Noah called 
to his son Canaan — and he was aloof— O my little son, 
embark with us, the reading u^4*« ^f &iy t**** LIV. 10. 
And he prayed to his Lord, Verily I am overcome, and 
the saying 

[Two men (for ^H*) by poetic license) from Makka 
told us, Verily we saw a naked man ( Jsh)] ; and these 



( 580 ) 

props. [ £*! k in the first two texts, v^* c5*' » aQ( * 
Uj!^ U| (DM)] are in the place of an ace. [as ofy's.] by 
common consent, the ace. being governed, as the BB 
say, by a supplied saying, but, as the KK say, by the v. 
mentioned, and the opinion of the BB being attested by 
the expression of the saying in such as XI. 47. [540] and 
-L. Jfc*J| >a>. J! v j JS Uas. >toJ &>, «jU of XIX. 
2. 3. WAera Ae ca/Zerf wpow /m Lorrf privily : he said, 
My Lord, verily the bone of vie hath waited feeble. 

a ; m 

§ 570. J is luyxw., i.q. 3 \ , [prefixed to the two 

,A*A,« , A-o i „, ,l, K i, 

props. (DM),] as v-^t £*-e\ J &*J| UUa^U XXIII. 27. 
And We revealed to him, saying, Make thou the Ark [1] 

tS ,A,o **A A 3 a » f 

and &»f f&> ^ i^y> VIJ. 41. ^nrf *% shall be 
called to thus: — That [561] is Paradise. It has the fol- 
lowing conditions :— (I) that it be preceded by a prop., 
for which reason he that holds X. 11. [525] to be a case 
of it is mistaken, [because only a single term occurs 
before it (DM)] : (2) that it be followed by a prop., so that 

Uani yjl ip.s a .M g \asfo is not allowable, but ^1 must be 
put, or the expos, p. must be omitted ; but there is no 
difference between the verbal prop, [posterior to it (DM)] 
and the nominal : (3) that the preceding prop, contain 
the sense of saying, as [XXIII. 27. and VII. 41. (DM)] 

* ArO $ A *S ***** *, , A *f 

above, whence f j&# f ^,1 f$U HJ ( jite; j XXXVIII. 



( 581 ; 

5. And the chief persons of them brake forth intospeech, 
saying, Go an [and XXXVII. 104. (539, 569)]: (4) that 
the preceding prop, do not contain the letters of saying, 

A *l\<o f St * t,» 

so that J*»t ^1 *J o-l» is notsaid: but in the small com- 
mentary of IU on the Jumal [of ZJi (DM)] it is stated that 
yjl is sometimes expos, after genuine raying', and Z men- 
tions [iu the K (DM)] that in l> ^>y\ U IM *$ «J£ U 

'f^Oj *J?) 6 *" f^H't ^jl V. 117. I have not command- 
ed them save what Thou hast commanded me, saying, 
Worship ye God, my Lord and your Lord it may be 
expos, of the saying as .rendered by commanding, which 
is good j and accordingly the rule should be that the 
prop, do not contain the letters of saying except when 
the saying is renderable by something else: (5) that a 

prep, be not prefixed to it, so that, if you said &*Jf c&~jaS* 



J*al ^jU , it would be infinitival. When the ^1 adapted 
for exposition is followed by an aor. accompanied by V 

* *f / A i Ay » *•? 

as J*& V J &aM uw^if / signed to him, saying, Thou 
shalt not do or Do thou not or that thou shouldst not do, 
it may be in the ind. on the assumption that V is neg., 
or apoc. or the assumption that it is prohib. } in both of 

A t 

which cases ^ is expos., or subj. on the assumption that 

» A i , 

V is neg. and ^1 infinitival ; but, if V be wanting, the 
apoc. is disallowed, and the ind, and subj. are allowable 
(ML). 



CHAPTER XIII. 



THE INFINITIVAL PARTICLES. 



§ 571. They are U, ^1 (M,Z r IH), J (IH, AA), 

A f Hf A/ 

[the contracted ^1,] ^ , and y (R), as IX. 119. 
[540] (M, Z), la>U> U^ sU~i\ y XCI. 5. And the heaven 
and His having built it ae expounded by some, 

/ft 9t m J>t f * t *t /I^ // / / / A/A<^ St / 

[That the nights have gone gladdens the man: and he 
heeds not that their going was for him a going of his 

life (Jsh)], and XXVII. 57. [449 J (M). U is conjoined 

with the plastic v., since the aplastic has no inf. n. that 

the p. with the v. might be renderable by ; but not with 

the imp. : and is peculiar in acting as a subst. for the adv. 

of time pre. to the inf. n. that it and its eonj. are render- 

$ tiff ssthl * 
^ble by, as J$;U» yi U *US| 1/ / «»// «o£ do it so long 

as a sun shall rise, i. e. )& U &>«♦ , i. e. ^^J &*«• during 
(the period of) its rising; and its conj. is then mostly 

Ax 

a pret. affirmed or [an aor.~\ negatived by J , though its 

a* 
meaning is future, seldom an act. [not negatived by J ]. 

Its conj. is, according to S, only verbal : but others allow 

it to be nominal, which is the truth, though it is rare, as 



( 583 ) 

vjf &5U*| [565] ; and IJ allows it to be a prep, and 
gen., so that (jjj Ua. U and ^ K±* U are allow- 
able according to his opinion [88, 512, 565] (R). U 

Ai3 / / A/y § y 

is (1) not temporal, as *U* U &Ae jjj* IX. 129. 

' ' ' 

Grievous unto him is that ye' have svffered hardship, 

aS / / dSy 

*U* U Sy*y HI. 114. They have wished that ye should suf- 

' tht Sf t J y 5 / ' ft -"' 

/er hardship, IX. 1 19., and r ji f j-»j Uf a^J-i- <->!■** f^ 

y A,i» 

v^UoaJf XXXVIII. 25. They shall have a severe punish- 
ment because they have forgotten the day of reckoning; 
and hence ^^1 ^*\ t*f I/-*' II. 12. Believe ye as men 
believe, and similarly wherever it is conjoined with the 
uJ of comparison [509] between 2 similar vs.: (2) tem- 
poral, [because it occupies the place of the n. of time 

8y • * * 5 a 

(DM),] as XIX. 32. [447], orig. *#» ^^ »Jm, , the 

y 
arftf. being suppressed and replaced by U and its conj., 

y f y y #A 

as in the case of the genuine inf. n., as S**-* i«XXa*. 

y 

A y»«« * A y y A^» s y y A Ays S .» £ A 

yflsJf [65]; and hence »»^»laX»f U _U*oU f V| tjj^f J 

XI. 90. T rfes*re wo/ aught «we your reformation so long 
as I am able and 

*\*tt'ir$* w y » *t s s> * A*o S y/y y S 

[by Imra al Eais, our female neighbour, verity calami- 
ties befall (man); and verily I shall be steadfast (in bearing 
them) so long as (mount) 'Astb shall be steadfast (Jsh)] : 



( 584 ) 

(a) if its being temporal meant that it indicated time by 
itself, not vicariously, it would be a «., and would not 
be infinitival, as ISk followed by ISh says that 

S iu r-o/ J>AJ> h<o & * r * th<p» P» « S/ A f f 9 C^ 8 

' ' ' ' i, ' ^ ' • 

[by Abu Kais Ibn Rifa'a alAnsarf, Of us are he that is at 
the time when his mustache has sprouted and the old 
bachelors; and of us are the beardless and the hoary 

(Jsh)] means yio i **s>. , [in which case U indicates time 

' A 

by itself (DM)]j while yjf , say I, is made red. after it 

because of its resemblance in letter to the neg . U ; as in 

£*' lS^ Eh [563] : whereas L* should rather be construed 
to be neg. , he whose mustache has not sprouted, because the 

A 

redundance of ^jl is then regular, and becnuse this con- 
struction avoids making [the adv. of] time an enunc. to 
the concrete n. [26] and authorizing a meaning and 
usage where they are not authorized, vid. its denoting 
time by itself and its being [used (DM)] pre.: (b) I have 
deviated from their term "adverbial" [497] to my term 
" temporal" in order that it might include such as UW 

A * * hf* tmti 

&a9 \Ju+ f$ s\*\ II. 19. So often as it giveth light to 

* * 

them they walk in it, since the n. of time supplied here 

/«./ Ay S Sf 

is a gen., i. e. 8.^! **-»j J? At evert/ (time of) giving 
light; whereas the gen. [».of time or place (DM)] is not 

A f f 

named adv. [64] : (c) , ^j! does not share with U in act- 



( 585 ) 

ing as a subst. for the n. of time, contrary to the opinion 
of IJ, who attributes to it 

* * * y t»\ hi ui //*{ s i<>£ $s As A s <l»«ss 

''" ' *> ' ** ' 

[4«d, 6y God, are oW woman motlier of one child is'. not 

more grieved than I at {the time) that her little one is 

lighted (Jsh)] j while Z following him attributes to it 

tjCUl &Uf 8tff ^,1 II. 260. [4* (*Ae time) that God 
gave him the kingdom (K)], \fo**i ^ JM IV. 94. [5at?e 

a* {the time) that they waive (K)], and ^1 H».j c»***^ 
* U ' vi^ Jj*i ■^•k. 29. [What! will ye slay a man at 
(the time) that he saith, My Lord is Godf (K)] : whereas 
the sense of causation in the verse and texts is possible, 

M A i A? A 

[i.e. i>M ^1 J*.f *« (DM)]; and, being unanimously 
agreed upon, must not be deviated from. U is extraor- 
dinarily conjoined with the aplastic v. in 

[Are not ye two my rulers in a fairs, because ye are not 
people of faithlessness and treacltery f (Jsh), where J**» 
is applied to the non-sing.) as in LXVI. 4. (24), and 
UJuf is sub. of | j«*J j the *-* prefixed to it beingretf.,asin 

«. * , • A,? 

£lf L*a»* j-xJt(503) (DM)]. IJ says that the infinitival 

L is suppressed in j*" &?**>„ 'i>b [J24], whereas cor- 

o»t a 



( 586 ) 
vectly S*1 is pre. to the prop. ; while S on the contrary 

f m e *3 * t ret 

says that U is red. in £fl uj^^i ^ *& [124], whereas 
correctly it is infinitival. ^ governs the aor. in the subj. 
[410], and occurs (1) in the beginning, [really or predi- 
camentally (DM),] in which case it is in the position of 
a nom., as II. 180. [24] and II. 238. [405], and, as is said, 
Ky&saJ .1 ja»l &Ul»IX. 13i Then God, that ye should 
fear Mm is meeter and similarly IX. 63. [538] : (2) 
after an expression indicative of a meaning other than 
certainty [526], in which case it is in the position of (a) 

a nom. as {#J* £&==£ ^ lyM ji&i ^U fJ| LVII. 15. 
Hath not the time come for them that have believed that 
their hearts should submit? and II. 213. [4G4]; (b) an 

t,K9 Ki 9riM*,*3 t 1 ft ,, 

acc, as gyh Ji J>flS \±& ^ U, X 38. Mr is this 
KurUn a forgery [below], H^Jo Uaa^ ^t ^sai ^fk 
V. 57. Saying, We fear that a reverse should befall us, 
and t^*A«! ^f vaOjU XVIII. 78. And I desired to make 
it unsound', (c) a gen., as «t>jJl *S\*a>f Jt$ .f jjj* «, 
LXIII. 10. Before that death come to one of you and 
XXXIX. 14. [413] ; (d) either [an acc. or gen. (DM)], 
as XXVI. 82. [410], orig. ^f ^ , it being disputed 
whether the place after suppression of the prep, is [that 
of (DM)] an acc. or .gen. [514]. This J» is a conjunct 



( 587 ) 
p. [497], conjoined with the plastic v., whether an aor. t 
as [II. 180., &c. (DM),] above; or a pret., as &U\ ^ ^ Hy 
UaI* XXVIII. 82. If it had not been that God was gra- 

AJ> tlS tts /«// 

cious to us ; or an imp., as J ^ &jJI eJ^ I wrote to him, 
Stand, [i. e. ^USJ t> to stand (DM)]. Four other meanings 

' ' ' ** A 

are mentioned for ^ : — (1) condition, like ^f [585], 
which is held by the KK,and is rendered probable in my 

A? A 

opinion by fa) the concurrence of ^ and ^ in one place, 

s* s a C s A $ * 

as in Ufl>Ju»»4 J-a» ^1 II. 282. If one of them twain err 
and the saying [of AlFarazdak (Jsh)] 

/2i> f.'*'* /a£ A ? » fhtt 

Gla.. &aaX» Got ^jl u~*"£*j| 

t A^o 4/ A X A • A/y ^ / 

-JUL. v I J3 Vt ^ii3 J^ f ^a. 

[ What! wilt thou be wroth if {a boaster boast because, or it 
appear that) the two ears of Kutaiba have been slit public- 
ly, when thou wast not wroth at the slaughter of Ibn KhS' 

A 

zimt (ML on ^t )]; (b) the occurrence of the O after it 

«» * * * * *i 
often, as in £\ &£fj£. W [98] ; (c) its being coupled to 

A «• y A'S S . '• AS 

yj! in ^Jf o~ 5f U! [98], where, if ^ were infinitival, a 
single term would be coupled to a prop.: (2) negation, also 
like ^1 [550], which is said by some on Jt» **»-f ^ji ^f 

A* * , 

***5<f U III. 66. Not any one is given the like of what ye 

f A . 

have been given: (3)?.y. [the causative (DM)] of, as 



( 588 ) 

A I 

some assert of ^1 [592], which is said by some on 

htK i At A*/MS t\Z » ' /■ At 

f^ jj**- f*^- J \fP? e Ji L. 2. But they wondered 
bemuse a warner of themselves came to them /, LX, I. 

*> J / Ar? 

[514], and j£\ w.«<aij| because the two ears Sfc. : (4) i.y. 
Uil , which is said on IV. 175. [547] and 

' * » A t A f * A,c /AS // S - aSa^3 / A f «M» 

[ by 'Aiiif Ibu Kulthiim at TaghlabI, Ye took up the posi- 
tion of guests towards us ; and we hastened (he entertain- 
ment lest ye should blame us (EM)]. IMd says in his 
book AlBadI' [fi-nNahw (HKh)], in which he differs 

from the sayings of the GG on many matters, that ^^ 

A £ I £• 

and the infinitival ^ are interchangeable, so that ^gJJl 
occurs infiuitivnl, as 

*•*>* * HI 9AJB # yA * St AfZ 

Aft 

9 /At ft tit u S A • /$ 

[by Jamil, What! are the livers of lovers sore because (the 

i*J denoting causation) of my seeing my liver sore from 

a * a, 

love of JBathna? (Jsh)]; and ^ in the sense of ^gjJI as 

* At A i A 3 t Ki 4 Af * 

«_jl>£j> ^! «• Ja*1 iHj Zairf is more intelligent than he 

9 A t S^» t 

that lies, i. e. uoXj ^ JJt .< . 5T, Fr, and F indeed say 

- * * * 

mt 

that -ill occurs infinitival, and IKh and IM approve 

' * / t silto Sui t* S<^ t I 

of it; and they hold toU« m yS^ s 6i\ i_tt3 XLTI. 22. 



'{ 589 ) 
[ That is God's gladdening His servants tvith good tidings 

* t 5«*> ' A* A fit 

(DM)] and Sytfe- goM JL a\y IX. 70. [And ye have 
plunged into vanity like their plunging (DM)] to be cases 
of it : but I know no one that says the converse ; and 
what emboldens him to [say] it is the^difficulty of this 
sentence, since it appears to pronounce Zaid superior in 
intelligence to lying, which has no meaning. It appears 
to me, however, either that the sentence contains para* 

aS 

phrase upon paraphrase, ^Ji and the v. being paraphrased 
by the inf. »., and the inf. n. by the qual., so tbat the 
sense {Zaid is more intelligent than the liar (DM)] is re- 
duced to what he means, but by a method received by 
the learned, since X. 38. [above] is said to be construe- 

tively s\f*\ J* I* meaning ^jW* forged ; or that Jicf 

is made to imply the sense of •*■>! , so that the ex. means 
Zaid is the farthest of mankind from lying because of 

A 

his superiority to others, the ^* mentioned not being 
the one governing the inferior in the gen., but being de- 
pendent upon J**l because/of the sense of farness implied 
by it, and the [person or thing] pronounced inferior being 
always omitted with this J*M because of the intention of 
generalization (ML), ^ , when op., is conjoined with its 
2 regs. [497, 517]; and, when restrained [516], with the 
nominal or verbal prop. (R). [On the contracted ^\ 
see §§. 497 and 525.] J is i. q. [the infinitival (ML)] 



( 590 ) 

.1 in sense (R,ML) and government [410] (ML), but is 

peculiar to the aor. [497] (Tt), as tj-C UxXJ LVII. 23. In 

order that ye may not giieve, which is confirmed by its 

replaceability by ^ , and by the fact that, if it were a 
causative p. [513, 595] a causative p. would not be pre- 

t AJ> A t t 3*. 

fixed to it ; and hence ^*y& ^J <**£&=*. [411] and 

&J^o ^^i iy LIX. 7. (In order) that it may not be a 
thing taken by turns, when the J is supplied before it 
[514] ; and possibly the saying 

[Tliou desiredst that thou shouldstgo swiftly off with my 
water-skin, and leave it to be a worn-out water-skin in 
an empty desert ( Jsh), where the J is found before, and 

.1 after, it (DM)], ^ beiug either causative, corrob. of 
the J , or infinitival, corroborated by ^1 [597]. .1 
* s *• 1* u)' » except that it does not govern the subj.i 
and mostly occurs after o^, &yi, [and the like, as 
J^i J^i PM)], as LXVIII. 9. [417] and o^ 
^su jl ^^a-f II. 90. One of them wisheth that he 
should be made to live ; but sometimes without them, as 

J s A *A^» * *hi0 /Ax //A»o 5 , 



( 591 ) 
by Kutaila [Bint (AnNadr Ibn (Is)} AlHarith {alKu- 
rashlya (Is)}, That thou kadst shown grace would not 
have harmed thee: and often has the youth shown grace 
when he was the angered, enraged (Jsh)], 

9 hi iS 9 A/ * f sZifs 

^>y*\ J=* UjS cyG I**)) 

9 * h# * h ' A*° * '/ * w£s *-° • 

*y^y rH'/^'j- 
• * * * 

by AlA'sha, [dfwrf o/?en /m* iAe &«/& of their matter 
escaped a people from leisureliness when that they should 

A • A 

have hastened was prudence (Jsh), ( »> a =JI being preferably 
in the ace. as the prepos. pred. of ^ , and the inf. n., 
vid. y and its conj., being its postpos. sub., as the Seven 
read in XLV. 24. and XXVII. 57. (449) (DM),] and 
j>H cyjjlaw [487], The occurrence of y as infinitival is 
authorized by Fr, F, AB, T, and IM : and their opinion 

# A * 

is attested by the reading of LXVIII. 9. [538], l^*<*-> 
in the s«6/. beiug coupled to ^^ , since its sense is 

* *» A f ' «i 

^^ c)' i while the difficulty of its prefixion to ^ in 

* / <* ti t /lit* //»< m i A' £// m S * H / f * / 

such as lj**i fo-»f &ijy^ l^iif ^jf y o^j >j- ^ irJUc U« 

III. 28. .4»rf w/ta^ [586] zV /ta^/i done of evil, it will wish 
that (it had been the case) that between itself and it had been 
afar extent of time, [the infinitival p. not being prefixed 

A* 

to its like (DM),] is met with the reply that y is prefixed 
to a suppressed v. supplied after y , i. e. ^f ^ o^2 y 



( 592 ) 
(ML). Its conj. [497] is like the conj. of U [above], 

As 

except that y does not act as a subst. for the adv. of 
time. Sometimes the v. of wish is dispensed with, and 

A/ 

the v. after y governed in the subj. when conjoined with 

m »i ' % x t * A/ 

the «J [411], as g*& Ch J J$ $ ( 7 wish ) that J 
had wealth, so that I might perform the pilgrimage, i. e. 

£H y ^J*£\ or o*l whence ^j* yj/ 1 * */" ^ ^ y 

• A J>A«0 

. y .~o3 J t XXXIX. 59. (I wish) that I had a return 

to the world, so that I might be one of the righteous (R). 

§ 572. Some of the KK and AU mention that some 

of the Arabs make [the subjunctival (DM)] ^1 govern 
the apoc; and Lli transmits it from some of the Banu 
Subab [a clan (ID, DM)] of Dabba: and they cite 

• aS » f A tt * a t f e ' 

Ui2>( JjJj JtS U^*» U fol 

' ' i 

A» *h a^> f %r aS • »«</ 

[by Imra alKais, Whenever we go forth in the morning, 
the lads of our people say, Come ye, until the game come 
to us we icill gather firewood to roast it (Jsh),] and 

* // »// *** < ;«// /!»// * A/As A* J /I 

[by Jamil, / beware of this tf/m£ s/ie should know it (the 
&a.t&. riwrnl mentioned in the preceding verse), and should 
reject it, and leave il to be a burden upon me. as it is 



( 593 ) 

(Jsh)] ; but this [citation of the 2nd verse (DM)] requires 

consideration, because the coupling of the subj. [ o y -and 

uSyC (DM)] to JbJ indicates that the latter is made 
quiescent by poetic license, not apocopated. And some- 
times the v. is put into the ind. after it, as in the reading 
of Ibn MuhaiBin in II. 233. [525] that he should fulfil 
and the saying of the poet 

z^P/As ttmf A-5 ft mtKt A 2 

Lfcs-£ ; *U-f J* ^Sp J 

Id.*! fytiJl; ^ r u-jf ^ 

[ That ye twt> should pronounce over Asmd {mercy be upon 

you twoPcJrQniJtte greeting, and that ye should not inform 

any arte- (Jsh)]. The KK assert that this is the con* 
fit 

ttacted ^f anomalously conjoined with the [plastic non- 
precatory (DM).] v. [without separation (DM)] ; whereas 

ihe BB rightly say that it is the subjunctival ^f [410] 

made inop. by assimilation to its fellow the infinitival U , 

* A t J A ft 

[as is proved by the poet's making it op. in Sf&* V ^ 
(DM)] : but the saying [of Abii Mihjan Malik Ibn Hablb 
athThakaft (Jsh)] 

!S ' //A«-C U* * A / •/ 

J* Sua i j ^ui^ v } 

' b ' ' ' ' 

ta si t a£ $ t * s *i 

[^nd do not thou bury me in the desert, for verily I fear, 

when I die, that {the case will be this,) / shall not taste 
51 a 



( 594 ) 
it (Jsh)] is not a case of that, as some assert ; because, 

a i 

the/ear here being certainty, ^ is contracted [526] 
(ML). 



CHAPTER XIV. 



THE EXCITATIVE PARTICLES. 



* h* / *t 



§ 573. They «re»y, uy, to, Hj (M, Z, IH, IM), 

and Vf (IM). Their meaning, when they are prefixed 
to the fret., is rebuke, and blame, for omission of the act} 
and in the aor. is excitement to, and requisition of, the 
act: so that in the aor. they are in the sense of com- 
mand', hut there is no excitation in the fret., which has 
already lapsed, except that, heing often used in blaming 
the person addressed for having omitted in the past some* 
thing that is recoverable in the future, they are as it 
were, with respect to the meaning, excitative to doing 
the like of what has lapsed. In the aor. also they are 
seldom used except in the case of rebuke and blame for 
what the person addressed ought to have done before it 
was required of him: and, if the sentence be devoid 
of rebuke, it is request, in which case these ps. denote 

request; and Vj , U1 , and the opt. y are also used in 
that sense] (R). They take the head of the sentence, 
[because they indicate one of the sorts of sentence, so 
that they are put at the head to indicate from the very 
first that the sentence is of that sort (Jm)]. And they 

are inseparable from the »., literally, [as ib-LmjI Vy 

XX. 134. Wherefore didst Thou not send ? and Uf 



< 596 ) 

S&UJt* UUjC XV. 7. Wherefore wilt thou not bring to 
us the angels t (R)]; or constructively (IH), as 

AJ> A * y fhi iu <a /Ay / S.P/ 

/ Cs-f A<" S yA»e y Ay //Ay / 

uiSJ f ^ i vy ^^ ^ 

[by Jarlr, li? reckon the slaughter of the old she-camels 
to be the most excellent of your glory t Banu Dautard : 
why {have ye) not {reckoned) the helmed champion f 

a*ht a fi A/ it 

(574) (J),] and &>ye fd*J Ufl> [62]: but the nominal 
[prop.] occurs after tbem in poetic license, as 

y .» y /A/ *Ay S/y 5/ //y ftx/dS /A/ * Ai/M 

' $ * ' / 

(R), by the Majnun of Laila al'Amirlya, .4nrf I was told 
Ziaild had sent an intercession to me. Then why was not 
Laila's self her intercessor f ( Jsb). 

/A/ /A/ 

§ 574. Vy and Uy also denote prevention of one 
thing because of the existence of another : and are then pr e- 
fixed to the inch. (M, IA), the enunc. after them being ne- 
cessarily suppressed [29] ; and must have a correl., which, 
if affirmed, is mostly conjoined with the J [602]', and, if 

negatived by U , is mostly divested of it, and, if negatived 

A/ y .PAyAfy $As /Ay 

by J , is not conjoined with it, as utf*yV jjj VJ r 

/ ht $A ' '*' / 5»/ /»/ % y A/ j A y /Ay 

uy [below], j/** A*- U Oij Uy , and ^ai J ts^j uy 

4 a y / "/ ' 

^ (IA). Wy occurs in four ways:— (1) it is prefixed 



( 597 ) 
to a nominal followed by a verbal [pro/). (DM)], to con- 
nect the prevention of the 2nd with the existence of the 
1st, as i_££#yV **ij Vy If Zaiil (had) not (been exist- 
ing), I should have honored thee, [so that it connects 
the prevention of the honoring with the existence of Zaid 

(DM),] i.e. 6f±y* i*i5 V^'' (2) it denotes excitation 
and request; and is then peculiar to the aor. or what is 
renderable as such, [i. e. the pret. whose meaning is future 
(DM),] as &Uf ^jftiLj Vy XXVIL 47. Wherefore 
will ye not ask God for forgiveness f and LXIII. 10. 
Wilt Tiiou not defer me $c.f [426]: (3) it denotes 
rebuke and making to repent ; and is then peculiar to the 

/fv//^ S/A£ Kft 3—S /A/ 

pret., as j\±$& &*>}> **** \$*. Vy XXIV. 13. Where- 

' ' ' t*t* 

fore brought they not four witnesses to it?, whence Vfo 

*\ tCf/f A 2 ft S 4>t / AJA.P 3 SSh , A 

jj^ icy j uj .^y* u. ja* 8^****-, of xxiv. 15. 

^nd wherefore, when ye heard it, said ye not, It is not 
meet for us that we should speak this?, except that 
the v. is postponed, and jJ\ ^y^ [ 57 3], except that 
the v. is understood, i. e. ^o*** Uy : ( a ) ft j s sometimes 

A • 

separated from the v. by of and fof [together with the 
prop. porf. to them (DM)], when [they are (DM)] regs. 
of the v. [posterior to them (DM)], or by a parenthetic 
eond.prep., the 1st as in XXIV, 15., and the 2nd and 



( 598 ) 

/ 99 As s kthi* s M »k*> SVs s s Ass 

3rd as in ( £)^ h & ijii*^. *X>(^ s^jilaaJI ut-ib fjf Vy» 

sAs h9 *» A sAss s J> A* s » 1/ *;• As * saS J A s' 



tg>»x&.y ujA^st"** LVI. 82 — 86. Then wherefore, when 
«2 reacheth the throat, while ye are then looking on, and 
We fyc. [63] — then wherefore, if ye be not held in sub- 

f 9 h, 

jection, will ye not return it?, [ ^ftf being the op. 

of the adv., and (B)] the 2nd Hy being a \corrob'. (K, 
B)] repetitibn ^f the 1st: (4) it denotes interroga- 
tion, as LXIH. 10. [Hast Thou deferred mef (DM)] 

$ •/ Ass s A* /As 

and uXU &*l* jj*l My XXV. 8. [flirf/i an angel been 
sent down unto him? (DM)], mentioned by Hr, but not 

AS 

by most. And Hr mentions that it is neg., i. q. f ; and 

/'/'* A //» $sAs ASS SASS 

assigns as an instance of it tgxiii e^l &e^» eJli 1 Uy» 
s# * ^as a s^s 
-J^> *y lfj l&U&f X. 98. And there was not a city 

which believed and whose belief profited it, save the people 

A / 

of Jonah read with ff in the ace. and nom., [the latter 

SAs 

transmitted from Jr and Ks (K)j. The Vy occurring in 

A J» » f» SAS SS * A.Ps s8 $ S A £ fimfHi A SS S sfi 

[by Abu Dhu'aib alHudhali, Now Asmd fancied that 
J did not love her: and I said, Yes, if my business had 
not been distracting me, (J should have visited thee) 

s As As As 

(Jsh)] is not this Vy ; but is two words, i. q. f y , the 



( 599 ) 

sr%*j sAs sAs 

correl. uGjjl being suppressed, uy is i. q. Uy [in 

s 
importing connection of the prevention of the apod, with 

the existence of the proh, and in being used to denote 

S S AsA it i As sAs 

excitation, request, and rebuke (DM)], as uCUylf ^j Uy 
[above] and XV. 7. [573] ; but Mlk asserts that it is only 
excitative, which is refuted by 

S tf S>A ' *' S tti" s As 

j ja aiayi &LicV\ uy 

Sit ss f * s A * AS A 

/la. * t_£L« » J L. < tfl J rv w •**; •* 

/ s s , *-s 

[J^* (*A#) hearkening to slanderers (were) not (existing), 

I should have after thy dislike hope of thy liking (Jsh)]. 

s* 

iff is peculiar to enunciatory verbal props., like the rest 

Si & >o a J>£ / 

of the excitative instruments. The Iff in &IU f*> &'A^ 

S ss *h,Ci S *> I * 3 »»! ' ' ' £ 

L f JbJ V| ,**.,! f -a.y f XXVII. 30. 31. ^nrf verity it 
w " /« the name of Qod, the Compassionate, the Merci- 
ful" that ye should not exalt, or saying, "Exalt ye not, 
yourselves against me" is not this Iff ; but is two words, 

AS ' A t 

the subjunctwal ^1 and neg. * , or the earpos. yjf and 

s 

prohib. V : and according to this [latter explanation] it 
has no place ; but according to the former it is a subst. for 

i S § 'As 

^IaT XXVII. 23. .4 writing as being i. q. Vs***"* > 

' *As SS 

while the enunciation [ iy*3 Iff (DM)] is i. q. requisi- 

*AS S J>As 

tion [ jysu If (DM)], because of the context ^j*^ 
XXVII. 31. and "come unto me." And similar is the 



( COO ) ' 

S iO * ht m * / ti*' ttlf * / tt& iB ft* / Zt / 

reading J*<— M ^ f*±*» ^H.*f ^UsuAlf ^ ^jjj 

Jl J> # A y 5? • * * ti* * lit* tit 

&1) | ; o»~ilM u,;^^. V f gi XXVII. 24. 25.: but J 
in it is subjunctival onl^ while M is (1) weg\, V| being 

tit* *tii 

(a) [in the place of an ace. (DM),] a subst. for j^Uel , 
And the devil hath made their works specious to them, 
and perverted them from the way, so that they are not 
guided aright, [hath made specious to them (B)] that 
they bow not down to Ood ; (b) [in the place of a nom. 

dtt *ni 

(DM),] an enunc. of a suppressed [inch.'], i.e. *$IUc( 

iJl 1M {Their works are) that they bow not Sfc. : (2) 

as 
red., V\ being (a) [in the place of] a gen., a subst. for 

s 
Ji**Jf , [i. e. from the way, which is bowing down (DM)] ; 

(6) disputed about, as to whether it be [in the place of] 

a gen. or ace. [514], the o. f. being UiJ and the J 

, t , k, ' 

dependent upon ^y^Hi , [». e. they are not guided aright 

*$ 
to bowing down (DM)]. V| denotes request and excita- 
tion, both meaning requisition of the thing, but request 
being requisition with gentleness, and excitation being 
requisition with urgency; and is peculiar to the verbal 

lit* tii ^ * n* it i * & * *$ 

[prop.], as f* *« I fh J ^ytsu VI XXIV. 22. Witt 

' ' *i 

ye not like that God should forgive you f, [where Vf 

ht* *ht Set tit ****** 

denotes request (DM),] and ^UjJ \j& Uf ^yKGj UJ 



f 601 ) 
IX. 13. Wherefore will ye not fight with a people that 
have broken their oaths?, [where it denotes excitation 
(DM),] whence, according to KM, £*f tta.^ Iff [99] i. e. 

V*-) ^tf W according to him. Mlk says that Uf is a 
[simple (DM)] p. of request, i. q. ty ; and is peculiar to 
the v. as (>yu U( Wilt thou not stand f: hut against that 
it is alleged that the Hamza denotes interrogation relat- 
ing to making to con/ess, as in J\ and V| , and that U 
is neg. ; and this Hamza is sometimes suppressed, as 

(ML) Seest thou not time has destroyed the tribe of 
Ma 1 add, and has destroyed the chiefs of the tribe of 
'AdnSnf (Jsh). Vf and Uf denoting request are undoubt- 
edly compounded of the Hamza of disapproval and tbe p. 
of negation (R). y [573] denotes request, as Jji5 y 
\ye*. i^*t*6L& UjJU Would that thou wouldst alight beside 
us, and, or so 2/ia£ Mom mightst, get good [411, 417, 
592] mentioned in the Tashll (ML). 



52 a 



CHAPTER XV. 
THE PARTICLE OF APPROXIMATION. 



§ 575. It is uS (M, Z). lP is peculiar to the of., 
enunciatory, plastic v. denuded of apocopative, op. of the 
subj., and p. of amplification: and, being like part of It, 
is not separated from it by anything, except indeed by 
the oath [577], as g\ o^M [1] and 

a t 4 * 9 a * *' *"* **tt A t°t « // 

[And a magpie that screeches has, by Ood, made j)lain 
to me my distress at the quickness of their departure 
(Js\i)\ ; though sometimes the v. is suppressed after it 
because of an indication, as £M i*M [532, 577]. It has five 
meanings, (1) expectation : that with the aor, is manifest, 
as in your saying tyi* I L-^&Jf f***> *>» Of course the ab- 
sent will arrive to-day when you are expecting his arrival ; 
and with the pret. is authorized by most: KM says 

/ ft A * 

« J*» di' is said to people that await the announcement, 
whence the saying of the Mu'adhdhin Sltaff o~.£ o5 
Prayer has already begun, because the congregation are 



( 603 ) 

•/ ■ • Ay 

awaiting that"; and one of them says " You say \^y *tS 
jjutff The governor has already mounted to him that 
awaits his mounting, and the Revelation has &U f £*«, jj 

u^btsu ^1 JjS LVIII. 1. God hath already heard the 
saying of her that disputeth with thee, because she was ex- 
pecting God to answer her prayer" : (a) some disapprove its 
denoting expectation with the pret., saying that expectation 
is awaiting the occurrence, whereas the past has already 
occurred ; but it is plain from what we have mentioned that 

A/ 

the authorizes of that [sense] mean that k*> indicates that 
the past act was expected before the announcement, no* 
that it is expected now : (b) it appears to me, however, that 

A ' 

oS does not import expectation at all, in the aor. because 

S th<0 » f h * A * 

^UUi j.jju imports expectation without o» , since it 
is obvious from the state of the announcer of a future 
[event] that he is expecting it; and in the pret. because, 

L A - 

if it were correct to affirm expectation of >s> in the sense 
that it is prefixed to what is expected [by the person 
addressed (DM)], it would be correct to say that [the 

• * 9 s r 

generic neg. (DM)] If in Ja.^ M No man denotes inter- 
rogation because it is prefixed only in reply to [the men- 
tionedor supplied interrogation (DM)] "Is any man?" 
and the like, so that what is after M is interrogated about 

A t 

by another person, as the pret. after •*> is expected [by 
another person (DM)] : and IM's expression in that is 



( 604 ) 

good, because he says that it is prefixed to an expected 

pret, not that it imports expectation, while he does not 

it* 
advert to expectation at all in the case of the dS prefixed 

to the cor. ; and this is the truth : (2) approximation of 

the past to the present : you say o*j *£ 2kdd has stood or 
stood, which admits of signifying the past approximate [to 
the time of the speaker (DM)] or the past remote [from 
the time of the speaker (DM)]; whereas, if you say 

* * lit 

j.G *»S has stood, it is peculiar to the approximate: and 

** 
upon *£ 's importing that [sense] the following predica- 

ments are founded : — (a) it is not prefixed ta #-aT , 
lS ~* , f*> , and j-^i , because they denote the present, 
so that the mention of what would approximate that [pre- 
sent sense (DM)] which is realized [by means of the v. 
to present time (DM)] would be meaningless; though 
there is another cause for that, vid. that, their forms not 
importing time, nor being conjugable [like vs. into aor. 
and imp. (DM)], they resemble the n.; while ,^-c in 

SA.OS? ShSf D *kA> x t Ax %, a$*3ms*A4B , , 

by 'Ads [Ibn Zaid {Ibn Malik Ibn 'Adl Ibn (ID)} 
ArRika', If shame (had) not (been hindering), and (this,) 
that my head, hoariness had become intense in it, J should 

m* A 

have visited Umm AlKSsim (Jsh)] is i. q. i*a&| , and is 
not the aplastic ^ s (b) [80]: ((c) IU mentions thatj 



( 605 ) 
when the carrel, of the oath is an aff., plastic pret., then, 
if it be approximate to the present, the J [600] and a* 

/»/• Silr& * ttt* A'/ ill*"' 

are put together, as UUl* *«f «^?f u^l *UG XII. 91. 

J^ Gtorf, assuredly Qod hath preferred thee above us ; and, 
if it be remote, the J is. put alone, as 

[by Imra alKais, I $tcore to Aer £y Gtorf w>&A an oath 
of a perjurer, Assuredly they went to sleep a long 
time ago; so that there is not any talker, nor any 
warmer of himself at the fire (DM)] : but apparently 
in the text and verse the converse of what he says is the 
case, since the text means assuredly Qod did make thee to 
excel us in patience and conduct of the righteous, and 
that was decreed to him in eternity without beginning, 
and he was qualified by it since he became intelligent; 
while the verse means [Assuredly they have gone to sleep, 
i; e.] that they went to sleep {shortly (DM)] before his 
coming: (d) the J of inception is prefixed [to the pret. 

(DM)] in such as fS *& 1^) ^jf Verily Zaid has stood, 

because it is orig. prefixed to the »., as Jtil ft*£J ^f 

' » 

[521], and is prefixed to the aor, only because of its 

resemblance to the n. [in admitting of denoting the pre- 
sent said future (DM)], as XVI. 125. [604]; so that, 
since the pret., when approximated to the present [by 

As 

means of iiS (DM)], resembles the aor., which resembles 
the »., the J may be prefixed to it: (3) diminution, 



( 600 ) 
which is of two kinds, (a) diminution of the occurrence 

t fifties $ s A t ht 

of [the act denoted by] the v., as v;^ ' Jf 4 **^ *** 
Sometimes the liar does speak the truth', (b) diminution 

t fit h/ i\t 
of its reg., [which is here the obj. (DM),] as U Jsu j5 

tktt AJ>Af 

«a1* *£>! XXIV. 64. At least He doth know what ye are 

t ' 

about, meaning that wbat they are about is the least of 
the things known by Him: (4) multiplication, says S, in 
the saying of [Abu Dhu'aib (Jsh)] the Hudhals 

/A AS* ftttH Sit tt ti St A* /* A«o *9*i ht 

t tt tt 

[Oft do Heave the adversary yellow as to his finger-tips, 
as though his garments had been bespattered with the 

tt A f 

juice of the mulberry ! (Jsh)], and, says Z, in gy jS 

t h t t S't 

ljC$*.j i^J&i II. 139. Often do We see the turning about 
of thy face, while many cite the verse [of 'Imrau Ibn 
Ibrahim alAnsan (Jsh)] 

■ » A t fth 5^ tl th^ fi t A? A t 



i f ks h, *£•*> ft »h t J>~ sn t 

%-tf*)-" wJ j4A=aUf &)f*+ d^f* 



[ Often am I present at the wide-spread raid, a mare 
having short fine hair, lean on the two sides of the 
face, longbodied carrying me! (Jsh)] as evidence of 
that: (5) verification, as XCI. 9. [433]; wbile some 
attribute XXIV. 64. He doth know fyc. to it : Z 

ht 
says " c# is prefixed to corroborate the knowledge [o 



( 607 ) 

what they are about (K)], and that is reducible to corro- 
boration of the threat," [because, since He decidedly 
knows what they are about, He will decidedly requite 

them for it (DM)] ; and others say on *JiJJ I **JU ail . 

A J s A^o * * 

|jiaX*1 II. 61. And assuredly ye did know them that 
transgressed that o* [with the J (DM)] in ^the verbal 
prop, correl. of the oath is like ^ and the J in the 
nominal correl. in importing corroboration (ML), which 
is verification and confirmation of the thing (DM). 

§ 576. This p., whether prefixed to the pret. or 
aor. } must contain the meaning, of verification, to which 
there is sometimes added, (1) in the pret, approxima- 
tion to the present, (a) with expectation, as you say to 

* / A f 

him that expects the governor to mouut t^Sy o* [575], 
meaning What thou hast been expecting has just been 
realized, whence 8iL*Jf is~»G ui" j (b) alone, so that you 

$a t * * ht * 

may say *H; *-?*) *> Zaid has mounted to him that does 
not expect him to mount: (2) in the aor., (a) dimi- 
nution, as Jt**" *>» vj 4 ^' ' u>' meaning 2?i reality 
truth does proceed from him, oven if it be little; (b) m«/. 
tiplicatzon, in the position of self-praise, as God says 

y la/tht" tin" Sth* hf 

v£,«*M *U| Jxj. cw XXXIII. 18. O/few rf *A Got/ 

w * MP A • 

know the hinderersj and the poet says £M t_£*>f o* 
[575] (R). 



( G08 ) 

§ 577. It may be separated from the v. by the oath 
[575] ; and the v. after it may be rejected when under- 
stood, as 

/ A $// r * »*/ 3s t/t S S ttit £ £ /St" / $ 

tii' AS. UJUj* Jj3 U * Uutf; A ^ Ja^M J*1 

■» / // • * 

[532; 575] (M), by AnNabigha adhDhubyani (Jsb), 
The departure has drawn near, save that our riding- 
camels have not yet gone away with our goods, and it is 
as though (the case were this, they had) already (gone 
away with them) (AAz). As regards suppression of 

A/ 

oS , the BB assert that the pret. v. occurring as a d. s. 

US 

must be accompanied by *£ , expressed, as VI. 119. 
[80]; or understood, as XXVI. 111. and IV. 92.: but 
the KK disagree with them, though they prescribe that 

[conjunction with & expressed or supplied (DM)] as a 

condition of the pret. occurring as pred. of ^ [97], as 
in the saying of the Prophet to one of his companions 

• // /AS/ «• tti/i 

Ux* \~*A& i>S j*»6M Is not it, i. e. the case, this, thou hast 
prayed with us f and 

* / k * 4 '9 / *' ' /& / # ' A / /<*/ tl/ C f /A / S» f 

f )£*»»> Ulii^ UasU HjJSUe # &*3a£ Slav Jf Uam<a» US . 

[by Zufar Ibn Alljarith alKilabl, ^«rf we accounted 
every white to be a piece of fat on the evening that we 

encountered Judham and Himyar (Jsh), i. e. li***^ »*> 
(DM)]; while the BB disagree with them. And some 

^ y/ ^A^ £ Ay 

allow f© !»*i3 u>' by subaudition of uk> [521, 604], 



{ 009 ) 

And all say that the off. pret. used as a correl. of the 

oath ought to be conjoined with the J and J.» [427, 

600], as in XII. 91. [575]: but LXXXV. 4. [154] is 

said to be a correl. of the oath [ £j>*H «*>to sU~A\y 

LXXXV. 1. .By the heaven possessed of the. 12 signs of 

A* 
the Zodiac (DM)] by subaudition of the J and i>» 

together, because of the length [of the interval between 

— s a» * 

the oath and correl. (DM)]; and the poet says £M >s^o. 

As 

[575, 600], understanding a> ; while many assert that 

/• SSHf h* A 3 * f 5/ AJ> *ht*f t t A ft\r A •/ 

^^2 8j*> ^ fyi2af fjiA. ty^ fca^ LUL. ; | ^ XXX. 
50. Jnrf, by God, if We send a blast, and the// see it 
yellow, tliey will become after it unthankful is a case of 
that, which is an inadvertence, because f^k is future, 
since it is subordinate to the condition, and supplies the 
place of its correl. [427], so that there is no way to 
[supply] <^» in it, since the meaning is ^b**i , but the 
^ is not affixed to the pret. [612] (ML) 



S3 a 



CHAPTER X V [. 



THE PARTICLES OF FUTURITY. 



• i\t 



§ 578. They are the ^ . *Jy» , J , [ N (M),] 

A x 

and \J (M, Z). These /w. are named ps. of futurity 
because they make the aor., which is common to the 
present and future, peculiar to the future [404] (AA). 

The j* and \*Jy~ are [also] called p. of amplification ; 
but p. of futurity is better, because it is plainer. The 
meaning of amplification is widening) for this p. trans- 
ports the v. from the narrow time, vid. the present, 
to the wide time, vid. the future. The *- is a p. 
peculiar to the aor., making it a pure future, and con- 
sidered as part of it, for which reason it does not 
govern it notwithstanding its peculiarity to it, [although 
the rule is that every p. peculiar to a class governs with 
the government peculiar to that class, the p. peculiar to 
the n. governing the gen., and the p. peculiar to the v. 
governing the apoc. (DM)]. It is not retrenched from 

• A ' 

%Jy~ , contrary to the opinion of the KK : nor is the 
period of futurity with it narrower than with u«, 



contrary to the opinion of the BBj [but it is equal to 

* A * A* 

*3y : IHsh here follows IM, who cites Jit «J ' ' 
Uftfc" I;*' &hy*\ **M TV. 145. Ami God will give 



f 611 ) 



the believers a great recompense and *Uk ^^L»yJ\^ 

t**k« '^ f^^ i-^;' ^t fftSy IV. 160. iforf 
*/*e believers in Qod and the last day, those will We give 
a great recompense as evidence of their equality (DM)]. 
Some one asserts that it sometimes denotes continu- 
ance, not futurity : ho mentions that in connection with 

&f^ u )) oa ?* M ' IV. 93. Ye continually find others; and 
cites II. 136. [176] as evidence of it, alleging that, this 
text having only been revealed after their saying "What 
hath turned them away?," the j? occurs as a notifica- 
tion of the continuance [of their saying, i. e. of its re- 
newal time after time (DM)], not of the futurity. And Z 
asserts that, when prefixed to a v. denoting an act liked 
or disliked; it imports that the act mil occur inevitably, 
|"i. e. corroboration (DM)] ; but I have not seen any one 
that understands the reason of this, which is that, the 
«*• importing [announcement of the occurrence of the act 
in the future, including (DM)] promise [and threat (DM)] 
of the realization of the act, its prefixion to what imports 
promise or threat necessarily involves corroboration of it 
and substantiation of its meaning : and he hints that 
[assertion here mentioned (DM)] in the chapter of the 
Cow, saying on II. 131. [503] " the ^y means that such 
will inevitably be, even if it be postponed for a time" ; 
and plainly expresses it in the chapter of Immunity, 

saying on *iM { %**■ ) }* U&jl IX, 11, Those shall God 



( «2 ) 
have mercy upon " the ^j- imports existence of the mercy 
inevitably, so that it corroborates the promise, as it corro- 
borates the threat when you say [ U»j (K)] u£U *5*iJL* 
/ mil take vengeance upon thee [one day, meaning' 
Verily thou shall not escape me, even if that be tardy; 

and like it are !oj ^j*^! f$ J*^*- XIX. 96. The 
Compassionate shall make for them love, XCIII. 5.(434), 

and f^jM ffty£» ±*y~ IV. 151. We will give them 

* A t 

their recompenses (K)]." *J>y is syn. with the ^y [in 

indicating futurity (DM)] or wider.than it, according to 

different opinions [of the KK. and BB respectively (DM)], 

the professors of the latter opinion seeming to consider 

that abundance of letters indicates abundance of meaning, 

i . ' 
which is not universally true, [as y$s>. wary an act. 

*.' 
part, and yis* very wary an intensive form (DM)] ; and 

uA— is said instead of it by elision of the medial, and 

A ^ A * 

y by elision of the final, and ^m by elision of the 
final and conversion of the medial into ^ for extreme 
lightness, [the last or all three (DM)] transmitted by 
[ISd (HKh)] the author of the Muhkam. It is dis- 
tinguished from the j» by the prefixion of the J to it, 
as XCIII. 5.; and by its being sometimes separated [from 
what it is prefixed to (DM)] by the neutralized [444] 

v., as £Jf ti^-»; ^f Uj [1] (ML), ^f is prefixed to 



( 613 ) 
tbe aor. and prel., which are then together with it ren- 
derable by the inf. n. [571] : and, when it is prefixed to 
the aor., the latter is only future, as pj^l ^ •*£>' 
1 desire that he should go out; and hence it is jndispen- 

sable in the pred. of ^g*** [459, 461]; while the poet 
[Kasama Ibn Rawaha al'AbsI asSinibisI (SM)], when he 
deviates in his saying 

^dJI^sJU J£J| c£^1U ^aIoXm. * 8 tifi) jjo -xLa >* ^So ^*fi 

<r* f t ft fit/ r 

May-be Tayyi after this state will quench the burning 
thirsts of the kidneys and the short ribs by taking blood- 
revenge from Tayyi (SM)] from what usage conforms to, 

a? 
puts the ^y , which is like ^1 , [because they both 

denote futurity (SM)]. 

§ 579. It with its v., pret. or aor., is equivalent to 
s $ 
^i with what it governs (M). 

/ * */ A / * * hi 

§ 580. The Banii Tamiin say J*£> .t* ^iwswf 
[508] for J*** ^ , as says Dhu-r Rumina 

St A • * lit Ay A / ' m**trtf 0f Ar /»/«/ A / «S// A/? 

ry **• * t ™y '■' 

[/s if because thou hast contemplated the traces of an 
abode of thy beloved Kharka that the water of fondness 
from thine eyes is shed? (SM, DM)]; and so they do 



( 614 ) 

in the case of ^ , saying &IH Jy) fi**s=u« *e i>$»f 
/ iear witness that Muhammad is the Apostle of God 
[527] : tins is named the &Ui* of Tamlin (ML). And 

y lit 

V and jJ have been previously discussed [547, 549] (M). 



CHAPTER XVII. 



THE TWO INTERROGATIVE PARTICLES. 



§ 581. They are the Hamza and JJb (M, IH). 
These are prefixed to the nominal and verbal prop. [497], 
except that die Hamza is prefixed to every nominal 
prop. f whether, the enunc. in it be a n. or v., contrary to 

Ji&, which is not prefixed to a nominal prop, whose 

enunc. is a v., as j.t> i*i) ja> [23], except anomalously, 

because, being orig. i. q. Ja [582] , which is inseparable 
from vs. [575], if it see a v, within its reach, it remem- 
bers old times and yearns for the familiar friend and 
embraces it, but, if not, it consoles itself for its absence 
by forgetting it (R, Jm). And, even when the v. is 

present, [vid. when the prop, is verbal,] Jfi> is not 
content with it when it is expos, of the v. supplied after 

J3b , so that &.yo f**ij Jfc [62] is not allowable by 
choice (R). The I [554], being the orig. interrog., is 
for this reason distinguished by certain predicaments: — 

(1) it is suppressible [583], whether it precede f S , as 

<* 5 ' ,5^1 ** »-*>*** [543]; or do not precede it, as 



**o t ««/ // J • 



uj^aJb w-^joSJ f j3j ^^L. Laf Vj 



( «ic ) 
by AlKumait, [I hive been stirred by emotion: but not 
because of longing after the fair am I stirred by emotion, 
nor because of playfulness from me; and {what!) shall 
the hoary be playful?, i.e. u^xJb u^&JI ybjl : (2) it 
denotes requisition of [simple] apprehension, [i.e. of 

perception of an object not a relation (DM),] as *>$ Odjf 

««• *s ' 

;j**'l*f Is Zaid standing, or 1 Amr? [542,543]; and requi* 

si^on of ascertainment [explained below], as J6 ojjI Z« 

ZaW standing t [497] : whereas Jfc is peculiar to rcywi- 

jftion o/ ascertainment, as jjj ^l* Jjb Has Zaid stood t; 

and the rest of the interrogs. to requisition of [simple'] 

apprehension, as i^l* ^ #7*o ca»jg fo thee f, e^xJue U 

• » * */ 
fTAa< rfiefe/ thou f, lJU* J How much is thy property ?, 

u&a> *j.1 Where is thy house ?, and kS^*> ^yU Wlten 
will thy journey be?: (3) it is prefixed to affirmation, as 
[yy* fl (46 tH)t (DM)] above; and to negation, as 
XCIV. 1. [556] and £J) )Wa*l J0L[9?]: (4) it is complete 
in priority [584] , as is proved by two facts, (a) tl n it is not 
mentioned after the ft denoting digression^ as the others 
are [543] : you do not say ****! ff **i; r 6 ' » but «^* f '- 



* * t 



v>«5 : (b) that, when it is in a prop, coupled by the y , 

as 
the *-$ , or ? , it is put before the con,, to giee notice 



( 017 ) 

of its thoroughness in priority, as \)f*±i f$ VII. 184. 
And have they not considered f, XII. 109. [417], and 
X. 52. [below]; whereas its fellows follow the cons,, 
as is the rule with all the parts of the coupled prop,, as 
.^iiC; iJUfj III. 96. And how do ye disbelieve? and 
XL VI. 35. [538] : this is the opinion of S and the majo- 
rity; but many, the first [or rather one (DM)] of whom 
is Z, disagree with them, asserting that the Hamza in 
those positions is in its original place, and that the coup- 
ling is to a prop, supplied between it and the con. [538] 
(ML). The Hamza is prefixed to (1) the con. . , to 

denote (a) disapproval, as e»U« »o>y uXJ| tJUUf ojjL 

* ' * & 

filf **** ,l *«* b*** 1 * ^^V u)) 5 - 1 *" V ' % J«% U. 

ASA 

*$i- II. 93. 94. And assuredly We have sent down to thee 
manifest signs, nor do any disbelieve them save the trans- 
gressors : and what ! so often as they have made a cove- 
nant hath a party of them rejected itf, Ufjf [543J 
being coupled to U^f **■* J 0>) rebuke or making to 
confess, when prefixed to a neg. prop., as JiyS Vy fyi> 

XXVIII. 48. They said, Wherefore was he not given 

the like of what Moses was given t And whatt did they 
54 a 



( 618 ) 

»»ht hut 

not disbelieve what Moses teas given before f, \)f&. jJ;1 
heing coupled te jSS I^S : (2) the con. ui , to denote 

fi K9 y A?/S y Ay / 9 yAy A y * S A / 

'(a) disapproval, as £»*«j «^"l>t l-<aU ^jjwUw j* ^i» 3 
*«aJ| X. 43. .4wd of them are they that listen [182] to 
thee: and what! shalt thou make the deaf to heart, 

„ f tit «■*. A*A 

ij| ia-if being coupled to J>Jf f$*« ; (b) rebuke or ?»a&- 
in* to confess, when prefixed to negation: (3) the illative 

, S , A y y/£ w/ A* .&/ i^> SKt J I A y 

ti as Mi***" 3 ui .' '^ f^U * u * #* **» ^ XXVIII. 

7L PFAo is a god oMer fAare GW that shall give 

you light f What! then will ye not hearken f, the 

Hamza denoting rebuke or making to confess: (4) the 
s.» * * 

J importing strangeness, to denote disapproval, as !3 U 

y w A,o A*A/«» ft t * £*S t * * ***>** ,9 A/ Ay 

X. 51. 52. What of it will the sinners seek to hastent 
Yet what ! when it befalleth, will ye believe in it then?, 
[meaning ye. will believe in it after its befalHng, when the 
belief will not prof t you (K, B),] f here being as in VI. 
1. [540], because belief in the thing is strange to seeking 
to hasten it out of mockery. These ps. do not couple 
to a supplied ant., as Z asserts in the K ; and, if they 
were as he says, their occurrence in the beginning of the 
sentence without the precedence of any ant. would be 
allowable, whereas they only occur constructed upon a- 



( 619 ) 
preceding sentence (R on the cons.). Another peculiarity 
of the Hamza is that it may be followed by the single 
term in reliance upon the previous mention of that 
single term in the speech of another speaker, as in your 

saying, when disapproving or interrogating, «>ijf or 

* K/i l/J in, ,„, #Ax Shit 

l**i>! or \±>tfS to him that say$ o^j ,J^ or |i*d) cw.1; 

I" -f lift § A/ At A « 

or \±i,y. <^)y» ; whereas you do not say o*>; J^ 1 or J-2> 

* A/ A t , 

ft^j or oSy. Jit) (R). Sometimes the Hamza, becoming 
excluded from real interrogation, denotes (1) equalization'. 

9««" • t* * *C f t &s 

this Hamza occurs after .*! j- , ^IM U , ^of U , us^J 

A 

^j**- and the like; and is the Hamza prefixed to a prop. 
that [with the Hamza (DM)] is replaceable by the inf. 

us t A a t A t St ni nst fA,t\t*i a"a»x 4—t * 
7?., as {$ jta£-J £ f\ fgJ ct»^«*3u-( pgUe /I j~ LXI1I. 6. 

Alike will it be unto them whether thou beg forgiveness 

for them or do not beg forgiveness for them [543] and 

- * s 

t A ft A* /■ A»« •£ • 

«&**** j.! o»**l ^Ijl U I care not whether t/iou stand or 

S S , ft S XA A>c^ S l\t f iff s ft fi f 

sit, since 5*i**j y«AX«.lff *$*!« s\y~ and i_X«U3u JUt t^ 

t * f 

&tj>f; would be correct: (2) nullifying disapproval: this 
Hamza necessarily implies that what follows it is non- 
occurrent, and that the assertor thereof is lying, as 

< * tmt/KtO / f f Srfv t th^> tisSt nSt nifi 

Cl>| &JC5UJ! ^ i»fj ^^JLjJl; fi) j/li-eUf XVII. 42. 
„ What I (hen hath your Lord distinguished you by sons, 



( 620 ) 
and gotten for himself from the angels females t [below] 
and XLIX. 1 2. [74]; and, from its importing negation 
of what follows it, affirmation of the latter, if negatived, 
necessarily results, because negation of negation is affir- 
mation [551], whence XXXIX. 37. [503], i.e. God is 
sufficient for His servant, for which reason what the ^ is 
prefixed to in XCIV. 2, [556] is coupled to £J| Jf , as 
meaning £M Ua-^i , and the saying of Jartr about 'Abd 
AlMalik [lbn Marwan (Jsh)] 

[ What ! are ye not the best of them that have mounted 
riding-beasts, and the most bountiful of created beings as 
topalms of hands? (Jsh)] is an eulbgium, nay, is said to 
be the most eulogistic verse that the Arabs have com- 
posed, whereas, if it were really interrogatory, it would 
not be an eulogium at all : (.3) rebuking disapproval, 
which" necessarily implies that what is after the Hamza 
is occurrent, and that the doer of it is blamed, as ^jjOaiuJ 
jybaiU U XXXVII. 93. What! do ye worship what ye 
hew outf and 



A A.O * A £,*>/ 



by Al'Ajjaj, [What! art thou lively when thou art very 
old? And time is very apt to turn man from one state to 



( 621 ) 
another ! (Jsb)] : (4) causing confession : this means your 
inducing the person addressed to confess and acknowledge 
a matter whose existence or non-existence is established in 
his opinion ; and the thing that you cause him to confess 

must follow the Hamza immediately, as you say \s~>yb\ 

'^3 ' ^3 >a ^y° us-'H » and c«J)^ \&i)\ in causing con- 
fession of the act, og., and obj. respectively, just as the 
thing interrogated about must [follow the Hamza immedi- 
ately (DM)] : while UJ^Io f JiB «JU» cslofl XXI. 63. Thou, 

hast thou done this unto our gods? may mean real interro- 
gationby reason of their not knowing that he was the doer, 
or causing confession by reason of their having known; 
but is not an interrogation about the act, nor a causing 
confession of it, because the Hamza is not prefixed to 

the v. : (5) irony, as «**«i U v-f^tf ^f t^$y»C ljS\JL*\ 

Myk \ XL 89. Do thy prayers command thee that we should 

leave what our fathers worship?: (6) command, as 

fXjLuff in. 19. Have ye become Muslims?, i. e. Become 

Muslims: (7) wonder, as Jl&M o-» »_«*/ u&) ^f y JJ 

XXV. 47. -Hiw* *&ob «e£ considered the work of *% Lord, 
how He hath stretched out the shade?: (8) deeming tardy, 

A , 

as LVII. 15. [571], Jfc is applied to denote requisition 
of ascertainment, [i.e. of perception of the occurrence or 
non-occurrence (DM),] of an aff. [relation (DM)], not [re- 
ouisition] of [simple] apprehension, nor of ascertainment . 



( 622 ) 
(f a neg., [which means that it is not prefixed to negation, 
though its reply may be&neg., e. g. V JVb (DM)] ; so that 

• tHtt*Hth-r 

the following are disallowed :— (1) &*>.y* l**d3 J** 
because the precedence of the n. notifies the existence 
of ascertainment of the relation itself, [so that he knows 
that a beating proceeded from thee, though. not what 
person it befell, and therefore the sentence would be 
a requisition of the production of the existing (DM)] ; 

$ lit hi 9mt 9 lit A * nf 

(2) yp* pi fS6> jaj Ja, when the cony fS is meant 

' $ itt **' *' * ' * t 

[542, 543] ; (3) ^ ft ^ Jto [below]. ja> differs 

from the Hamza in 10 ways : — (I) it is peculiar to ascer- 

9mt 9 At A /■ 

tainment:(2) it is peculiar to affirmation, as J$ ±i) J* , 

K»f ht A* / 

not fi £ J*> [above], contrary to the Hamza, as XCIV. 

US t tit lift 

1. [556], f*&tJSlll> 120. Shall it not suffice yout, 

XXXIX. 37. [503], and £« J^b* Vf [99] : (3) it makes 

' * # t» ht 
the aor. peculiar to the future, as yt*»2 Ja> Wilt thou 

mt *$ *tt 

journey?, contrary to the Hamza, as U& &JLl2u| Dost 
thou think him to be standing?; but the saying of ISd 
that the v. interrogated about is only future is an inad- 

. S t kvSt t tt t «>!// A tt 

vertence, as &». fiy iA*j U f**t>y J^ VII. 42. Then 
have ye found what your Lord promised to be true? and 

• AJ> SP *ththi ht *th»t tt * mt t tittuO* k* A tt 



( 623 ) 
by Zuhair, [Then who will convey to the confederates from 
me a message, and to Dhubyan, Have ye sworn with every 
oath? (Jsh)]: (4 — 6) it is not prefixed to the condition, 
nor to yjt , nor in a case of choice to a n. followed by a 

£ tt * s a s& 

v., contrary to the Hamza, as is proved by h' •*"* d*l 
^^^Jljall XXI. 35. Then, if thou die, shall they be the 

' ASAiu J» A $ 

everlasting f and J/J J\ XXXVI. 18. Wliatlifyebe 

admonished?, t-«-»^ &JV uC*if XII. 90. Art thou indeed 
Joseph t, and LIV. 24. [62] : (7,8) it occurs after, not 

A? A / f 

before, the con., and after r f , as XLVI. 35. [538], J*j 

/A § / *, • ,, 

&) 4jJ* «^*** *** *-*/ And has 'Akilleftio us any homes t 
err* * 

[said by the Prophet (DM)] in tradition, 

* * • t t » 2 / 3 t hi *M/« A s 3f> A s a * k* 

«U*. l_£fj ^yi Jtf* y * f4**»t J* f J& £)*" "^ 

[by AlKumait, Would that I knew whether, again 
whether, I should come to them, or a doom would intervene 
as an obstacle before that! (Jsh)], and XIII. 17. [543] : 
(9) negation is sometimes meant by interrogation with 
it, for which reason Iff [88] and the i_» [503] are pre- 
fixed to the enunc. [of the inch. (DM)] after it, as 
.UsJfl Iff jjjUa.l/f ifja. Jjd LV. 60. The recompense 
of good dealing is not aught but good dealing and 

mt * •/ »<«//! A * f*,tt tiff xAsA«e • # #* 

Jfc*» Stol j& *y ja> Iff * «A9>»f j iftO* J JSf |«3f JA 

»• / (» < * ' « ' 



( «J* ) 
[by AlFarazdak, He says, when he mounts upon her and 
she keeps still, Now not a possessor of a delicious life is 

lasting (Jsh)], and the coupliug in jJS ^tia. ^tj [538] 

* * fi 

is correct; whereas the Hamza in XVII. 42. [above] 
•denotes only disapproval of the assertor of that, from 
which negation necessarily follows, not negation initially, 

$ As 2 S /$ / * A * 

for which reason i*j>3 W f^f is not allowable, as are fi JJ» 

9 tkf s £ s j£4 t, a , f 

*H) W Not any but Zaid has stood, Iff J*«yi J* J^S 

* t ' 

» ***** 

£5M' XVI. 37. Then not aught i? incumbent upon the 
Apostles save the communication, and W ..jfcui j£> 
&eLJ| XLI1I. 66. They will not look for aught save 
the hour: (10) ifc sometimes occurs in the sense of 

A/ 't *t A V 

oS [582], vid. with the v.; and thus is ^ J»( ja> 

a a^» # 9 ' * »•» 

A*"^ 41^ u) 1 "*^ ' LXXVI. 1. A period of time did 

pass over man expounded by many, among them Ibn 

'Abbas, Ks, Fr, and Mb, [because God knew that a 

period of time did pass over man wherein he was not 

remembered (548) (DM)]. 

§ 582. • Z even goes so far as to assort that Jfc is 

A* 

always i. q. <>* , and that the interrogation is imported 
only from a Hamza supplied with it j and he transmits it 
in the M on the authority of S, saying " According to S, 



( 625 ) 

« / A/ 

JJs> is i. q. j5 , except that they omit the 1 before it, 
because it occurs only in interrogation ; and the f is ac- 
tually prefixed to it in 

• ?A-o ft.*a A/ this hfi tit 9ht t ft A t 

jy\ ^3 £©{ £»****? ^y> j- 2 *' * i*jj>^ ^^ ij"$? *-^^* 

'/ • • 7" / t t # s t 

[by Zaid AlKhail, Js/c thou the horsemen of Yarbu 1 
about our onslaught. Did they sen us ai the bottom of 
the plainfitU of mounds t (SM, Jsh)]": but, if it were as 

■ . * ' Ax 

he asserts, J^> would be prefixed only to the v. t like l>s . 
And in the Tashll of IM it is stated that J3> must be syn. 

Ax 

with i*$ when the Hamza is prefixed to it, i. e. as in the 
verse ; which implies that, when the Hamza is not pre- 
fixed, it is sometimes so, as in LXXVlr 1. [581], and 
sometimes not. But some reverse what Z says, asserting 

A t ht 

that J.& is never i. q. s> : and this is the covrect view 
according to me (ML). 

§ 583. The Hamza is suppressed [581] when indi- 

cated, as £*! ^ot U i_*j-*l [543] (M). The saying of 

'Umar Ibn Abi Rabl'a 

,&^>t f * A^l/ A S^= t t t **t 9 S9 ,S 9 9 t t 9 

[Then they said. Dost thou love her? I said, Wonder- 
fully > with the number of the sand and the pebbles and 

t£ 9i 

the dust! (Jsh)] is said by some to mean l$*»J! ; and 

AlMutanabbi says 

55 a 



( 636 ) 

[(What!) do I live, when the easiest of what I have 
endured is what has killed others, and separation ha s 
dealt unfairly with my weakness, and not dealt fairly f 

(Jsh)], orig. I4a.ll : and Akh holds that [suppression 
(DM)] to be regular in a case of choice, [and a fortiori 
in a case of necessity (DM',] when there is no fear of 

ambiguity, ascribing to it ^ t$i*3 &*aJ lJ&j XXVI. 
21. And (what!) is that a favour that thou easiest up 
against mef and ^ !JjJ> VI. 76.77. 78. (What/) is 

r 

this my Lord? in the three passages; and Ibn Muhaisin 
reads {V)^ H. 5- [543] ; and the Prophet said to 
Gabriel £y» ^5 ^') ^) (What!) even if he commit 
adultery, and if he steal t (ML). 

§ 584. The interrog. takes the head of the sentence 
(M, IH), nothing of its annexure being allowed to pre- 
cede it (M, Jm), because it indicates one of the sorts of 

sentence [573] (Jm): you do not say !v*i)f \a>*>yb and 
the like (M). 



CH AFTER XVIII. 



THE CONDITIONAL PARTICLES. 



§ 585. They are J , J (M, Z, IH), and U1 (IH). 

« ** * At f hB/ ttfkS 9* h* * 

^jf is cond., as «— al— a* U •$) ;«*$ f j$**i ^ VIII. 39. 
i/ Mey <&£&/, wAa* Ao<A past shall be forgiven them 
and VIII. 19. [41i>]j and is sometimes conjoined with 
the neg. V , in which case the ignorant think that it is 
the exceptive HI , as IX. 40. [90], A&h S)f£ Vf IX. 
39. //* ye g"o not forth to war, He will chastise you, XI. 

ii A/ JPA£ S 4/A/ Ml s A A s «5 S 

49. [G01], and ^l l-— I ^lmT ^ o^ Vl, XII. 

' * ' ' i 

33. .4nrf, unless Thou turn aside their guile from me, 

As 

I shall incline to them (ML), y orig. indicates the 
existence of one thing because of the existence of an- 
other, as i_X*jda*tf i*iV J #* *&ok Aaefcl come to me, 
I should have given to thee; and then, being extended, 

A 

becomes i. q. the cond- ^1 , as XII. 17. [below] (Mb). 
[Thus] y is (1) the one used in such as ^sk* J 
&lmyfV If he had come to me, I should have honored 
rhimi and this imports three matters, (a) condition, i.e. 
connection of cause and effect between the two props. 



( 628 ) 
after it; (b) restriction of the condition by past time, 
wherein, as in what is next mentioned, it differs from 

yjl , which denotes connection of cause and effect in the 
future; (c) prevention, as to the fact and manner of its 
importing which the GG profess three different doc- 
trines : — (a) that it does not import prevention in any- 
way : this is the doctrine of Shi, who asserts that it does 
not indicate prevention of the condition, nor of the 
correl, but [mere (DM)] making [the realization of the 
purport of the correl. (DM;] to depend [upon the reali- 
zation of the purport of the condition, each realization 

being (DM)] in the past, as ^ indicates making to 
depend in the future, but by common consent does not 
indicate prevention, not existence, and in this opinion 
he is followed by IHKh: but this doctrine of theirs is 
like the denial of axioms, since the understanding of 
prevention from y is quasi-intuitive ; for every one that 

t t t A/ 

hears J*> y If he had done unhesitatingly understands 
the non-occurrence of the act, for which reason, where- 
ever it is used, it is right for you to follow it up with 
the p. of emendation literally or ideally prefixed to the 
v. of the condition negatived, as &•*.£! &>^| Jsis*. J 
jsbj. ^ If he had come to me, I should have honored 
him ; but he did not come, 



( 629 ) 

t * * lit * A £ * mi A ft 

*A*>t § * A» A f At, t* 

6t* A * /A? /O 1/ 

Jjy« 1*33*1 J*» { LjiXL 

O * ' j ' 

* ti$ * S**A*B , A ^A^> * «J A// 
^UUj Jjjjl 1*33*11 »-£jl*J l*Sj 
• / 

[4»rf, #e. (22). J3«< my toiling is for the sake of a 
lasting glory ; and my likes do obtain lasting glory t 
(Jsh)], and 

A .0/ As / S*° a AS § A t / , At* 

IS«*5 J t~LUj i*ls3£ (*♦*■ ^JS Ji 

. A .P /Ax w <** t A t 2 1/ 

[by Zuhair, Then, if praise did preserve men for ever, 
thou wouldst not die ; but the praise of men does not 

preserve for ever (Jsb)], whence j-a> J*" UajH U&i y } 

/8y/ SttAfit a SAtA»o 2 • A I / t t s 

^ JUV ^i. JyJ| J^ ^J 3 fef aft XXXIT. 13. ^nrf, 
«/" We Aarf willed, We should have given evert/ soul its 
guidance : but the saying of Mine " I will surely JUl 
Hell' hath become binding, i. e. but (I did not will that, 

At 

and therefore) the saying fyc, VIIT. 45. [529], and J 
£\ <L*S [594] followed by 

OU* 3 £ Sy\S J \ J$ "jS 
' $ * ' 

/ t A /At uiS rO , 3 Ar 



( 630 ) 

[But my people, even though they be numerous, have 
nought to do with evil, even if it he slight (T)], since the 
sense is But 1 am not ofMcLzin, but of a people that have 
nought to do with evil, fyc. : (ft) that it imports prevention 
of the condition and correl. together : this is the doctrine 
current upon the tongues of the inflectionists, and is 
propounded by many of the GG; but it is falsified by 

many passages, whence ffr&) &£SHjf *$Jf UJjj Ui| J» 

s he 9 t * #»* « * S a a At/ *A / */ /M-" 
\,L.U f Jtf U UJ JjS, JT f€4 L= U^j JJ^Jf VI. HI. 

And, if We sent down to them the angels, and the dead 
spake to them, and We gathered together unto them 
everything as sureties, they would not be willing to believe 

J>£j>s fi A tA^t §s*f '/ • A A$A*<3 , a J n„ 

[602], »o-d ,=J!, f U5l *,*£ ^. ^! J U f J^ 

Jf«a P s s> h s s s P h% P *h s hs A 

frill cwUlT ^ ji3 U jaajf &»a- 8jjw -- XXXL 26. 

• * * e ' * / 

.4»rf, if whatever tree is in the earth were pens [59 1], 
toMe #c. [79], the words of God would not be exhausted, 
and the saying of 'Uniar wJ*»> J y w»£€*« «****• #»** 

A/ Ay yi^> ' ' 

&o«j> J *1M Most excellent is the servant, §uhaib! If he 
had not feared God, he would not have disobeyed Him! 
[591]: for the contrary of everything tbat is prevented 

exists, so that when r i' U is prevented, ^ exists, and 
conversely ; and accordingly this doctrine entails in the 
1st text existence of their belief notwithstanding the 
non-existence of the angels' coming down and of the dead's 



( 631 ) 

speaking to them, and of everything's being gathered 
together unto them, and in the 2nd exhaustion of the 
words notwithstanding its not being the case that every 
tree in the earth was pens writing the words, and the 
greatest ocean was serving as the inkpot, while the seven 
oceans filed with ink were supplying that ocean with 
ink, and in the tradition existence of disobedience not- 
withstanding the existence of fear, all of which is the 
reverse of what is meant: (c) that it imports prevention 
of the condition exclusively, and has no indication of the 
prevention or existence of the carrel. ; but that, if the 
latter be co-equal with the condition in generality, as in 

Softy* ;^f J$ ***&> j-*£J| u^Jtf y If the sun had 
been rising, the day would have been present, its negation 
is entailed, because negation of the co-equal cause 
entails negation of its effect j while, if it be more general, 

as in tef»y* ty^S^ &** 1 ** j-*A»f ***& y* If the sun 
had been rising, light would have been present, its negation 
is not entailed, but only the negation of the quantity of 
it co-equal with the condition, [like the particular light 
of the sun (DM)]: this is the doctrine of critical 
judges: (2) a p. of condition in the future, except tbat 
it does not apocopate [591], as 

/ As /A/ /^w/ A $ sAs Ass 

\xJy iMu Ujjjutff f J£J5 y* 3 

# s As Hih-0 * sAsAs * A s 



^wy-ua-M.;^^ 



( 632 ) 

a a a a t a 



9 * S *t "& '* /Ht ft A / 



[the end of an ode by Abu Sakhr alHudhall, And, if 
our echoes meet after our death, when between, our graves 
is a desert of land, the eeJut of my voice, even if I be 
decayed bones, will become, because of the voice of the 
echo of Laitd, blithe and gay (DM, Jsh)], 

A /3 / sS / a£a*o t*t <bi H't 

S ft * * § * " "t 3 r m t t 

*v t 

t t A? • • /*•« • Ax » Ki ft 

3> M t h />\*o * A I / / Ax 

*■' / ' ' ^ ' "« 

[591], by Tauba [Ibn alljumayyir, ^wrf, if Laild alAkh- 
yallya salute me, when in my way are stones and slabs, 
I shall salute with the salutation of cheerfulness, or a 
screeching owl from the side of the grave will hoot 
towards her (Jsh)], 

t t S »r A/,/ / *-a tS .9 * A S £ ^ j;,o t Sf t 

x '' * * t t 

[Let not him that hopes for the bounty of thee find thee 
aught but displaying the nature of the generous, even 



if thou be destitute (Jsh)], and \fy y ^JJf J&uij 
^ )£\£ Ul.'^ CJo ^ ^ IV. 10. [591], i.e. And' 



( 633 ) 
tei those who, if they (be about, and near, to) leave 
behind, them weak offsprings will fear for them, stand 
in awe [of God, and fear Him, in the matter of the 
orphans (B)]. That ? ' is i. q. ^j! is said by many GG 

in such as ^>^° •**" $ ) W £*y** «**'' ^3 XII. 17. 

And thou art not one to believe «s, even if toe be speak* 

iitg truth [above], *f ^ *&* ^^ ^ &>#*** 

, J> h*h*> ' " ' ' ' ' 

^jjfyujf IX. 33. That He might make it to prevail 
ovet religion, all of it, even if the poly theists dislike 
that, and 

|T>y AlAkhtal, (5TAe^ are) a peop/e &a*, ed/wn they wage 
war, will tighten their waist-wrappers against women,, 
even if they (those women) spend the night in- the days 
tf purity from, the menstrual discharge (Jsh)]; but such 
as jtiM^ ! y*; &\ gp $y VI. 27. .dwrf, if thou sawest 
them, toAe» they were made to stand over the fire, [thou 
wouldst see an evil matter (K, B),] VII. 98. [525], and 
the saying of Ka'b 

4 M& a, he hf * *r hi* 't » *r Kt * t * * at n„ 

[Assuredly I do stand in a place, wherein if he (the 

elephant) stood, seeing and hearing what) if the elephant 
66 a 



(, G34 ) 
(saw and) heard (BS)] belong to the 1st kind, not to 
this, because by the aor. the [present, as shown below, 

or] past is meant. For the property of y is to grant 
what is not occurrent to be occurrent, for which reason 
its condition is oegatived in the past and present ; where- 

A 

as the property of ^1 is to make a matter depend upon 
a future hypothetical [588] matter, and it has no indica- 
tion of the predicament of its condition [as being nega- 
tived or affirmed (DM)] in the past and present: and. 

A* f tit tk *t ft** A 

accordingly 4 in ^4°^. ««*^ 4 1 must be i. q. ^f , 

— - ' .' * ■ 

because it is an enunciation respecting a future hypothe- 
tical matter, future because its eorrel. is a suppressed 

[expression] indicated by f j*& , which is future because 

* 
it is the eorrel. of 131 , and hypothetical as is obvious; 

. A/ — *A» It** n *h* S< h** 

whereajj y in £J| J3& ^ and £li ^ ^ ft may 

A ' 

be i. q. ^1 , the intention being merely to announce the 
existence of that [eorrel., vid. the blitheness of the echo 
of his voice and his saluting her (DM),] upon the occa- 
sion of the existence of those matters in the future, or 
may be according to its own cat., the intention being to 
grant these matters to be occurrent and predicate [that 
the eorrel. would then be a consequence (DM)] of them 
notwithstanding the knowledge of their non-occurrenee. 



( 635 > 

In fine, when the condition is future, hypothetical, antf 

the intention is not to grant it [to be occurrent (DM)] 

A/ A 

now or in the past, y is i. q. ^1 ; whereas, when it is 
past or present, or is future but intended to be granted 

now or in the past, y is preventive (ML); and, there 

being no doubt that the future in VI. 27., VII. 98., and 

the saying of Ea'b is intended to be granted now or in 

a / 
the past, y in them is preventive (DM). 

A 

§ 586. The two vs. in the cat. of ^1 must be both. 
aors., 'both prets., or one an aor. and the otheraprefc 
[419, 538]. When they are both aors., they are only 
in the apoc. : and so is the single acwv when it occurs: 
as a prot.', whereas, when it occurs as an apod., it may 

rt 9 i$ A ■ t 

be in the apoc. or ind., as £M »6f ^ [419] (M). If 
the 1st v. be an apoc, the 2nd may not be an ind. r 
except by poetic license, when S holds that it is a case 
of hyst. — prot., while according to me the »-> is meant; 

m »tl& f * * A * t S 

whence £M £$*t k [419], i. e., as S means, gy*> uCtf 

, Sf h, A J> A * 

i^yU £^a* ^jl , while according to me it is conformable 
to ^X> t* £y*ii cs-^t* u£yM »)-ae ^t (Mb). Some say 

*As h»»Kf k»&t* * 9Zf* . » Kt A A 

that the reading^ ***** fy**. v 1;**^ *#*-*> Jlj 
HI. 116. -4»rf, t/" ye 6e patient and beware of their friend- 
ship, their guile will not harm Ifou at ali is on too 



( 636 ) 

to »*hi * 

principle of i>M gj>\ k, thus explaining the ordinary 
reading by a construction that is not allowable except 
in poetry ; whereas correctly it is an apoc, the Datama 

Sfif Ar 

being all., like the Damma in £)t J [664] : nay, Z 
refrains from explaining the Revelation by the ind. of 
the correl. even when the v. of the condition is a pret., 

saying on III. 28. [571] that U may not be eond. because 

of is in the ind., and this notwithstanding his declara- 
tion in the M that the two moods [apoc. and ind. of the 

a at $ *f tt a 

correl. (DM)] are allowable in such as ff\ *H) f$ ^ 
[419] ; because, when he sees the ind. to be inferior [to 
the apoc], he does not think fit to explain the common 
reading by it (ML). 

§ 587. If the apod, be a command, prohibition, true 
pret., or inch, and enunc, the ui is unavoidable: but is 

sometimes suppressed anomalously, as cyU-usaJI J*bj> ** 

g\ [419] ; or replaced by fol , as XXX. 35. [1], 



§ 588. yjl is not used except in hypothetical [585}, 

i 

f / t r a a atuo it fao 

doubtful cases : and therefore \±$ 3$ y~A\ «.». | f 
If the full-grown unripe dates turn red, such a thing wilt 



m a A hi tO ** t k 



be is bad, and i-XM jf+»AS ts-alls ^f If the sun rise, 
/ shall come to thee except on a cloudy day; but you 

tt*t$/a*tti 

say Si$ ^ ^> <*M ^ If such a one die % such a 



( 687 ) 
thing will be, because, though there is no doubt about Ms 
dying, its time is unknown. 

§ 589. It occurs with U red. [565] at its end for 
corroboration, as g<±3b J.* {O^k kG II. 36. And, if 
direction do come to you from Me and 

• * tip / A*ti*> A / * 3 * 

i/*** 1 * i/**;' r^ ^^ uu 

* A$x / A^» l*A • J bi /I 

/!/ A* * As A * w * 

Lifj /tj- r ^ ^» ^G 
* * ' # '# 

» * til t * tt*B J As , , 

[^4«rf, £/ thou see me to-day driving my cornel-littery 
roaming about journeying in the countries, and demean' 
ing myself, verily I am of a people other than you, and 
my men are only Fahm in AlSijaz and Ashja 1 (AAz)]. 

§ 590. The oond.p. is like the interrog. [584] m 
that nothing of its annexure precedes it : and what pre- 

%t A / t» 

cedes in such as JJG .1 uOJl / shall come to thee, if 

/A ttiZ tit * Stii* A t 

thou come to me and JuuJa*! J u&ft~ iw I should have 
asked thee, if thou hadst given me is not a prepos. apod,, 
but a sentence occurring in the way of announcement; 
while the apod, is suppressed [419, 602], suppression of 

IA« 

ihecorrel. of J being frequent in the Kur'an and poetry. 



( 638 > 

A A/ 

§ 59.1. ^jl and y must be followed immediately by 
the »., such as XVII. 102. [594] and IV. 175. [16] 
being by subaudition of a v. expounded by the one 

* 9 A t tkf 

expressed [23] (M). The full phrase is ^/^ y 

* » A/ A/ 

. Jl*3 : then i_XU3 is understood, and a detached pron. 
Juf substituted for the attached pron. the j ; so that 

A*aS * * lis 

Juf is the ag"., and ^^^ the exponent, of the under- 

stood v. (K). y is peculiar to the v.: but is sometimes 
followed immediately by (1) ji ». governed in the nom. by 
a suppressed v. expounded by what follows it, as in the 

saying [orig. of Hatiin atfla'l (DM)] g\ «yfo y [23], 
the saying of 'Umar So*** t*f b t$JtS u^ac y i/" another 
tfAara tffow (Aarf sairf itf, if) Ae Aarf said i£ [the &Jf tcorrf 
of Abu 'Ubaida (DM)], 4foi 'Ubaida!, and the saying 
[of Jarlr(DM)] 

* f % * * f * ** * * * 

[If another than you {had been chtng to, if) AsZubair 
had clung to his pledge of safety, he would hare fulfilled 
the covenant of protection to the Banu -I'Awtoam, i. e. 



h»3h/ t 3 h* 



fl* J 1 * y ( DM )]; ( 2 ) a «• governed in the ace. in 
like manner, [i. e. by a suppressed v. expounded by what 

follows it (DM),] as &**/! ity } Ju*j y If(Ihadsem) 



( 639 ) 

Zaid, if Thad seen him, I should have honored him; (3) 
&pred. of yjtf suppressed [98], as 

^ h J* >* ^^ v 

[.4 rfoer o/* wrong is not safe from the machinations of 
fortune, even if {he be) a king for whose hosts the plain 
and the mountain have become too strait (Jsh)]; (4) 
a n. that is apparently an inch, followed by an enunc, as 

/ A<« M/Si* m th<&r »h» if h r fttkn As A/ 

»»U£*!/Ulb^UuJtf , 4a-Jtf' * Xjr J&>* iWt y*J** J 

s t * * * * - * ft* 

[by 'AdJ Ibn Zaid atTamiml, If with aught other than 
water my throat were choked, I should be like the man 
having something sticking in his throat, my clearing of 
the throat being with water (Jsh)] and 

A// hi *t 5«« / * * rr tt § f K$ *G t * Ht 

J**te **•;' u ' ^ ^ * frV u r 1 ^ ***** J y 

, * * * * * 

[by Jarlr, If understandings had been in the tribe of 
J'uhayya, they would not have interfered in defence of 
him (meaning Alfarazdak) that I assail, and that assails 
me (Jsh), the inch, being orig. prepos., and the enunc. 
postpos. (DM)], in which [construction] the nominal 

A/ 

prop, is said to follow y anomalously, [while some explain 

these verses by suppression of the ^JS belonging to the 
*: case (450), the nominal prop, present being in the place, 
) of an ace. aspred. of ^V , which explanation is applica> 



( 640 ) 

A, 

We to every construction wherein ^ occurs before an 

si 
inch. (DM)]. ,*! often occurs after it, as II. 97. [below], 

, »t » t »** Usui A// 
XLIX. 5. [23], &> utffeuy U iyUi ^j y ; IV. 69. And, 

if they had done what they were exhorted to, and ^ fo 

»» • aS / 

iJI ^kmS U [22] ; and [with its regs. (DM)] is according 

to all in the position of a norm. : — S says that/it is so by 

inchoation, but that it does not need an enunc, because 

its conj. comprises the attribute and subject : and some 

say that it is so by inchoation, but that the enunc. is 

suppressed, being, as some say, supplied prepos. [517]j 

aj* * i t i>*t 
i. e. *&L&t ts~jt? Jy ; but, as IU says, supplied postpos., 

i , * 

V/* A/ 

because, J*' not occurring here, [i. e. after $ (DM),] 
the corrob. ^ when preceding [the enuno. (DM)], is not 
Jiable to be confounded with the one that is i. q. JaJ 
[527], and in that case the enunc. should rather be sup- 
plied postpos. according to the o.f., i. e. i»~*lS *^Ujf J. : 
while Mb, Zj, and the KK hold that it is so as Ǥ-., 
the v. being supplied after it, i. e. I JL»I *gif t-^J j 
which is rendered preferable by its involving the preser- 

A/ 

vation of f 's peculiarity to the v. And Z says that the 
pred. of J [occurring after y (DM)] must be a v., in 
order that it may be a compensation for the suppressed 
».j bnt IH and others refute him with XXXI. 26. [585] 



( 641 > 
saying that this is the case only in the deriv. pred., not 
in the prim., like that which is in the text, [vid. f.U»f 
(DM),] and in 

*^*U Jby 4JL* cLOfy&Jf au 

[by Tamlm Ihn Abl Mukbil, fibui nice wokW #/e be if 
the youth were like a stone, that calamities rebounded off 
while it was callous ! (Jsh),] and 

[by Jarir, Jwrf, «/" «7 Aarf fieera a hen-sparrow, thorn 
wouldst have accounted it to be a man riding on a branded 
mare summoning the hosts of s Eftaid ararf Aznam (Jsh)]; 
while TM refutes the saying, of these by its occurrence 
as a deriv, n,, as in 

[by Labld, If a living man hadbeen anattainer of safety 
from slaughter, MulSHb arRimah (meaning Mulet'ib- 
alAsinna) would have attained it (Jsh)] ;. and the Reve~ 
lation contains a text wherein the pred. occurs as 

a deriv. n., yid. ^\fV\ ^ ^y^i ##l ^ !;OjiXXXIIL 
20. They will wish that they were going forth into the- 
desert among the Arabs of the desert, and a text wherein 

the pred. is an adv., vid. ^j^f ^ ^/^ Uo,i " jJ J* 
57 a 



( 648 ) 
XXXVII. 168. If we had a Smptare of the Scxtytaxea 
teVealed unto the ancients (ML). But [our discussion 

AS hs 

is upon the cond. J , whereas (DM)] the y in XXXIII. 
20. is [either (DM)] infinitival [571] (R, DM), as R says, 

prefixed to u^y suppressed (DM), not cond., because 

it occurs after a v. indicating the sense of wish (R) ; or 

opt., [592], an imitation of their wish, the 3rd pers. being 

put because they are predicated of, and the obj. of f ySyj, 

being suppressed, i. e. ^u* (DM). Some do not pre- 
ss 
scribe the occurrence of the v. in the pred. of J after 

As 

y , even if it be deriv., as is the opinion of IM, whence 

<w fiS * A' hi 

£j| &L l# r / J [543] j but still there is no doubt that 
the use of the v. is more frequent, if not invariable: 
and, when the v. is found, it is mostly a pret., because it is a 

A, 

quasi-compensation for the prot. of y , which is [mostly] 
a pret.-, but sometimes it occurs as an aor, whence 

, A S fmi At '•// / A /hi tAthM* StS 

l^iLiJ UJt y J 1 **^) * ^y^ y ^LLcVU a*; 
They stretch the necks, or twist them ; and would com- 
plain if we were to relieve them (R). The cond. J 
is mostly followed immediately only by what is past in 

sense, for which reason IM says " y is a p. of condition 
in past time"; and, if followed by an aor., it converts the 
sense of the aor. into the past, as 



( 848 ) 

* »» * th* ■ r* A * 9ht 

/ * * 

**t * * A / * * t a /A f t>t 

t .0:0.* £* sH* St 

[by Kuthayyir, The monks of Midian, and they that 
knew, weeping from fear of punishment, assiduously, i, 
they had heard, as I have heard, her speech, would hav* 
fallen down before i A»za, bowing and adoring (J)], i. e 
}jx*«* y : hut sometimes it is followed by what is future 

" ' ~ tht Si Ay 

in sense, whence IV. 10. [585] and £J! ^Jd ^f y« 
£585] (I A), y , being mostly prefixed to the pret, does 

A 

not apocopate, even if the sense of the cond. ^1 be intended 
by it |5.85J : but some assert that it uniformly apocopates 
in one dial.; and many, among them ISh, allow it in 
poetry, as in 

e At # ft & * * « * 

« v- # .P S A y t «"A^> 4> y 

j-aa. «£ »*f» jib u f *».v 

j^T'fo had willed, a spirited-Qteed, Slender in the flanks, 
'tegh, possessed of locks of hair would have galloped 
swiflly away with .him (T, Jsty,] and 



( 641 ) 

£by Laklt Ibn Zurara, She has enthralled thy heart, if 
what one of the women of the Banu Dhuhllbn Shaib&n 

has done grieve thee (Jsh)]. The correl. of y is (1) an 

<aor. negatived by f , [to which the J (599, 602) is not 

prefixed at all (DM),] as &o*i Jl hi] L-ikJ^ y [585]: 

(2) a pret., (a) affirmed, which mostly has the J pre- 

s $ JP y As • y JP**/ y Ay 

fixed to it, as UUaa. 8Ul*s=J /IAJ y LVI. 65. If We had 
willed, We should have made it broken in pieces, while 

an car. of its divestment of it is l^-M SUUa. *laj y JLVL 
€9. If We had willed, We should have made it salt 

[602] ; (b) negatived by U , which is mostly divested 

* fits * / ws snt H,, 

of the J , as »y*» U uO; s\Z y ; VI. 112. And, if thy 
Lord had willed, they would not have done it, while an 
ear. of its conjunction with it is 

f IKtttuo ,, , , a^j , A# Ass 

Ud^il U jUpJf Ja*j y^ 

[If we had been given the choice, we should not have 
parted; but there is no choice with the nights, meaning 
fortune (Jsh)], which is as anomalous as the conjunction 
of the correl. of the oath negatived by U with it as 



( 645 ) 

rS«o *S t A/ SMS As iiO, ,i 

AS As s* ss AsAssA A s 



[Now, by Sim Who, if He had willed, would not have 
created distance, (I have not parted from thee. By God,) 
if thou be hidden from mine eye, thou hast not been 
hidden from my heart / (DM)] : and the pret. correl. of 

As *^ 

y sometimes occurs conjoined with iW, as in Jarlr's 

— *** As A As 

saying ^\ gte oS «t-ii J [482], which is as anomalous 

' ' sA, 

as the conjunction of the correl. of My with it, as in 

m h / s .P*»s s s As 

£M dS i-Sjfr) Vy [543]: (3) as is said, sometimes a 

AJ2$ ASS 

nominal prop, conjoined with the J or wJ , as «$>f $y 

JA s $1*3* % /■ J>/s A /*•*>> t /« 

jas. iOJ| ^ &>yUJ 1^53 J ? fyUI II. 97. ^«rf, «/ they had 

believed [above], and feared God, a recompense from God 
would have been" better and 

* s s * * A#s*s*sss Ass 

S A* Ss /«sA$A»» /M/ A< 

l^ixj ^yka. if^fl/J t/y« ^J 

%****** S $As ssAs 
//I *$#*** * Ass A I 

lj-y ^f &t»* «y;/ ^ 

[SalSma said, It was not for thee a custom that thou 
shouldst leave the foes until thou hadst an excuse (for 
notfghting. 1 said,) If there had been slaughter, O 



( 646 ) 
Sa.l3.ma, (it would have been) rest: but I fled for fear 

9 t / t»t 

that I should be captured, i.e. &4j j$» (Jsh)]. 

A 

§ 592. Two other meanings are added for ^J : — (1) 

#■ 
Ktb [a pupil of S (DM)] asserts that it is sometimes i. q. 

A/ / ftta t" /// A 

*** > as is/^ 1 ' «***■' u)' LXXXVII. 9. Admonition hath 

' ' * .* 

profited'. (2) the KK assert that it is i. q. o! , assigning 

X A * hS A# A Sit «« .PlZrOs 

as instances of it ^ji**^ f^" ^ *Hf J^f; V. 62. Jlnrf 

/ear God, since ye are believers, XL VIII. 27. [74], the 

a a / 
Prophet's saying [addressed to the dead (DM)] ^f l»f j 

/ t /hi sllr° Srtf £ & 

.^Sa.V Jj &11| s\i, And verily we, since God hath willed, 
shall be overtaking you, and similar passages wherein the 
occurrence of the act is made sure of, and iil u««v| 
because the two ears, $c. [571], where, say they, it is 
not cond. because the condition [that occurs after it 
(DM)] is future, whereas this event [vid. the slitting of 
the two ears of Kutaiba (DM)] was already past (ML). 

As ^w /P/ »/ As 

J sometimes denotes wish, as J&* a o lS i***^ J ppb«/rf 
that thou wouldstcome to me, and, or so that thou mightst, 

$■/ / /hs 

talk to me! (M, ML), like ,<**>£ l-CLJ ; and the ind. 

Au / 9/ 

and subj. are allowable in JS^saii f as LXVIH. 9. [417] 

/ * 

* A »/ 

and in some codices Ijtibjjj [538, 571] (M): and it is 



( 647 ) 

y A#A>* t t ft* 0&* ' tt S f ht* 

said that j^fy^S ^ &&> *£ & J p XXVI. 102. 
Then would that we had a return to the world, so that 
we might be of the believers I is an instance of it, i. e. 

••Sy tt t A// t *tt 

8jf UJ uv*l* ; and that for this reason ^y&f is governed 

tS$ t A/ 

in the subj. in its correl., like jyi in the correl. of o-*J 

A/ 

in IV. 75. [411]. There is a dispute about this y :— (1) 
Ibn AdDa'i' andlbnHishamsay that it is a distinct kind, 
[i. e. neither cond. nor infinitival (DM),] which does not 
need a correl.; but that a correl. is sometimes put for it, 

t A, 

governed in the subj., like the correl. of ut-xl : (2) some 

Ax 

say that it is the cond. y , which is imbued with the 
sense of wish, as is proved by their combining two correls. 
for it, a correl governed in the subj. after the lJ [411], 
and a correl. with the J [591, 602], as in 

Ay* Ay * yyAy^ y * Ayy 

it t 

&$ 4*s m*° tt A *y 

y y y y y 

* Ay Cyy A y y A iS ys Ay 

J>*H*> t A y A y J> y t h tt 



[by Muhalhillbn Rabl'a atTaghlabJ, T/tera, i/*Ae sq»w/- 
cAres were dwg* wp ./hwre Kulaib, so that he might be told 
in AdhDhanaib (a place in Najd, where Kulaib's grave 



( 648 ) 
was), in the state of bis being what (a d. s, to Kulaib) 
a courier of women t, about the day of the Sha'tham&n, 
he would become' refreshed in eye : and how shall be the 
meeting with him that is beneath the graves f (DM)]: 

As 

(3) IM says that it is the infinitival y , which supplies 
the place of the v. of wish, [being infinitival when the v. 
of wish is present with it, and importing wish when the v. 
of wish is suppressed (DM)]: for, citing the saying of Z 

As S HI / *t £s As 

" y sometimes denotes wish, as ^^sSi ^^ y ," he 



%/ As J> A s 



says "If it mean that the o. f. is i J^»G- y u^oo. I wis 
that thou wouldst come to me, the v. of wish being then 

•s A* 

suppressed [571], because indicated by y , so that J 

' A s 

resembles is^J in notifying the sense of wish, and has a 
correl. like its correl., it is correct ; but, if it mean that 

As s As 

y is a p. orig. applied to denote wish, like ib-aJ , it i 8 
disallowed, because it would entail disallowance of com- 

As 

bination between y and the v. of wish, just as the latter 

s As 

and c^-a! are not combined." And IHL and others 

A f "Ass 

mention another meaning for y , vid. rarity, as ^1* JL 

A# *A? 

«&«i.>i IV. 134. Even if the testimony be against your- 
selves, which requires consideration, [because it is cond. 

A 

i. q. Jt , its correl. being suppressed, while the rarity 
is imported from what it is prefixed to (DM)]. 



( m ) 

§ 593. Ut , the idt . of which is sometimes changed 
into g, because the reduplication is deemed heavy, 
as in 

A *t* * M *> t thf 0Pt htf 

ta^ajle j« .»A f | (of Uj( H^j «y!j 

StU t HI ^A^» • Afc^ / »// 

by 'Umar Ibn Abl Babl'a [al MakbzQml, SAe sow a poor 
man (meaning himself) such that, a^yfrr at the time toAew, 
£Ae ran becomes high, he swelters, and, as for in the eve- 
ning, he freezes (Jsh)], is a p. of condition, distribution, 
and corroboration (ML). It stands in the place of the in- 
strument and v. of condition, for which reason S expounds 

l\ t A » t t A t 

it by t^J* ^* i-Xj l*$* ; and the [expression] mentioned 
after it is the correl. of the condition, for which reason 

$ t h»t $A f mi 

the u5 is inseparable from it, as jitai*» i*i; L,J Whatever 

' A » t , Ht 

thing betide, Zaid is departing ; the o.f. is ^ c-C» Ug* 

5 t a* 4a« a* S< a # • /a* 

*ttai# Oipi^A ; then Ul is substituted for ^j- \-£> L^ 

fi / % t h» % Hit S£ 

/^2> r so that it becomes .j^**** **? u1 5 an< * afterwards 
' 

the o is postponed to the enunc. t so that it becomes 
$ t **/ $a/ if s * 

%1Ua«» t»*3 U4 (IA)< That Ul is a [p. of] conditio^ 

is proved by the inseparability of the li after it, as 

/ Z^St/ A «/■ A AsAf iS* / #>*sa • ' m i SJ> 3ft 

* 58a 



( 650 ) 

«» * » * t '* *• * 
& U ^j**? \yf& H. 24. -4«rf, as for them that have 

believed, they know that it is the truth from, their Lord; 

and, as for them that have disbelieved, they say, What 

Sec f [84] : for, if the t-i were copulative, it would not 

/ » t lit * t 9 t 

be prefixed to the enunc. [ ^y^H and ^<fi (DM)], 
since the enunc. is not coupled to its inch.; and, if it 
were red., it might be dispensed with; and therefore it 
mast he the cJ of the apod. : while, if you say that the 
t-j is dispeused with in 

4M// / * / B * A^> Sit 

J^ii J[£ If JKSM UG 

tttii^ * +h * S Is 

[Then, as for fighting, no fighting is with youf but 
with you is journeying in the midst of the cavalcades, 

i. e. J&> tti (Jsh)], I say that it is a poetic license, like 

t 

m / * t A<« /*• * / 

\i\ mAx^sai I J*«J ^ [419, 587] ; and, if you say that 

it is suppressed in the Revelation in <*L>oy I ^j&S l*G 

»&U&t l>«* tfffl j^fcjj*.^ III. 102. And, as for them whose 
faces have become black, (it will be said unto them,) 
What I did ye disbelieve after your believing?, I say that 

the o. / is ffS\ $ J 1 ***, and that, the saying being 
suppressed, because the said enables it to be dispensed 
with, the «-i follows it in the suppression, many a 
thing being correct as a sequel, but not correct 

Si 

independently. Distribution is prevalent in Ul, [not 



( 651 ) 
inseparable from it (DM),] as has previously been shown 

• t t A t t t * t S ,0 St 

in II. 24.; and hence +tSL*J ct^lXS &JUiLJi Ul 

A t ft t ft 1 t A*o Si t A t At S tti t t t **3\*> Si ' 

^a-1W ^03 yoaalf U! ; tKkSy 51^1 ^03 f Uil|U!j 

j**6*d XVIII. 78., 79., 81. As for tlte vessel, it 
belonged to poor men.... and, ai for the lad, his parents 
were believers.... and, as for the wall, it belonged to twot 
orphan lads: but sometimes the repetition of U| i sonl }t. 
ted, because the mention of one division, or of a sentence 

mi 

mentioned after Ul in the position of the other division, 
enables the latter division to be dispeused with, the 1st 

» * A* Ax tAtA%' Atmt A § *A9A»tmt At » 3««» tSt t 

as in U *&dt UJylj £>y -♦ ^Uty fsis? J» j«UJj (g>| lj 

' £ ' t t 

as* hi t t s t tut" t A" *f t S-" sit * » 

*%'/" ft t t t * 

At t PA t A t 

J.^s^ &JU &*».^ IV. 174. ye people, a proof hath come 

to #o» /ro?ra ^owr iorrf, and We have revealed to you a 
clear light: and, as for them that have believed in Qod, 
and held fast to Him, He shall make them to enter into 

hit* it *** ft t * StO Sit 

mercy from Him and grace, i. e. #$*» &Mfy \)?Z .j***" **'i 

■ t * t- 

1 1 1 1 1 

1tif« IkiT and, as for them that have disbelieved in Ood % 
forAhem shall be such and such things ; and the 2nd as in 

di« { //•> i /"'* t t AA> t At t ttht S*> t* 

* S Stt $A/ A ■»# t S"° Sit it 1 1 » * t*t t Ata 

*»• ft A*>t ,A A^tft*'* *A tt t t t 

faiS t&ZiU&iSit] iUX;| ftJU **UJ U III. 5. ife m *Ae 



( 652 ) 

One that hath revealed to thee the 'Soripture : of it are, 
unambiguous verses, that are the foundation of the 
Scripture, and others ambiguous; and, as for them in 
whose hearts is perversity, they follow what is ambiguous 
of it, from desire of schism and from desire of interpret- 

a *** • Sit 

ing it according to what they hanker after, i. e. *$>)& l*f> 

A wt t fi t ft t t S tt t » A St 

f&y ts" 8l *** t£^h ** &?*& a7U *> as f or others., they 

'tt e *^ f tt t 

believe in it, and trust its meaning to their Lord, that 
beiog indicated by [the subsequent words] ^jaanw^lj 

tmt A A $l* mtf t * */ A tu" ' 

**0 **** uS* & ** ***•' a)?*** 4 f***' l^ aw< * **« firmly 

* t t t tt S t t 

rooted in knowledge say, We believe in it: all is front 
our Lord, i. e. all of the ambiguous and unambiguous is 
from God, and belief in both is obligatory, as though 

t s tt* a a»» t » 9<« 5?/ 

t * t f 

rooted in knowledge, they say were said : and sometimes 

§ t k»* Ut st 
it is entirely non-distributive, as in JjltaiUi jj£ U| 

[above]. Corroboration is mentioned by few: and 
I have not seen any one explain it thoroughly, except 

Z, who says [in the K on II. 24.] " The use of U! in 
the sentence is to give it an exuberance of corroboration : 

* / $A, 

you say t-J&to «a*3 Z^d is going away ; but, when you 

intend corroboration of that, and that he is inevitably 

going away, and setting about, and determined upon, 

i t, 9a, tt 
going away, you say w-fcfo* «*aj Uf Whatever thing 



( 653 ) 
betide, Zaid is going away, for which reason S says in 

§ ' $*st A / A KSt * l\t 

expounding it i_-$!ii \>t? i^J" ^ 4 >& U^*, this 
exposition serving to explain that it is a corroboration 

and in the sense of condition." Uf is separated from 

the kJ by one of six matters, (1) the inch., as in the 

$ass s>o as 

preceding texts: (2) the enunc., as o^ ^ti*J! ^ Uf 

Whatever thing betide, in the house is Zaid; but Sr 
[the commentator on the Book of S (DM)] asserts that 

t t a Sit 

separation by it is rare: (3) a cond. prop., as ^S A U6 

Sktt / StPKa t £ 

Z)? d*^ uT* LYI - 87 -' 88 * And > as /<* { f he ** 

one of the ones brought near to God, he shall have rest, 

§ A^r at 

[IHsh holding ^f to be the correl. of Uf , while the 

correl of the cond. prop, is suppressed, indicated by the 

correl. of the 1st condition (427) (DM)]: (4) a n. 

governed in the ace. in letter or place [498] by the 

til S$t Ktlit tt t t~mt*> Sit htKt tt t t**> Sit 

correl., as &**" Ulj ^o U» j5l*J| Lf^ ^S UJ ^jyLJI UG 
t tt * ' t 

fi at t t /it 

t*>4sa£ oC», XCIII. 9 — 11. [540] Wherefore, whatever 

t * 

thing betide, the orphan oppress thou not; and, whatever 

thing betide, the petitioner rebuff thou not; and, whatever 

thing betide, of the bounty of thy Lord tell thou : (5) a 

n. similarly governed [in the ace. in letter or place 

(DM)] by a suppressed op. expounded by what follows 

the lJ , as in &;^?U I j* j U! Whatever betide, Zaid {beat 

t 

thou), beat thou him and the reading of XLL 16. J62] 



( 654 ) 

with the ace; while the op. must be supplied after the 
cJ and before what it is prefixed to, [i. e. ,_/;-0l» W) Uf 
&>)*£] and JtlijoifcUj^ o^** Ul^ (DM),] because Uf , 
acting as a substitute for the v., is as it were a v., and 
the v. does not follow the v. immediately, for ^ in \>t) 

* /Ay * t 

J**i 1$ constructively contains a separating pron. 

[relating to Zaid(DM)~\, and ^-d also in iJi $*■ J***! 

[167] contains the pron. of the case [separating j»d 
from the v. that its pred. is headed by (DM)] : (6) an 

adv. governed by Uf because of its containing the sense 
of the v. that it acts as a substitute for, or by the sup- 

pressed v., as i_*-&fo ^» j.jaI| l-f Whatever tiling betide 
't **t s s s^> as 

to-day, verily I am going away and !t>ij J* vlaJ! ^ Uf 
i , . * ' ' 

-JU. Whatever thing betide in the house, verily Zaid 

is sitting] the op. not being what follows the »-i, because 
the pred. of ^1 does not precede it [34], and similarly 
therefore the reg. of the pred., [because it is properly 
posterior to the op. (DM)] : this is the saying of S, Mz, 
and the majority; but Mb. IDh, and Fr disagree with 
thom, holding the op. to be the pred. itself [520], while 
Fr goes so far as to allow it in the rest of the sisters of 

^1 . If, however, you say j-Ila. UG ^JJ U\ , the op. 
may be Ut [or the v. of the condition, i. e. Whatever be 



J- 



i ilfKi ) 

the ease, to-day, there its no avoidance, of ur/j sittiiin 
(DM)] ; or may be tlic enunc., [i. o. Whatever be the 
case, there is no avoidance of my sitting on this day 
(DM),] because of the non-existence of the preventive: 

$ / •!/ ^ As &£ 

whereas, if you say \->$**> t5 * i ** !->dj 1*1 [below], the op. 
may not be cither of them, and the ex. is disallowed 
according to the majority, because [the v. that (DM)] 
U| [acts as a substitute for (DM)] does not govern the 
[direct] ohj. in the ace., [since it is supplied from the all. 
^S , contrary to the adv., which it docs govern (DM),] 
nor its ^i preceded 1)}' the reg. of its pred.; but Mb 
and they that agree with him allow that, by construing 
the pred. to be made to govern [520]. And «>jw*J I Uf 
«3ju* Ji with the ace. [as a direct adj. to the v. that 
W acts as a substitute for (DM)] and U6 U^.;» Uf 
l$JLa>| have been heard, which fact in my opinion indicates 

A A St /«/ 

(1) that the rendering need not always be ^ ^i l*$* 

A f 

s,& , but may be something else suitable to the passage, 
since here it is c^/J Ug- , [i. c. However thou men- 
iioncst slaves {the mentioned is), an owner of slaves and 
However thou mentionest Kuraish, 1 am the most excel- 
lent of them (DM)]; (2) that Ui is not the op., since the 
p. [acting as a substitute for the v. (DM)] does not govern 



( G5fi ) 

the direct olj.; (?) that r /| Jb S^J) Uf However thou 
menlionest Zaid, verily I am more generous is allowable 
by construing the government to belong to the suppressed, 
[and similarly \*jj*b ^\s fj^j Uf above, orig. However 
thou menlionest Zaid, verily 1 shall be beating (DM)]. 
The Ut in ^yUsu f>S |j U| XXVII. 86. Nay, what is 
this that ye were wont to dof and £M &»1p- ty [98] is not 
this Uf ; but is two words, in the text the disj. j.! and 
interrog. U , and in the verse the infinitival A and 

• 

red. U . 



§ 594. ^of is said by the majority to be a p. ; but by 

some to be a n., the o.f. of *_£•/"! ^of Then I will 

honor thee being uX«/f ,<****. I'M TPAcrc JAow contest 

to me, 2 iciW Aonor Mee, and the prop, [that 131 is pre. to, 

/. * 

vid. ^iJ&*. (DM),] being afterwards suppressed, the 

Tanwln put as a compensation [128, 608] for it, [the 
! elided because of the concurrence of two quiescents 
(DM),] and ^t understood, [renderable with its conj. 

*9 /A ff* fly * 

by a single term, an ag., i. e. l£*\/\ £9j ^5*^* I'M 
(DM)] : and, according to the 1st, it is correctly simple, 

A AC 

not compounded of of and J> ; and on the supposition 



( 657 ) 

of simplicity it, and not ^f understood after it, is the sub- 
junctival [410] : [while, according to the 2nd, it is simple 
by common consent (DM)]. Its meaning, says S, is 
reply and requital : in every position, says Shi ; in most 
cases, says F, being sometimes merely repl., as is shown 

A S 

by the fact that, when " I love thee" is said, you say yjOf 
tsbt^ i_XU&| Then I think thee to be speaking truth, 

since there is necessarily no requital here, [because 
requital is future, pot present (DM)]. It is mostly a [p. 

A Ay 

accompanying the (DM)] correl, of ^t or J, expressed 

,. , , . * 

or^supplied, the 1st as in 

y A y Ayo *Ay y y A # 

(gut** yifASsixc ^ju Ji 

* ** * / * * 

/< { / «/ /A /( A?y 

' * ' ' 

[by Kuthayyir, I swear, if l Abd APAziz repeat to me 

the like of it (the Sitiu saying that 'Abd Al'Azlz had said 
to him), and put it in my power again, in that case I will 
not gainsay it (Jsh)] and 

A y A f A/ /■ A # A* Ay 



•4J tf- 5 h ■*?• ^-"V 

//«/ * A* A m * S<« #y 

f # #" f /t« *y y *y 

uT^ r** s) — ^ r 13 c> 3f 

, * * » » » / 'M »« 
59 a 



( 658 ) 

[If 1 had been of Mdzin, the Band, -ILafclta of Dkuhl 
Ibn ShaibSn would not have made spoil of my camels : 

* * * A t 

then a band, fyc. (23) (Jsh)], because Jai ^6\ is a 

A / A / */ £ 

subst. for ^aamJ J , and the subst. for the correl. is a 

' »• ^ * ht * Mf* * s A/ AJAS A^ 

correl, [or rather as in ^^J) &*=*) u^'/* ^7^ f**f y 

ASH , *{, ' ' ' 

fXX-^lf Jo! XVII. 102. J/>e (owreerf, if) ye oumgrf (591) 
*Ae treasures of the mercy of my Lord, then ye would be 
niggardly, because the J>Jf lot occurring in the text is 
itself the correl. (DM)] ; and the 2nd as when "I shall 

S S AJ A / A 

come to thee" is said, and you say uC»/f ^of , i. e. ^1 

m A * tb'l ' & * 

* J» ^> UT *. MTO «. »,, *. 4* [above], 

and as in lo1 &JJ ^ &** ^tf Uj jJj *• *Wf Josuf U 

* * ' * ' 

hf t* K*aht t *tf ** r t I via * ft* 

J»> JU rtdaj 1LJ, /jli. U> ill JT ^JJ XXIII. 93. 

Ood, $c. [499] .• {and, if there had been with Him gods, 
or if gods had been with Him,) then every god would 
have seceded with what he had created, and some of them 

would have overcome some, [i. e. iJ! lof i$\ &«* ^J$ fa 

* ' A, 

(DM)]: Fr says that, whenever the J comes after it, y 
is before it, supplied if not expressed. As to its form 
when it is paused upon, the correct opinion is that its 
^ is changed into t [684], because it is assimilated to 
the Tan win of the ace. [640] ; but by some the ^ is 

said to be paused with, because it is like the » of ^! 



( 659 ) 

and ^ , [and is not a Tanwln, since the latter is not 
affixed to ps. (DM),] which opinion is transmitted from 
Mz and Mb. And upon the dispute as to pause upon it 
is based a dispute as to its orthography [161] : for by 
the majority it is written with the f , and so it is deli- 
neated in the codices ; but by Mz and Mb with the ^ : 
while, according to Fr, if it govern, it is written with 
the f ; and, if not, with the ^ , to distinguish it from 

(of : and IKh follows him (ML). f«M is one of the ps. 
that are inseparable from the v. and govern it in the 
subj. [410] ; and is [mostly] prefixed to the future v. and 

what is in the sense of the future, as f& 'of [above] and 
lt\ ia**^ U* fof [563]; and occurs in the beginning, 
middle, and end of the sentence (T). It governs the 
aor. in the subj. upon condition of its own priority [in 
the sentence, in such a way that it be not preceded by 
anything connected with what follows it (DM)], of the 
aor.'s futurity, and of their contiguity or separation by 

the oath or neg. V (ML). You say i-X*/f ^ [above] 
(Sh, ML) with the subj. (DM) when "I will come to 

y • hS ii^t Ay # A / 

thee" is said (ML); and lX./J *UU .of. hke of 
£jf {QKty 4llf ; [498]; andjxif V ^ (Sh). If, how- 

' ' A//S i- , , us 

ever, you said ^o\ Ul , you would say \S*<?\ with the 
ini., because of the loss of priority; while the saying 



( 660 ) 

tt* «x#Ax t 

X ' X X X 

t . t f& x A* * at 

[Do not thou leave me among them a stranger: verily 
I (am not able to bear that). In that case I shall perish, 
or flee away (Jsh)] is explained by suppression of the 

pred. of d , i. e. i-£te J* «jj>! If J| , what follows 

# ' '* XX A^x 

it being then inceptive (ML). The poet says oU ^jil 

£f| [above], the ind. being because of the want of pri- 
ority, [since it is the correl. of the oath (AAz)]. And, 

* * *X fi 

if a person told you a tale, and you said to him JjwJ-a3 fot 
!Z%gft £Ao« speakest truth, you would use the ind., 
because the ps. governing the v. in the subj, require 
futurity, whereas you mean the present (Sh). And, if you 

it<o t Ax x A x ft A 

said *U1 J.** b ^jOl , you would say uC*/l with the in<£, 

X £ X 

because of the separation by something else than what we 
mentioned: but IU allows separation by the adv. [498], 
IBdh by the voc. and prayer, and Ks and Hsh by the reg. of 
the v. ; while in the last case the preferable mood is accord- 
ing to Ks the subj., and according to Hsh the ind. Many 

Ax 

of the GG say that, when ^til occurs after the y or wJ. 

£*xS x • A • ,, j,*, , * x 

both moods are allowable, as U&b «J oC£&. . JwJb 2/ 1 jf , 
XVII. 78. -4wrf *Ae« o/ «o* cWrfiwg- after thee save a little 

* X X m+ X JA* * * t 

while and I^S* j-UJ ^^ V JjU iy. 56, And then 



( 661 ) 

shall they not give men a hollow in the back of a date- 
stone f, which are unusually read [by Ubayy and Ibn 
Mas'ud respectively (K)] with the subj. : but the truth 

tht 9 a£ A * x thsi h*t A 

is that, when »-*a" ^y«*=^f ^31 j i»J^f ^jjy ^ If thou 
visit me, I shall visit thee, and then, or and then I shall, do 
good to thee is said, if you construe the coupling to be to 

A t 

the correl., you apocopate, and the government of ^lil 

is annulled, because of its occurrence intermediately ; but, 
if to the two props, together, the ind. and subj. are allow- 

A X 

able because of the precedence of the con., [ ^o! being 
initial, as being at the beginning of an independent prop., 
and intermediate as being followed by a supplement of 
what precedes it (DM),] though some say that the subj. is 

A t 

necessary, because what follows ^ 6\ is inceptive, since the 
coupled to the first is first, [the predicament of the cou- 
pled beiug that of the ant. (538) (DM)]. And similarly in 

A/ $ H%h**tS,$h/ 

&J| ^—ckf ^jOl j f j&i i3j j Zaid, he will standi and then 
I shall do good to him, if you couple to the verbal, [i. e. 
the minor prop. (DM),] you put the ind.', but, if to 
the nominal, [i. e. the major prop. (DM),] the two opinions 
[that the ind. and subj. are allowable and that the sutf. 
is necessary (DM)] are entertained (ML). 



CHAPTER XIX. 



THE OAUSATlVE PARTICLE. 



§ 595. It is ^ (M, Z), because it explains the 
cause of the act, and denotes result, like the J [504] 
( AAz). A man says " I repaired to such a one, " and you 

A * Ay m' / t\S Ay 

say to him &+ff [498], and he says ^S ^j***" ^ In 

A / y A y 

order that he might do good to me. &*aT is like ***> , 

A3y A/ ' 

&**-, and &J f the j>rep. [513] being prefixed to the 
/ 

y 

interrog. U with its f elided [181], and the S of silence 

being affixed [648]. The inflection of the U is disputed: 
according to the BB, it is governed in the gen.; butj 
according to the KK, it is governed in the ace. by an 

y y y yAy A y 

understood v., as though you said fo U J.*£> J* J w 
order that (thou mightst do) what f [596], which saying 
1 hold to be not far from right. 

§ 596. The v. after J fa governed in the «u*/. 

Ay jj 

either by ,/ itself [410] or by subaudition of Ji [411] • 
but, when you prefix the J , and say jiif Jitf / w or d er 
that thou mightst do, J h the op. [571], as though you 
said J*£ ^V (M). J must be infinitival in such as 



( 663 ) 

I r * # ***** t* * ** *** 
^ La*£H J* uj fr M XXXin. 37. In order 

that there might not be a crime for the believers, because 

the prep, is not prefixed to the prep.; and may not be 

/ S* A i A / f »S 

infinitival in such as ^J+fi ^ ^J L-X£*a. [597], since 
the infinitival p. is not prefixed to its like ; but, when 

* AJ> Ay * A 

you say tS *^^ ,/ "«^", may be causative [411, 
498, 513] or infinitival [410, 514, 571] (Sh). Accord- 

A • 

ing to Akh, ^ always governs the gen., the subj. after 

si 

it being governed by ^ expressed [413, 597] or under- 
stood [411], which is refuted by LVII. 23. [571]; for, 

Ay #» ' / f 

if he assert that ^J is corrob. of the J , as in £" U1J Ifj 
[134], it is refuted by the fact that the chaste, regular 
[combination of the J and ,_/ in the text (DM)] is not 
to be explained by the anomalous [combination of two 
preps. (DM)]: and, according to the KEL, it always 

A tkt 

governs the subj., which is refuted by their saying &*a$* f as 

A/ 

they say &J , and by the saying of gatim [atTa'I (Jsh)] 

//AssA* Ay S J A/A£s 

ft * 

h* * */hiO /« / A/ # A yAf y 

[And I kindled my fire, in order that he might see its 
light; and I turned out my dog, when he was in the 



( 664 ) 

tent, inside it (Jsh)], because the prep. J does not 
separate the v. and its subjunctival [p.]; but they reply 

/ * * • A/ A t 

to the 1st that the o. f. is fo U J*ft Jf [595], which 
entails upon them multiplicity of suppression, exclusion 
of the interrog. L» from the 1st place, elision of its f 
in another case than the gen., and suppression of the v. 
governed in the sub), while the op. of the sub}, remains, 
all of which are unauthorized (ML). 

h* Hi 

§ 597. ^J occurs with ^ expressed after it in the 
saying of Jamil 

f t / a / hi s*o a »i h* t* 

S / A s/ SSs Iti /A/ • / • 

(M) T^era «Ae sairf, What! to all [457] mankind hast 

thou come to be giving thy speech, in order that thou 

Hi 
mayst dupe and beguile ? (SM). But ^1 is not expressed 

A/ 

after ^J except in poetic license [413, 571], as in 

f A t ' * * A t t h* 

iJf usJQi (ML). Uxf is written conjoined, and V ^ 

/ A/ 

disjoined, because the U attached to ,y does not alter 

the meaning of the sentence, whereas the V affixed to it 
does alter its meaning (D). 



CHAPTER XX, 



THE PARTICLE OF REPREHENSION. 



§ 598. It is US' (M, Z, IH). According to Th, W 
is compounded of the lJ of comparison and the neg. 

% , its J , says he, being doubled only to strengthen 
the meaning, [vid. refutation ( DM), ] and to dispel 
the notion that the meaning of the two words remains ; 
but, according to others, it is simple. It is, accord- 
ing to S, Khl, Mb, Zj, and most of the BB, a p. 
whose meaning is reprehension and refutation, having 
no meaning, according to them, except that ; so that 
they always allow pause upon it, and inception in what 
follows it, [because it is a refutation and reprehen- 
sion of what precedes it, and what follows it is discon- 
nected from it (DM - )]; and many of them even say 

" Whenever you hear W in a Chapter, judge it to be 

Makki, because UT contains the meaning of intimidation 
and menace, and that was mostly revealed at Makka, 
because most of the contumacy was in it": but this 
requires consideration, because the necessity forattribut- 

ing [every Chapter containing Vf (DM )] to Makka would 

arise only from peculiarity of contumacy to the latter, 

not from its prevalence ; and moreover there is nothing 
60 a 



( 666 ) 
to prevent allusion [in a Madanl Chapter (DM)] to a 
preceding contumacy [at Makka (DM)] ; and besides the 
meaning of refutation [of wbat precedes it (DM)] is not 

S* t * ■» ai$ 

apparent in the Hf preceded by such as U Xjyo g] J 

* *m* *r** * 

Utf) ttt> LXXXII. 8. In what shape He willed hath 

' ****** 

■put thee together, [ U being red. (E, B),] ffz {$, 

, * ,h*> ui * * S5^» 

vufUM v y ^Wl LXXXIII. 6. On the day that man- 

* * * 

kind shall stand for the judgment of the Lord of the 

S* ** /h** S S* 

worlds, and &»Lrf &>M ^ J LXXV. 19. Then verily 
incumbent upon Us will be its explanation. But] Ks, 
AHm, and those who agree with them hold that the 
meaning of reprehension and refutation is not perma- 
nent in it: and tliey add a 2nd meaning, according to 
which it is right that the pause should be before it, and 
it be inceptive: while as to the specification of that 
meaning they profess three different opinions, Ks and 

his followers say that it is i. q. &>- : AHm and his fol- 

lowers say that it is i. q. the inceptive Hf ; and Nr, JFr, 
and those who agree with them say that it is a repl. 

A ht* 

p. i. q. ^f and f*5 ; and attribute to it LXXIV. 35. 

* **A*o* A 

[below], saying that its meaning is y&S) a\ Yea, by 
the moon. But the saying of AHm in my opinion is 
better than those of the others, because it is more uni- 
versal : for the saying of Nrisnot applicable in XX III. 



( 667 ) 
101. 102. and XXVI. 61. 62., as will be shown below; 

/htn*a t t £ mt 

nor the saying of Ks in such as jlj^t ^tlT ^ W 

' ' i- 

LX XXIII. 18. Now, verily the record of the pious, 

s s * 

because ^ is not pronounced with Kasr after &»- [520] 

or what is in its sense, and because exposition of a p. 
by a p. is better than by a n. When the passage is 
adapted to reprehension and another meaning, both pause 

Mt 

upon Uf and inception with it are allowable upon the 
two different assumptions, [that it denotes reprehen- 

t 2 

sion and that it is i. q. the inceptive V| or something 

else (DM)] ; but it is preferable to explain W by 
reprehension, because this [meaning] is prevalent in 

it : such [passages (DM)] are like i--a»M t&°\ 

J.L U w»aXL« UT fii^ ^j-a-yi »*** «i«w! ^.l XIX. 

t ' t 

81. 82. ^oiA Ae gotten knowledge of the hidden, 
or hath he made a covenant with the Compassionate % 
Not so, or Now, We will write what he saith and 



t SSbt t mt 



Sit * » / */ M i^3 » A 



A • t 

*$&\x*i XIX. 84. 85. And they have taken to themselves 

■ tt ft 

gods beside God, that they may be to them a strength. 

Not so, or Now, they shall disown their worship. Some- 
times it must denote reprehension or inception, [and is not 

g , A// / * t Pt hi utt * htm m , 

i. q. l*=* or p*> (DM),] as U*i 1=eJLj J**| ^ ^j*^;! w^ 



( 668 ) 

ijf ^i! UT vJ$ XXIII. 101. 102. My Lord, restore Ye 
[161] met may -be I shall do right in what I have left 
undone. Not so, or Now, verily it is a speech, because, if it 

were i. q. lSa» , the Hamza of ^! would not be pronounc- 

ed with Kasr [520], and, if it were i. q. p*> , it would 
denote promise of restoration, because it is after requisition 

[556] ; and as J UT JC ^ysJ Uf ^y ^Jsw>S Jt* 

Ay y *if * y 

ji^^A- ^.) ,&* XXVI. 61. 62. The companions of 

r y * , 

Moses said, Verily we shall be overtaken. He said, Not 
so, or Now, verily with me is my Lord: He will direct 

me, because the ^1 is pronounced with Easr, and because 

f*» after enunciation denotes assent: and sometimes 

//» yA S y y y: 

it may not denote refutation, as y&j& gfo Vf ^ U- 
ydSy Uf LXXIV. 34. 35. Nor is it aught but a re- 
minding for mankind. Now, by the moon [above], since 
it is not preceded by what is refutable (ML). 



CHAPTER XXI. 



THE JS. 



§ 599. They are [the red. J , the J affixed to the 
dems., the J of wonder not governing the gen.,] the J 
of determination, the j [of the correl. (M)] of the 
oath, the J subsidiary to the oath, the J of the corre/. 

of y and Uy , the imp. J , the J of inception (M, 

Z), the J distinguishing the contracted from the neg. 
* 
J , and the J governing the gen. (M). The J s are 

quiescent, pronounced with Fath, and pronounced with 
Easr (AA). The J is op. of the gen. [504, 606], op. 
of the apoc. [419, 603], and inop.; but not op. of the 
«ffy\, contrary to the opinion of the EE, [who say that 

A s 

the J of J is itself the op. of the subj. (411, 606) 
(DM)]. The inop. J is of seven kinds, (1) the J of 
inception [604]: (2) the red. J , which is die one pre- 

fixed in (a) the enunc. [556], as in £*! ( _j-*%Jt j.| 

a* ' 

[521]; (b) the prcrf. of ^f , as in the reading of XXV. 

22. [521] j (c) the pred. of ~JS in £« 4JL ^. JUdj 

[521] *(d) the pred. of j|) in 

***** if » #* •»# » *» #> 



( 670 ) 

[by Kuthayyir, And I have not ceased, from iny love for 

Laild, upon my knowing her, to be like the roaming camel, 

/i 
remote, in every meadow (Jsh)] ; (e) the 2nd obj. of »»f 

in the saying ^*2l£J t^^l / think thee to be reviling me 



«// * »* 



and the like ; (f ) the obj. of »* jj , as is said, in .J ^e^ 

Ay A S *s2 *S * 

&a& .- C-ff\ 8/^ XXII, 13. He invoketh him whose 

9^f /. / a f 

harm is nearer than his profit ■ (g) the exs. jjj f lS Ji 
Jf or f yJ| UlS and ,^l*i JlS fUb o«J| , all of which 
are peculiar to poetry [601] : (3) the J of the correl, 

AS 

which is of three kinds, the J of the correl. of (a) J 
[591, 602], as f ^ ^.JJf U,^ I^JL-p y XL VIII. 25. 
If they had been separate, We should have chastised them 
that disbelieved and XXI. 22. [90]; (b) »y [574, 602], 
as II. 252. [29]; (c) the oath [600], as XII. 91. [575] 
and XXI. 58. [498]: (4) the J prefixed to the cond. 
instrument [601] to notify that the correl. after it is 
constructed upon an oath before it, not upon the condition 
[427], for which reason it is named the notifying J ; 
while it is also named subsidiary [to the oath], because it 
subordinates the correl. to the oath, [since it indicates 
that the oath is before it, while it is known that, when a 
condition and an oath are combined, the one that receives 

A A 

the correl. is only the one that precedes (DM),] as J& 



* » */ / » A? 



& dP) f^;r^ v s ?j? Jfy t** *»*&• v '/^ 



( 671 ) 

LTX. 12. (By God,) if they be driven forth, they will not go 
forth with them; and, (by Qod,)if they be warred against, 
they will not help them : and, (by God,) if fyc. [427] : 

A< fSSt f , A/ 

(5) the J of J!, as in J^l and A»;taf( [below]: (6) the 

J affixed to the dems. [173, 175] to indicate distance 
or corroboration thereof, according to different opinions: 

• A .... 

wbieh is orig. quiescent, as in <_*£ ; and is pronounced 
withKasr inuAi only because of the concurrence of two 
quiescents, [vid. the I and the J (DM)] : (7) the J of 

$ A, * ■» ** 

wonder not governing the gen., as oj j <-ij&l How clever 
Zaid is/ and ^yc pfl How generous e Amr is!, i. q. U 

Ptt A i * **nf t 

itfioS and &*/\ I*: IKhl mentions this in his book 
named AUumal [fi -nNahw (HKh)] j but in my opi- 
nion it is either the J of inception prefixed to the pret. 
because of its resemblance, by reason of its aplasticity 
[468], to the »., [the wonder being imported from the 
form, not from the J (DM)] ; or the J of the correl. 

* S* S** ])J3* 

of a supplied oath, [i. e. <-i>& •*# &Uf ^ (By God), Zaid 

A, ' 

has become clever/ (DM)]. Jf is a p. of determination; 
and is of two sorts, (1) denotative of knowledge, the 
[n.] accompanied by it being [indicative of an object] 
known by reason of (a) mention, [(a) real (DM),] as 

t s2*> !»/« ****** /«/» * sA* Ai ,* 

JW &ri *"* V; &f? J w-;' u lxxiii. 

15. 16. Like as We sent unto Pharoah an Apostle, and 



( 678 ) 

.» * * kt I - » k , 
Pharoah disobeyed the Apostle, J -U-a-ff J+** *$*• 

*jj w-T/ l$Jtf &a.b.)lf X^Lj.; XXIV. 35. Wherein is 
a lamp, the lamp in a glass, the glass as though it were 

f tfk>° * A mt * *t * hft A 

a glittering star, and «-y^f &-*i J> l~p a»ij*~A I bought 
a horse f then 1 sold the horse; [(b) constructive, as 
^SV (f f6S\ jr-J^ III. 31. And the male is not like the 
female, since the male precedes metonymically in »_>j 

*m * * A/ t * f * fi' * m * • 

0> aa * %£***• cS* U *-** ""P* lS*' **I. 31 « My Lord, verily 
I vow unto Thee what is in my womb, dedicated, because 
they used to dedicate to the service of the Temple at Je- 
rusalem only males (DM)] : the sign of which is that the 
pron. "should supply the place of it together with the ». 

» *A I 

accompanied by it, [as &*•? , the pron. supplying the 

r ••A 

place of jrftl, and similarly in those texts (DM)]: 

(b) preconception, as j&H ^ Ufc ot IX. 40. When they 
' ' * 

two were in the cave and XpsuJI vs^aaS i^&fulu of 
XLYIII. 18. When they were swearing allegiance to thee 
under the tree: (a) presence, which Jf , says ID, occurs 

only (a) after <fe*n*., as Ja.yi f Ja> ^/la. [147, 148], or 

et » *a*> ,%t t , ■ 

^ in vocation, as Ja^/i l&f k [51, 147], or the to! 

* * tk*> , , » * , , 
denoting suddenness of occurrence, as Jm*V| |«3ti 



t «78.) 

[204] j (4) in the n of present time, as ^*l [206]: 
though this requires consideration, because you say to a 

t *m<e A t t 

reviler of a man in your presence J±jS **A3 V Revile 

A/ • 

thou not the man; and because the Jf after 131 , not 
denotiug determination of a thing present at the time of 
speaking, does not resemble that which is being dis- 

cussed; and because the Jf prefixed to ^Ifl is correctly 
red., since it is inseparable, whereas the determinative 

Jl is not known to occur inseparably, contrary to the 
red., while the good ex. [of the ». of present time] is 

AS t A.PS **tlA tluh* 

f&£0 *tf isJUTf j.^J| V. 75. To-day have I perfected 
for you your religion: (2) denotative of genus, denoting 
(a) totality of the individuals, which is the one replaceable 

m* 

by Jf [117] used properly, as IV. 32. [(77), i. e. every 
man (DM),] and CHI. 2. [469] : (b) totality of the pro- 
perties of the individuals, which is the one replaceable 

by Jf used tropically, as tJU J^yf «*dj ^ 3 *^ ** tne 
man in knowledge, [i. e. every man in respect of knowledge 
(DM),] i. e. the consummate in this quality ; whence 

v titt! uO 6 II. 1. TA<tf [171] w Me Scripture [consum- 

* * 
mate in guidance, as though it were every Scripture 

because of its comprising in the most consummate manner 

the guidance that is in them (DM)] : (c) determination of 
61a 



( 674 ) 

the quiddity, which is the one not replaceable by Jf 
used properly or tropically, as jJ1> Jf /Uf ^-» lii*a.j 

^». XXI. 31. And made of water every living thing and 

* < 

j/LJJI - 3 wf V &UU or V U*J! j-*« i^ GW, 2 witf not 
wed women or wear clothes, for which reason perjury 
occurs through [wedding or wearing] one of them; 
while the distinction between the [«»] made efe<. by ibis 

AS 

Jf and the tmfe/L generic n. is the distinction between 

the restricted and unrestricted, because this Ji indicates 
the essence with the restriction of its presence in the 
mind, whereas the indet. generic n. indicates the essence 
absolutely, not with regard to any restriction (ML). The 

A/ 

determinative JI must be (1) expressed, when the n. is 

/» f A 

(a) an explicit ag\, the v. being .*» or «-i> , as XXXVIII. 
29. [473], LI. 48. [473], and ^Ifi JJL XVIII. 28. 

A/ ' 

.Miwtf eoi7 will be the drink ! i though Jf need not be in 
the n. itself that occurs as an ag., as in XXXVIIIT 29.; 
but may be in what it is pre. to, as XVI. 32. [469], 
XXXIX. 72. [540], and LXII. 5. [1]: (b) an ep. of (a) 
the dem. [147], as J*.yi Ki# &Z [142]; (b) Ql iu 

Tocation [51, 147], as Jj*y| t^f ^ V. 45. thou 
4postle: though ^\ is sometimes qualified by the dem., aa 



( 675 ) 



f o^jf tj , in which case the dem. is mostly qualified, as 
iJJ o^.fyi Jtigjf ^1 [418. A.] ; but sometimes not qua- 
lified, as 

h * lis ft t * / s*A/ss# y <«3J> 

J«i *«a9 ILeJ. ^koj * U&ol) UT j!J^f 
* * t t * 

[ Fe tfwo, ea* ^owr provisions, and leave me to be an intru- 
der among them that intrude (FA)] : (2) suppressed when 

the n. is (a) a vac, as j»H* *£ voc. of ^UaJf , except &U| 
and the prop, used as a name [52] j (b) pre., as ^U* , 
except when the pre. is an ep., and the post, a reg\ of it, 
the ep. being (tj) £n/Z. with consonants, as *i) l^Uall and 

tH) f.f'ttt [112] ; (6) pre. to what contains Jl , as w;Uafy 

Ja.yi [or Ja>yf j-!^ (Sh on the gen. governed by 

A, 

prothesis)] : while in no other case may Jl and prothesis 
be combined, contrary to the opinion of Fr, who allows 

o*3 *_j}l«dJf and the like, where the post, is del. without 

Jl ; and of all the KK, who allow *J\fV\ SSUflf and 
the like, where the pre. is a num. ; and of Rm, Mb, and 
Z, who say that the pron. in ^.j*&\ , «_X? »l<aJf , and 
*^UaJ| is in the position of agm. by prothesis [113, 163] 
(Sh). #»l also denotes <feferjni»«totm, being transmitted 
from Tayyi and Simyar, as 



( 676 ) 

** * *>»• A / *>» ft h* 

* v t * * 

[by Bujair Ibn Ghanama atTa'l, That is my friend and 
he that unites with me, easting behind me the arrow and 
the stone t i. e. defending my reputation behind my back 

(Jan),] and in tradition <p-+\ v pi****! >**f „** ^-4* 

Fasting in travelling is not an act of piety thus related 

by AnNamir Ibn Taulab [687]. This dial, is said to 

be peculiar to the ns. into whose initial the J of deter* 

$,* i , 

initiation is not incorporated [749], as -Hi and v^, 

i*, § , i , ' 

contrary to J*** , i jM , and ^W - r and some students 

of AlYaman have related to us that in their countries 
some are heard to say j»> yul i-^f j ^<*^ f •*»• Tate 
die spear, a»rf ride the horse: but perhaps that is the 
dial, of some, not ail, of them, as you see from the pre- 
ceding verse, and from the feet that in the tradition it is 

A* A, 

prefixed to both sorts (ML on r ! ). Jf is also red., 
[i. e. neither conjunct (176) nor determinative (DM)] ; and 
is of two sorts, (1) inseparable, like the one in (a) the 

conjunct ns. [ j»iSM , J&\ , &c. (DM)], according to the 
saying that their determination is by means of the conj . 
[176] : (b) proper names, provided that they be conjoined 
[with it] because of (a) their transfer, like yciSi and 



( CT7 ) 

^UxiLIf , lorig ., when anarthrous, names of goW and 
blood respectively, and then, when applied to the person, 
vid. AnNadr Ibn Banana and AnNu'm&n Ibn AlMundhir 

Dt 

King of the Arabs, conjoined with J! , without which 
^jUjwJI , when proper name of Ibn AlMundhir, has not 

been heard, whereas, when it is proper name of any one 

ht 
else, the Jf in it denotes allusion, as in the IM (11) 

* it 
(DM),] and uvUII , [an idol belonging to Thaklf at 

AjTa'if, or to Kuraish at Nakhla (B on LIII. 19.), an 
act. part, from ^jjij—U oJ (DM), because it was the 
effigy of a man that used to moisten meal of parched 
barley with clarified butter and feed the pilgrims (B), 

As S*A/ 

then lightened and conjoined with Jf (DM),] and ^jafl , 
[a gum-acacia tree worshipped by Ghafafan, orig. fern. 

Stint 

of f$S The most mighty (B), transferred from the fern, 
gual., and made a proper name of a deity, and conjoined 

ht ■* th twit t 

with Jf (DM)] ; (6) their coinage, like J.Tj*-Jf , [a 
coined name, the measure of which is JJ«*» (T)]; (c) 
their prevalence of application to one of those objects 

* A /A/ 

which they ort^. belonged to, like i&~aaJ| for The Ka'ba, 

* * tKt #»S/ 

&jj.J! [11] for Taiba, and f**W for The Pleiades, though 

* s 

this [ Jf (DM)] orig. denotes determination of [precon- 



( 678 ) 

cepHonal (DM)] knowledge, [where the person addressed 

At 

knows what Jf is prefixed to before it is mentioned, 
because of its notoriety (DM)] : (2) separable, which is 
of two kinds, (a) frequent, occurring in chaste speech, 
which is the one prefixed to a proper name transferred 
from an anarthrous [word] that is adapted to [the pre- 

* t *» A t 

fixion of (DM)] Jf , [so that such as y£&j , which is 

transferred from the aor., is excluded (DM),] and whose 

9 t § it 
original meaning is alluded to, like *&>&*. , ««U£ , and 

i s t * / *• * S'As 

L^laaus, for which you say t&^lalf [11], j-Udf , and 

•P w 2 / 

i_5l»«ofl ; but this sort rests upon hearsay, for the like 
is not said in the case of such as i**a&* , uJ^^x* , and 
t*«a»f : (b) infrequent, occurring (a) in poetry, like the 
one prefixed to *H)i, [which is transferred from the 

aor. v. (DM),] and yp* , [which is not transferred from 

" * * * m fi A3 / 

anything (DM),] in £>f ***> and £*| c&^ [12], while 
the one prefixed to a*Jj in the [last] verse denotes a/ltf- 

«o» to the original meaning, [because it is transferred 

i t 
from 4>J« A young child (DM),] and, it is said, like the 

' ttUb » tt m t *ht t tist t 

one introduced into f.$ «yi« in £M cXa a *^ i>SJj [504], 

tt*f *A t/kt * ft 

because y.^S ^\ pi. ?.$ »*»**> is a proper name for a 
sort of truffle ; (6) in anomalous prose, like the one 



( 679 ) 

/SJ*^»/' .&£a<* h0 

occurring in their sayings JjVG J;*M fjliot [78] and 
f&AS sUaalf !«^ and the reading IgiU jclH ^^ad 

J35M LXIII. 8. The mightier shall assuredly go forth 
from it meaner, because the d. s. is necessarily indet. 
(ML). Another instance of the separable red. is the one 
prefixed by poetic license to the sp., as 

/ • 00 t ht* A f S/ / ^ASz 

A S A / h* t / A3^> y A y y A / / 

•}*£ >* 1 _r»4' k «»ajJ! u>»a1» 5 utAiiiw* 

[by Rashld Ibn Shihab alYashkurl, / sate *Aee, wftere 
Mom recognizedit our chiefs, shrink from encountering 
us, and console thyself in mind, Kais, for the slaughter 

fi A/ 

of l Amr (Jsh)], orig. l-*i» , according to the opinion of 
the BB that the sp. is only indet. [83] (IA). The KK, 

A / 

some of the BB, and many of the moderns allow J! to 
act as a substitute for the post, pron., and thus explain 

A/A*o * t ' A/ t 

LXXIX. 41. [27], ia-yi ^^ J*.y. ^ )y » [350], and 

A / Aon./ * A a ^> ?A# / * * * * 

^jiaJfj >$laJ|\>jj ^^e [154]; but IM restricts the allow- 
ability to expressions other than the conj., [so that such 
a 8 uJ^b ^ w ' ta-fy* ^oJf is excluded (DM)]: while 

*3*# /*w/A $A«4> y x*« s£s / 

Z says on l$lf >U-Vf r o( pU ^ II. 29. ^»«? Be taught 
Adam the names (of the named things), all of them that 

/S / *A»o fnrkt 

the o. /. is uyU«— JJ iUwf, [the potf. n. being sup* 



(680 ) 

pressed, because known, indicated by the mention of the 
names, since the name must have a named, and' the J 
made a compensation for it, as in XIX. 3. (85) (K),] 

m *%** A* 

and ASh says on £M <sA j* [83] that the o.f. is ( jJ^i ^ j 

A * ' ' 

so that they allow Jl to act as a substitute for the 
explicit n. and pron. of the 1st pers., whereas the only 
exemplification known to have been used by the former 
authorities is that with the 3rd pers. A strange use of 
Jl is to denote interrogation, vid. in the citation of Etb 

/ A /s hi ****** 

irJUS Jl Hast thou done?, I q. iaJ** J* [683] (ML). 
§ 600. The J of the eorrel. of the oath [427, 652] 

&**>&* iiff* 

is in such as ,J**V *Mlj 2?y Qod, I shall assuredly do: 

* *** ittO* 

and is prefixed to the pret. also, as i_*S£J &1I f^ 2fy (Jorf, 

m * h** * 

he lied or /to* fiierf and iJJ is~ala. [575, 577] j but is more, 

A £ * * * *** in* * 
often prefixed to it with oa , as _^a. iiSJ &IIU .By Corf, 

-assuredly he did go, or Acs gone, /ortA (M). The rcg\ of 

an op. conjoined with the J of the oath must be posterior 

«> * *i**hhtos*** 

[to the op. (DM)] j but in *=-*» U IJif ^L-JUj J^S* ^ 

S^ .»*a£ • A* * ' ' t 

*** e^' *-fy**' XIX * 67 - And man saith, What! when 

1 am dead, shall I be brought forth alive t fof is an 

**h£ & 

adv. to S )£.| , the adv. being allowed to precede, the J 
of the oath only because of the latitude taken by them 
in the adv. [498], another instance of which [precedence 
of the adv. because of latitude (DM)] is 



( m ) 



[by Al A'sha, Two foster-brethren ( 45**^,) being a rf. *. to 

4a t JA*o * s& ' 

$a*J\ y ^oiJl in the preceding verse in § 507) of suck' 
#»#, o/"a Jrearf ( ^ea? being a s«fo£ for ^W ) of a mother, 
that have sworn one to the other in a dark, black {night), 
" We will not ever (206) part' (DM)], the neg. * 

having the first place in the correl. of the oath [547]. 

&tt 
Suppression of the J of ji! is good with length [of 

interval between the oath and correl. (DM)], as XCL 9. 

[(433), the correl. of the oath in XCI. 1. (538) (B)l; 

but suppression of the J of tfJ l*»J' is peculiar to poetic 
license, as in the saying of 'Amir Ibn AfTufaiL 

th» ht MS t$ 8 e ih SS* m tf*$ ^S» t tt 

,>*&> J J\£~\ .!j ij» « && \jS\ %y JaaS* 
'''£'# ' 

[And the slain (by the hand) of Murra (assuredly) T 

will avenge; for verily he is unavenged, and verify 

(retaliation for the blood of) your brother has not been 

sought,le. &)$$ (Jsh)]. 

* 
§ 601. The subsidiary J is prefixed mostly to ^1 ; 

* 
and sometimes to another [cond. instrument (DM)], as 

9 t */ k / r it* * a t * t tt 

/ / t » t mt tk »t t ■ 

62 » 



( 682 ) 

[ Whenever thou art good, good shall assuredly be decreed 
to thee; and thou skalt assuredly be recompensed, when 
thou art recompensed, handsomely (Jsh)]: and, according 

S HI miB * * $hiB * *i A * 

to this, it is better that in ^A***Jf /*fiif &Hl •**•' ^j 

U /*<±*a* y)y»y ff*^ f &♦&» % ^Uf •* *&&?) Ul 

&> Ju^aJ J^» HI. 75. the J [in U (K, B)] should not 
be subsidiary [to the oath (B) on the ground that 
the taking of the covenant is in the sense of requiring to 

swear (K, B)], U being cond., And when God took the 
covenant 0/ the Prophets, saying, Whatever Scripture and 
wisdom 1 give you, and afterwards an Apostle verifying 
what is with you cometh unto you, ye shall surely believe 
in, [because that would entail the attribution of a 

rare usage to the Eur 'an (DM)] ; but inceptive, U 
being conjunct, [i. e. Assuredly that Scripture and wisdom 
which J have given you, and which afterwards an Apostle 
hath come unto you verifying, ye shall surely believe 

h*tt t h*»h/m f 

in, since, f £*- ** being i. q. p*ijjf U t it is as though 

&l Z>*e* Jy) /**) V****^ ,5^ were said (£),] 
because this is an attribution of the most frequent usage. 

A 

The strangest word that it is prefixed to is 6! , [because 

31 is not cond. (DM),]; and thaffprefixioa] is on account 
* »• . * 

of the resemblance of ol to ^ [in letter, which is 



( 683 ) 

obtious, and sense, inasmuch as condition is in the 
sense of cause (DM)] : IJ cites 

\3yfa>. ^y*M ut-**£* JUi # Sjaaf ufc-f^w t$\£ c «**•***' 

[by an Arab of the desert) addressing his wife, She has 
become angry with me because 1 have drunk wine at the 
price of a fleece. Then, (by God,) since thou hast become 
angry, I will assuredly drink wine at the price of a male 

A * 

lamb (DM)] ; and it is like the prefixion of the «-i in Jl» 
Then, since they have not brought the witnesses, those! 

A A 

before God are the liars, 3! being assimilated to ^l , so 

that the >-J is prefixed after it, as it is prefixed in the 
correl. of the condition [419, 587]. The subsidiary J 
is sometimes suppressed, notwithstanding that the oath 

is supplied before the condition, as Jfci>***!of ^1^ 

'JfyLj jS VI. 121. [And, (by God,) if ye obey 

' $ ~ AJ>3 

them, verily ye will be polytheists, gM p&t being correl. 

A * 

of a supplied oath, not of the cond. ^l , because the 
nominal prop., when it occurs as correl. of the condi- 
tion, must be conjoined with the ui (DM)], while the 
saying of some that there is not a supplied oath here, 
and that the nominal prop, is the correl. of the condition 

by subaudition of the ti, as in £lf ut»U-«saJf J*i£ ^ 
[419, 587], is refuted, because that [suppression of the 



( «84 ) 
ki from the nominal prop, occurring as correl. of the 



A* A / 



condition (DM)] is peculiar to poetry; and as J ^1 j 

f*ll wJo* fg** l^y**" yjiiiJJ £"+4 ^y^*i *** 'j4**i 
V, 77. [.4fltf, (fey God,) »f Mey cfentf not from what they 
say, a grievous chastisement shall assuredly befall those 

of them that have disbelieved, i. e. Sj&h J JU^, meaning 
Jj J3 «li»7(DM)], this [ "J^i (DM)] being a correl. 
only of the [supplied (DM)] oath, [not of the condi- 
tion, because the correl. of the condition is not conjoined 
with the J , nor corroborated by the ^ (DM)]; and as 

t * A<« t 3 t » ft . t A / <W */ A Ay As A f 

^^laaJj ^ J^ii U*^ UJ ^i3 J f, VII. 22. 
[<4ndf, (5y <3W,) un/m Thou forgive its, and have 
mercy upon us, we shall assuredly be of the lost (DM)], 

* * hrt> * A at ht lit* A A * 3 X 

contrary to jiH^' uT J S J-^h J & W) XL 

' ' ' ' ' ' s 

49. And, unless [585] Thou forgive me, and have mercy 

upon me, I shall be one of the lost, [ S\ being the correl. 
of tbe condition, not of a suppressed oath (DM)}. The 
J is not subsidiary in 

* * * * St* * sAi3>e * r t * 

* t 

■»t«i » h,k,t met, , ,, 

[by Dhu -rRumma, If the world be for me, as I see, 
hardships from (longing for) JUayya, assuredly death 
will be easier (Jsh)], 



( 685 ) 
tfoU T yl\ iUoa. U JS JS 

t * A £ %fl>t" t / A #£ 

(j»ol> *»*Ail i2uSI( • jl$> .J **«| 



[#" «?Aa< /fow Aa*£ been told to-day {about me) be true, 
1 will fast in the day of midsummer, exposing myself to 
the sun (DM)], and 

, • S A y / A sh^ S • >*/ A A* 

• ji * • '" 

Jji J^yi J* J* ApS J 5 

[by 'Umar Ibn Abl Rabl'a alMakhznml, Tarry a little 
with Zainab: verily the separation has drawn near. 
Short will be the stay, if the journey be to-morrow ( Jsh)] : 
but in all of that in red. [599], intbe two first [verses] 
because the condition receives the correl., in the 1st verse 
through the [nominal (DM)] prop, conjoined with the 
ui , [the J being inceptive (DM),] and in the 2nd verse 
through the apocopated v., whereas, if the J were sub- 
sidiary., only the oath would receive the correl., [and its 
correl. is not conjoined with the ci, nor apocopated 
(DM)] ; and in the 3rd because the correl. [constructively 

/lyuf JS (DM)] is suppressed, being indicated by what 

A 

precedes J , so that, if a supplied oath were there, [and 
its correl. were suppressed because indicated by what 
ipreceded it (DM),] catachresis would be entailed through 
suppression of two correls. (ML). 



( 686 ) 

§ 602. The J of the correl. of y [591] and V,! 
[574] is in such as XXI. 22. [90] and *llf J^i Vy ^ 

t t hi *> t» h*m<°t *»*h // A 'Ass ' 

^jUa^SJl f£*+i)J &***■); j^Ulx IV. 85. ^«rf, if the grace 

of God had not been upon you, and His nercy, ye would 

itiave followed the devil: and is prefixed to strengthen 

. the connection of one of the two props, with the other ; 

hut may be suppressed, as LVI. 69. [591]. And the 

correl. may be entirely suppressed [590], whence ^ ^ 

JUspH &> cw;i~ UfjS XIII. 30. And, if by a Kur'an 

* " * , *.***,* , i , ,; 

the mountains were to be moved, [i. e. ^l/a* ! f i*^ ^W 

it would be this Rui Sn, like J**. ^J* ^f^ '»* a> ^/J 4 

ii •* / h t A * m / ** C / S/tii/, 

fiUl &Oo» ** b^wou UAli. «Jo|y LIX. 21. If We 
were to send down this Kur'Sn upon a mountain, thou 
wouldst see it quailing, splitting from awe of God, or, 
as is said, &i 1ji-l <*J they would not believe in it, like 
VI. 111. (585) (K),] and XL 82. [418. A.] (M), i. e. 

A "A /ft 

Julie jJ I should repel you (B). 

§ 603. The J op. of the apoc. [419] is the J 
applied to denote requisition. Its vowel is Kasr, but 
Sulaim pronounce it with Fath: and it is made quiescent 
[670] after the j and cJ oftener than mobile, as 

S A £*/ * t h /Ay 

-> 1 ;*••%£*; J \yM?al~>X> IT. 182. Then let them answer 
Me when I summon them to belief and obedience, and 



( 687 ) 

let them believe in Me; and is sometimes made quies- 

cent after f , as ly**** f XXII. 30. Then let them fulfil 
in the reading of the KK, Kn, and Bz, which contains a 
refutation of those who say that this is peculiar to poetry. 
There is no difference, as regards the fact that the requi-" 
sitive J necessarily involves apocopation, between the 
requisition's being a command, as in LXV. 7. £419], and 
its being a, prayer, as in XLIIL 77. [419] ; or entreaty, 

as in your saying to your equal fiiS" ^ JjJuS £ e g suc ^ 
a one do such a thing, when you do not mean to assume 
superiority over him : and similarly if the J be excluded 
from requisition to denote something else, like the J by 
which, together with the v. accompanied by it, enuncia- 

S/ < l«S<« </ HA /A/ * / S #o * , A f 

Hon is meant, as )tJ>* ^j**-^ & oj*a1» XULaff J tf ^ 
XIX. 76. Whosoever is in error, let the Compassionate 
prolong for him his life and XXIX. II. [below], i. e. 
i**a» wiW prolong and J*=J [ ^aai (DM)] j a«rf we 

A.PAsAs /Ms A • /■ 

««'// bear; or intimidation, as jftCJ* .*t& .... XVIII. 28. 
Jwd, whoso unlleth, let him disbelieve. When the nom. 
of the v. of requisition is an ag. of the 2nd jsers., the 
J is mostly dispensed with through the sufficiency of 

A rA lit A .PA* 

the mood J**!, as j»» and o**f [below]: but the J 
is necessary [429] if the quality of ag. be absent, as 

* * t n* 

Js^isaj **XJ Be thou occupied with my want; or the 

' ' ' %h :"v. 'A* 

2nd pars., as o$j ^ Let Zaid stand; or both, as *auJ 



( 688 ) 

* ' f i ** 

i5 MJsu aj ; JjH Zaid be occupied with my want. Pit* 

fixion of the J to the v. of the 1st pers., however, is 
rare, [because the speaker does not command himself 
(DM),] whether the 1st pers. be sing., as in the Prophet's 

saying Ji J*>V* Sy*f Stand ye, and let me pray for 

you; or pi, as in \f*X fj**J ji<^ S)f* ^i\ Jt?j 



A* * S * A A *A* ft f 



j/UUfla. J*ssuJ } Ulu-. XXIX. 11. And they that dis 
lieve say to them that believe, Follow ye our way, and let 
us bear [above] your sins : and rarer still is its prefixion 
to the v. of the ag. of the 2nd pers., as in the reading 

of X. 59. [430] and the tradition jXJUo. f j*UaJ Take 

ye your ranks. Sometimes the J is suppressed in poe- 
try, while its government remains, as 

m * / ~4*'t w A / A / ft 

» / f A A • A A */ A I s 

* , /* * t 

[And reckon thou not on my part my remaining and my 
period of life to be long ; but let there be (for me) a 

portion of good jrom thee (Jsli)] and £fl i**aa* [408], 

A* t *' 

j, e> XJ and *&i : but Mb disallows suppression of 

the J and retention of its government even in poetry; 
and, [though silent as to the 1st. verse (DM),] says on 
the 2nd verse that its author is not known, while it may 



( M ) 
be a prayer in the form of enunciation, shall tansotn, [in 
Which ease it is an ind. (DM),] the J being elided for 
tightening,' and the Kasra held sufficient without it; and 
says on 

A *, ^t Sthto , A ( A *» 

*£*£»(» &*?yuJf ^Ism! Jju* So 

W r t * 't ft 

* t A * A/ A< A tkt» it tn ,m / 

[by Matammim Ibn Nuwaira alYatbu'I, For the like of 
the companions of AlBa'uda (a Water belonging to the 
ftanu Asad) then scratch thou (woe be to thee I) the bait 
of the cheek; or let him that weeps weep (Jsh), which 

is orig.) according to the majority, «-X*i* (PM),] that 

though bad, [inasmuch as it apparently contains a sup* 
pression of the imp. J (DM),] it is allowable, because 

A A t 

it is a coupling to the sense, since ^".^M and ^Uall 

* / t tt t 

are synonymous. This* however, which Mb disallows in 

A * 

poetry, Ks allows in prose, but on condition that J» [i. e, 

S A/A 

& requisition from the crude form of JjSJf (DM)] precede; 

£ IS <o * * at* t St° t t A * 

and holds syUaJf \y***i J^UI >*iM soU*! Js XIV. 36. 
Say thou to My servants, who have believed, Let them 

, s s 

perform, prayer to be a case of it, i. e. USu*aSaI -. while IM 
agrees with him; and adds that it occurs, though rarely, 
in prose after enundatory saying, as 

/» " / '»/ a * « / A t * * k ft it » k» 



( 690 ) 

[by Manzur Ibn Habta alAsadl, I said to a door-keeper, 
near whom was her house, Allow thou (me to enter), for x 
verily I am her father-in-law <W\ her neighbour (Jsh)], 

A As 

i. e. ^ jUI , the J being suppressed, and the aoristie 
letter pronounced with Kasr [404], and the suppression, 
says he, not being a poetic license, since the poet might 

A / 

have said ^ijf . The KK and Akh assert that the J 
of requisition is perpetually suppressed [431] in such as 

A* AjPA* t\9t A* As 

J> and osef [above}, the o.f. being JW and vi*a*l , and 

the J being then suppressed for lightening, and followed 
by the aoristie letter ; and I profess their doctrine : 
[while, according to this, the v. is either pret. or aor. 
only (DM)]. 

§ 604. The import of the J of inception is (1) 
to corroborate the purport of the prop., for which reason 

they depose it in the cat. of ^1 from the head of the 
prop, from dislike of beginning the sentence with two 
corrobs. [521]; (2) to make the aor. apure present [404]. 
So say most: while IM objects against the 2nd the texts 

s S **" 'As A#sA t Jt A tt S Ss S s 

Mi 51 1 fji (►«** f*^ ^i) JL) XVI. 125. And verily 
thy Lord shall judge between them on the day of resur- 
rection and XII. 13. [404], since, the taking away being 

»* A / 

future, if ^p*t were a present, the act [grieving (DM)] 
would precede its ag. [that ye take him away renderable 



( 691 ) 

by the inf. n. (DM)] in existence, notwithstanding that 
it is its effect; but the reply is that the judgment [in 
the 1st text (DM)], being inevitably about to occur on 
that day, is considered as present, witnessed, doth judge, 

» a t 

and that the full phrase [in the 2nd text (DM)] is u*a> 
iJl ^f (the intention of) your taking Him away griev- 
eth me, the intention being present. It is prefixed by 
common consent in two positions, (1) /to the inch., as 
&*«>j a£| fZiV LIX. 13. Assuredly ye, are more terrible: 

m 

(2) after ^ [521], in which cat. it is prefixed to (a> 

- i ~ 

three things by common consent, (a) the n., [vid. the 

SS * / * us S 

pred. of A posterior to its sub.